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English Poetry

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					      Homework
For your homework, define the following words in 1-2
sentences:

Mary Queen of Scots, James I of England,
Charles I of England, English Civil War, Oliver
Cromwell, James II of England, Glorious
Revolution, & William of Orange
 Next week, we will finish the England section of the
semester. After, we begin with Scotland.
British Poetry
The Romantic Period
                          Casper David
                          Friedrich



Romanticism is an artistic and intellectual movement
in 18th century Western Europe
Strong emotions, return to nature, intuition,
imagination. Departure from rationalism.
Romanticism
  Reaction to the Industrial Revolution
Romanticism
Great impact on literary, visual and musical
works of art.

The movement emphasized strong
emotions, with new focus on trepidation,
horror and terror and awe —especially when
experiencing the greatness of nature.
Romanticism in Visual Art
    Francisco Goya (movie: Goya’s Ghosts)
          Romanticism in Visual Art
       Francisco Goya was a great Romantic Spanish painter. During
       his later years, his paintings focused on horrors of war, insanity,
                       and the dark side of human nature.




The Third of May 1808, about the Spanish resistance to Napoleon’s invasion
Goya’s: The Disasters of War
      A series of plates, designed by Goya
Romanticism in Visual Art
Caspar David Friedrich:
Famous German Romantic
artist. Focused on the
contemplation of nature.
   Caspar David Friedrich
The Crucifiction is portrayed as a landscape.
(early Romantic period) Beethoven’s 5th Symphony

(Middle period) Franz Liszt

(Late Romantic Period) Tchaikovsky’s Waltz of the Flowers
  Romanticism in Poetry
John Keats is one of the
most beloved of British
poets, and he is the most
recognizable of the
Romantic Poets.
Today’s movie: Bright Star.
This movie is about the life of the poet, John
Keats. In the scene, he describes poetry to his
friend Fanny Brawne.
“A poem needs understanding through the
                senses…
  The point of diving in a lake is not to
 immediately swim to the shore, but to be in
                 the lake…
(poetry)It is an experience beyond thought…
 Poetry soothes and emboldens the soul to
               accept mystery.”
“If poetry does not come as naturally as
    leaves to a tree, then it had best not
                 come at all.”
One of the most well-known
British Romantic poets.


Ode to a Nightingale
Ode to a Grecian Urn
                   John Keats
John Keats lived a very short life. In 1821, he died at the age of
25 from tuberculosis (TB). He only published poems 4 years of
his life.




              “A thing of beauty is a joy for ever:”
                  Famous first line of Endymion
              Lyric Poetry
Lyric poetry is a kind of poetry with rhyming schemes
that express personal and emotional feelings.

The most traditional forms of lyric poetry were
sonnets, but there were many other forms.
         Odes are a typical form of lyric poetry.
         An ode is addressed to a particular subject, usu.
         written in varied meter.

Keats is most famous for a series of odes, Ode to a
Nightingale is perhaps the most famous
                  Meter and feet
Meter is the basic rhythm of a verse, determined by the number and length
of feet in a line. Each syllable has one beat.
     A foot has a certain number of syllables
     A line has a certain number of feet.

Many traditional verse forms have a specific verse meter, or a certain group
of meters alternating in a particular order.
 Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Raven”
      Trochaic octameter
          Trochaic refers to the meter (Hard-soft)

          Octameter refers to the feet (oct- means 8)


Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary,
Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore,
While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door.
`'Tis some visitor,' I muttered, `tapping at my chamber door –
Only this, and nothing more.'
    ‘The Night before Christmas
              Anapestic Tetrameter

              Anapestic (soft-soft-HARD), tetra- means 4


'Twas the night before Christmas, when all thro' the house

Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse;
The stockings
were hung by the chimney with care,
In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be
there;
The children were nestled all snug in their beds,

While visions of sugar plums danc'd in their heads,
          Shakespeare,
       Iambic Pentameter
     Iambic refers to the meter, (soft-HARD)
     Pentameter refers to the “feet,” (pent- means 5).

   Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?

   (William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18)



Shakespeare’s most famous line has a “weak ending:”

   ˘ /      ˘ /      ˘ /       / ˘       ˘    /    ˘

   To be| or not|to be,|that is|the ques-tion
Ode to a Nightingale
Ode to a Nightingale
 MY heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains
    My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,
 ---
 That I might drink, and leave the world unseen,
     And with thee fade away into the forest dim:
 ---
 Fade far away, dissolve, and quite forget
    What thou among the leaves hast never known,
 The weariness, the fever, and the fret
              …
    Here, where men sit and hear each other groan;
 Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last grey hairs,
    Where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies;
Ode to a Nightingale (IV)
---
Adieu! adieu! thy plaintive anthem fades
   Past the near meadows, over the still stream,
    Up the hill-side; and now 'tis buried deep
         In the next valley-glades:
   Was it a vision, or a waking dream?
   Fled is that music:—do I wake or sleep?
Romanticism in Poetry
  Percy Bysshe Shelly

   One of the great English Romantic poets, and a friend
  of Keats. He inspired many of the great poets &
  thinkers, including:

  Karl Marx, Oscar Wilde, Thomas Hardy, George
  Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, William Butler Yeats,
  Upton Sinclair, Ghandi, and Thoreau.
   Percy Bysshe Shelly
Shelly also died very young, at age 30,
of a drowning accident.

His views and lifestyle were very
different from Keats.

However, Shelly greatly admired Keats’
poetry.
                   Adonaïs
Adonaïs is one of Shelly’s greatest poems, and it was
written as an elegy (哀歌) to John Keats.
495 lines
Adonis is a man in myth who is handsome and loved by
goddesses. The gods are jealous of him and have him
killed in a hunting accident. But he is reborn.
                  Adonais
Most of the poem is very mournful and sad, until the
end, when the poet declares that Adonais is not dead.

What is the meter?


Peace, peace! he is not dead, he doth not sleep

He hath awakened from the dream of life

'Tis we, who lost in stormy visions, keep

With phantoms an unprofitable strife,
                  Adonaïs
The poem ends to say Adonais (Keats) is not dead.
 It’s life’s worries and cares cause us to suffer and
              despair. To die is to awaken.

				
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posted:9/28/2012
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