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					        Assimilation or Integration?

         Is the United States a
    “melting pot” or a “salad bowl”?

Fill him in with American, traits, values, ideas, and culture…
Melting Pot
 The melting pot is an analogy for the way in which
 homogeneous societies develop, in which the
 ingredients in the pot (people of different cultures,
 races and religions) are combined so as to develop a
 multi-ethnic society.
J. Hector St. John de Crevecouer (1782)
– “Letters from an American Farmer”
 “leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and
  manners, receives new ones from the new mode of
  life he has embraced, the government he obeys, and
  the new rank he holds. He becomes an American by
  being received in the broad lap of our great Alma
  Mater. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a
  new race of men, whose labors and posterity will
  one day cause great changes in the world."
Cultural Assimilation
 when an individual or individuals adopts aspects of
  the characteristics of a dominant culture (such as its
  religion, language, manners etc.). It sometimes is the
  result of cultural imperialism or forced assimilation
  but it can be and often is voluntary.
Three Models of Assimilation
 1. “Straight-line” or Convergence Model
 2. Racial/Ethnic Disadvantage Model
 3. Segmented Assimilation Model
“Straight-line” or Convergence Model
 This theory sees immigrants becoming more similar
 over time in norms, values, behaviors, and
 characteristics. This theory also expects those
 immigrants residing the longest in the host
 population, as well as the members of later
 generations, to show greater similarities with the
 majority group than immigrants who have spent less
 time in the host society.
Racial/Ethnic Disadvantage Model
 The second, racial/ethnic disadvantage model states
 that immigrant's chances to assimilate are "blocked".
 An example of this model would be discrimination
 and institutional barriers to employment and other
Segmented Assimilation Model
 The third, the segmented assimilation model
 theorizes that structural barriers, such as poor urban
 schools, cut off access to employment and other
 opportunities — obstacles that often are particularly
 severe in the case of the most disadvantaged
 members of immigrant groups, and such
 impediments can lead to stagnant or downward
 mobility, even as the children of other immigrants
 follow divergent paths toward classic straight-line
Four Ways to Measure Assimilation
 1. Socioeconomic Status
 2. Spatial Concentration
 3. Language Attainment
 4. Intermarriage
Socioeconomic Status
 is defined by educational attainment, occupation, and
 income. By measuring socioeconomic status
 researchers want to find out if immigrants eventually
 catch up to native-born people in terms of human
 capital characteristics.
Spatial Concentration
 is defined by geography or residential patterns. The
  spatial residential model states that increasing
  socioeconomic attainment, longer residence in the
  U.S, and higher generational status lead to decreasing
  residential concentration for a particular ethnic
Language Attainment
 is defined as the ability to speak English and the loss
  of the individual's mother tongue.The three-
  generation model of language assimilation states that
  the first generation makes some progress in language
  assimilation but remains dominant in their native
  tongue, the second generation is bilingual, and the
  third-generation only speaks English
 is defined by race or ethnicity and occasionally by
  generation. High rates of intermarriage are
  considered to be an indication of social integration
  because it reveals intimate and profound relations
  between people of different groups, intermarriage
  reduces the ability of
 Melting Pot or Salad Bowl
                            Are we melting into

Or are we still separate?
E Pluribus Unum

        “From Many, One”

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