Civil Society

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					PIA 2501: Public Policy and Management


     ORGANIZATIONS, INSTITUTIONS AND
     DEVELOPMENT: THE ROLE OF NGOs
THE TIE IN-1




  GOVERNANCE ISSUES
  IMPACT NGO WORK
Prologue- World Bank Mission
    Local Governance and Civil Society in
     Guinea Conakry (Stakeholder Analysis-
     March, 2006)

    Creation of a Poverty Alleviation Fund-
     includes Micro-Credit

    Design Capacity for Service Delivery

    Need for Predictable Governance and
     stable Civil Society
Micro-Credit Project in Ethiopia
Tie In-2: The Popularity of Micro-credit
                                  Ann Dunham- Micro-credit
Grameen Bank                      specialist
   Nobel Prize for Peace (2006)


Micro-credit

The Concept and the
Controversy

Links to Traditional
Savings Banks
Micro-Credit will be Popular
TIE IN-3



    NGOs and Civil Society Tie into
     Decentralized Governance
Decentralization and Civil Society: A
Grassroots Perspective
               Governance /
                Democracy


                 NGOs                          Communication
             Women’s Focused    Target Group       and
                Groups                            Support




    Rural         Rural                            Civic
                                   Land          Education
    Credit      Industries


                 Grassroots
                Organizations
Civil Society as a Dependent Variable
Tie In-4
    State Societal Linkages: Redux

                   Central State - Macro
Weak                                   Strong
   SOFT STATE…………………………….PREDATORY STATE

                   Mezzo-Intermediate
State-Weak                                               Strong
Mono-State…...INTERGOVERNMENTAL Systems in place.…..Local State


                    Civil Society - Micro
Weak                                                     Strong

   Local - SOFT STATE….………………LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Civil Society--Review


    Networks of organizations, groups and
     individuals pursuing socio-economic
     interests

    "Beyond the family but short of the
     state" (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel )
Tie In- 5- Human Rights Issues
Review
 Civil Society and Human Rights

     "Human Rights, Basic Needs and the
      Stuff of Citizenship" (Anonymous)


     Issue: First vs. Second and Third
      generation Human Rights and Civil
      Society
Civil Society Structures-1
    NGOs, CBOs, (Community Based Orgs.)
     PVOs (Private Voluntary Organizations:
     Who do they represent?

    Grassroots, interests, not for profits
     (neutrality)

    Groups- Role of ethnicity, religion and
     class, vs. individual rights
NGOs- THE NATURE OF THE
BEAST

  NGOs?
NGOs--The Nature of the Beast
   Non-Profits vs. For Profits
   Not for Profits- More value directed
   Private Voluntary
    Organizations (PVOs)
   Community Based
    Organizations (CBOs)
   Foundations
NGOs-The Nature of the Beast-2
    Civic Associations (Civics)

    Interest Groups

    Quangos

    Trade Unions

    Religious Organizations
search...
com_sear
  Go
Goods for Good- A Malawi Based
Organization (BUT?)
Civil Society Structures-2
     Privatization as an NGO issue (Compete with
      Private Sector

     Corporatism vs. Clientelism (NGOs vulnerable)

     Organic VS. Individualist nature of society (Vincent
      Ostrom) (Civil Society sometimes seen as
      collectivist)

           Establishing the rule of law
           Roman vs. Common Law

           What is the role of the individual
Five Caveats: NGOs

    Usually excludes “for profits”

            of contractors- both for profits
       Issue
       and non-profits


    Includes both International and Local

    Internationals are not universally
     loved
Five Caveats, Cont.


    Very often internationals are religious
     or charity based

    Focus has been primarily on relief
     rather than development or civil
     society goals
Types of “Development”
NGOs
    Philanthropy vs.
     Charity

    Relief and Welfare
     Societies

    Public Service
     Contractors

    Populist based
     development
     agencies (national)
Andrew Carnegie championed the idea of strategic
philanthropy: he thought it was better to give people
a fishing rod than a fish.
Types of “Development”
NGOs
    Grassroots associations (local or
     village based)

    Advocacy groups

    Public Service Contractors
Rural Development Promotion
International NGOs-
    Care

    Catholic Relief Services

    Save the Children

    Amnesty International

    Oxfam
Origins- Natural Disaster: Humanitarian
Assistance and Human-Made Disaster



   War, Drought, Agricultural Failure
      Focus   on Rural Development


   Human Rights
      Focus   on Governance
Political Cartoon Remembering the
1960s
 Natural Disaster: Humanitarian
 Assistance and Human-Made Disaster

NGOs--Areas of Perceived Advantage

    Cost-effective
         Small but efficient


    Innovative



    Staff   loyalty and commitment
Natural Disaster: Humanitarian
Assistance and Human-Made Disaster

    NGOs--Perceived Advantage

    •   Ideologically compatible with
        Development values

    •   Links with poor

    •   Image of populism
Natural Disaster: Humanitarian
Assistance and Human-Made Disaster

   International NGOs—Weaknesses

     Lack   of local legitimacy

     Donor   driven

     Inefficiency
Natural Disaster: Humanitarian
Assistance and Human-Made Disaster

   International NGOs—Weaknesses

     Amateurism
         Leadership and continuity problems


     Staffing   problems

     Self-serving-own    objectives
         Faith Based
Annual Meeting of World Association of Non-
Governmental Organizations (WANGO)
Natural Disaster: Humanitarian
Assistance and Human-Made
Disaster
   International NGOs—Weaknesses

     Fixation   on projects
         Problems of replication

     Lack   of perceived accountability

     Learning   problems/lack of institutional
     memory
Natural Disaster: Humanitarian
Assistance and Human-Made
Disaster
   International NGOs—Weaknesses

      Tensions     with government institutions
           Politically threatening
      Ties   with existing local elites

               of humanitarian organizations
      Inability
      to transfer to new development
      orientation
Not Oprah’s Book of the Week


  V.S. Naipaul, Among the Believers

  Jim Mayfield, Go to the People

   China    vs. Indonesia

   Believers,    Unbelievers

        Secular vs. Religious Views of the World
From the University of Utah to Iraq

    Jim Mayfield
V.S. Naipaul and with Paul Theroux in 1986
Discussion and Debates

    Lawrence Graham

    Monte Palmer

    Samuel P. Huntington

    The Picard Findings
    First Group Discussion--
    Civil Society and Democracy in...

    South America

    Central America

    Eastern and Southern Africa

    Asia/Central Asia/Eurasia

    West and Central Africa
 Ten   Minute Break
Follow Up

  Discussion and Debate

				
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posted:9/28/2012
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