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Homework For your homework, define the following words in 1-2 sentences: Mary Queen of Scots, James I of England, Charles I of England, English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell, James II of England, Glorious Revolution, & William of Orange Next week, we will finish the England section of the semester. After, we begin with Scotland. British Poetry The Romantic Period Casper David Friedrich Romanticism is an artistic and intellectual movement in 18th century Western Europe Strong emotions, return to nature, intuition, imagination. Departure from rationalism. Romanticism Reaction to the Industrial Revolution Romanticism Great impact on literary, visual and musical works of art. The movement emphasized strong emotions, with new focus on trepidation, horror and terror and awe —especially when experiencing the greatness of nature. Romanticism in Visual Art Francisco Goya (movie: Goya’s Ghosts) Romanticism in Visual Art Francisco Goya was a great Romantic Spanish painter. During his later years, his paintings focused on horrors of war, insanity, and the dark side of human nature. The Third of May 1808, about the Spanish resistance to Napoleon’s invasion Goya’s: The Disasters of War A series of plates, designed by Goya Romanticism in Visual Art Caspar David Friedrich: Famous German Romantic artist. Focused on the contemplation of nature. Caspar David Friedrich The Crucifiction is portrayed as a landscape. (early Romantic period) Beethoven’s 5th Symphony (Middle period) Franz Liszt (Late Romantic Period) Tchaikovsky’s Waltz of the Flowers Romanticism in Poetry John Keats is one of the most beloved of British poets, and he is the most recognizable of the Romantic Poets. Today’s movie: Bright Star. This movie is about the life of the poet, John Keats. In the scene, he describes poetry to his friend Fanny Brawne. “A poem needs understanding through the senses… The point of diving in a lake is not to immediately swim to the shore, but to be in the lake… (poetry)It is an experience beyond thought… Poetry soothes and emboldens the soul to accept mystery.” “If poetry does not come as naturally as leaves to a tree, then it had best not come at all.” One of the most well-known British Romantic poets. Ode to a Nightingale Ode to a Grecian Urn John Keats John Keats lived a very short life. In 1821, he died at the age of 25 from tuberculosis (TB). He only published poems 4 years of his life. “A thing of beauty is a joy for ever:” Famous first line of Endymion Lyric Poetry Lyric poetry is a kind of poetry with rhyming schemes that express personal and emotional feelings. The most traditional forms of lyric poetry were sonnets, but there were many other forms. Odes are a typical form of lyric poetry. An ode is addressed to a particular subject, usu. written in varied meter. Keats is most famous for a series of odes, Ode to a Nightingale is perhaps the most famous Meter and feet Meter is the basic rhythm of a verse, determined by the number and length of feet in a line. Each syllable has one beat. A foot has a certain number of syllables A line has a certain number of feet. Many traditional verse forms have a specific verse meter, or a certain group of meters alternating in a particular order. Edgar Allen Poe’s “The Raven” Trochaic octameter Trochaic refers to the meter (Hard-soft) Octameter refers to the feet (oct- means 8) Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary, Over many a quaint and curious volume of forgotten lore, While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping, As of some one gently rapping, rapping at my chamber door. `'Tis some visitor,' I muttered, `tapping at my chamber door – Only this, and nothing more.' ‘The Night before Christmas Anapestic Tetrameter Anapestic (soft-soft-HARD), tetra- means 4 'Twas the night before Christmas, when all thro' the house Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse; The stockings were hung by the chimney with care, In hopes that St. Nicholas soon would be there; The children were nestled all snug in their beds, While visions of sugar plums danc'd in their heads, Shakespeare, Iambic Pentameter Iambic refers to the meter, (soft-HARD) Pentameter refers to the “feet,” (pent- means 5). Shall I compare thee to a summer's day? (William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18) Shakespeare’s most famous line has a “weak ending:” ˘ / ˘ / ˘ / / ˘ ˘ / ˘ To be| or not|to be,|that is|the ques-tion Ode to a Nightingale Ode to a Nightingale MY heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk, --- That I might drink, and leave the world unseen, And with thee fade away into the forest dim: --- Fade far away, dissolve, and quite forget What thou among the leaves hast never known, The weariness, the fever, and the fret … Here, where men sit and hear each other groan; Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last grey hairs, Where youth grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies; Ode to a Nightingale (IV) --- Adieu! adieu! thy plaintive anthem fades Past the near meadows, over the still stream, Up the hill-side; and now 'tis buried deep In the next valley-glades: Was it a vision, or a waking dream? Fled is that music:—do I wake or sleep? Romanticism in Poetry Percy Bysshe Shelly One of the great English Romantic poets, and a friend of Keats. He inspired many of the great poets & thinkers, including: Karl Marx, Oscar Wilde, Thomas Hardy, George Bernard Shaw, Bertrand Russell, William Butler Yeats, Upton Sinclair, Ghandi, and Thoreau. Percy Bysshe Shelly Shelly also died very young, at age 30, of a drowning accident. His views and lifestyle were very different from Keats. However, Shelly greatly admired Keats’ poetry. Adonaïs Adonaïs is one of Shelly’s greatest poems, and it was written as an elegy (哀歌) to John Keats. 495 lines Adonis is a man in myth who is handsome and loved by goddesses. The gods are jealous of him and have him killed in a hunting accident. But he is reborn. Adonais Most of the poem is very mournful and sad, until the end, when the poet declares that Adonais is not dead. What is the meter? Peace, peace! he is not dead, he doth not sleep He hath awakened from the dream of life 'Tis we, who lost in stormy visions, keep With phantoms an unprofitable strife, Adonaïs The poem ends to say Adonais (Keats) is not dead. It’s life’s worries and cares cause us to suffer and despair. To die is to awaken.
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