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English level ordered morphology

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					English level-ordered morphology

            LING162
                   Quickwrite #2
• Consider the following words in English
  – sanity
  – electricity
  – differential
• For each word,
  – Identify the stem and affix
  – Describe how the phonological shape of the stem
    changes when the affix is attached
Primary vs. secondary affixes in English
•   Primary affixes (Level-1 affixes)
     – Often of Latin-Romance origin
     – Cause application of phonological rules that change the original shapes of the
       stem and/or the affixes
     – Create forms whose meaning is less compositional
     – Occur closer to the stem than secondary affixes
     – Boundary marked with + by convention
•   Secondary affixes (Level-2 affixes)
     –   Often of native Germanic origin
     –   Do not cause phonological rules as much as primary affixes do
     –   Create forms whose meaning is more compositional
     –   Boundary marked with # by convention
     –   Secondary affixes are more productive than their primary counterparts
       Phonological differences
• Primary affixes may cause stress shift, while
  secondary affixes do not
• Primary affixes may have an effect on the
  segmental form but secondary affixes do not
• Primary affixes may show phonetically
  conditioned allomorphy but secondary affixes
  do not
                         Stress shift
• Primary affixes cause a stress shift, while secondary
  affixes do not

          Mendel+ian                    Mendel#ism
         Mongol+ian                     Mongol#ism
         Parkinson+ian               Parkinson#ism
        Shakespear+ian                  national#ism
         grammar+ian                    capital#ism
         patriarch+al                   patriarch#y
          curios+ity                    curious#ness
         productiv+ity              productive#ness
           in+finite                     non#finite
    Effect on the segmental form
• Primary affixes may have an effect on the
  segmental form but secondary affixes do not
   Base         Primary affix   Secondary affix

   profane      profan+ity      profane#ness

   organ        organ+ic        organ#ize

   expend       expens+ive      expend#able
                Allomorphy
• Primary affixes may show phonetically
  conditioned allomorphy but secondary affixes
  do not
  – il+legal, ir+relevant, im+perceptible
  – un#lawful, un#reasonable, un#perceivable
            Ordering hypothesis
• If primary and secondary               Root
  affixes both occur in the same
  word, we would expect the
  primary affix occur closer to     Rules for adding
                                    primary affixes
  the root than the secondary
  affix
                                        Appropriate
   – Parkinson+ian#ism, not         phonological rules,
     *Parkinson#ism+ian            including stress rules
   – exception+al#ness, not
     *exception#ness+al
                                     Rules for adding
                                    secondary affixes
               Compositionality
• The meaning of a word is compositional if its
  meaning can be predicted by combining the meaning
  of its parts
• The meaning of a word derived by adding a primary
  affix is sometimes less compositional than the
  meaning of a word derived by adding a secondary
  affix
  – e.g. profan+ity vs. profane#ness
  – profan+ity not only means “the state or quality of being
    profane” but also “vulgar, irreverent action, speech, etc.’
                  Productivity
• When a novel form is created by affixation, a
  word created by combining a secondary affix
  sounds more natural than a word created by
  combining a primary affix
  – inwet vs. unwet
  – blingity vs. blingness ...?
               -able in English
• There seems to be two kinds of –able in
  English: one used as a primary suffix and the
  other used as a secondary suffix
• Support for the argument comes from
  – Phonological differences (stress, allomorphy, etc.)
  – Difference in compositionality
  – Difference in the kind of stems they attach to
           Phonological differences
• +able is accompanied by stress shift
   cultiv+able       cultivat#able
   educ+able         educat#able
   irrig+able        irrigat#able
   navig+able        navigat#able
   demonstr+able     demonstrat#able


• +able exhibits allomorphy in the stem
   defens+ible       defend#able
   percept+ible      perceiv#able
   divis+ible        divid#able
   Difference in compositionality
• répar+able vs. repáir#able
  – Both mean ‘capable of being repaired’
  – Only repairable is used to describe a broken
    utterance
  – Reparable has the additional sense of ‘liable to be
    paid back or recovered’ (e.g. reparable damage)
• cómpar+able vs. compára#ble
  – not cómparable: unlike
  – not compárable: literally not possible to compare
            Difference in stem
• #able is attached to transitive verbs
  – e.g. cultivat#able, educat#able, irrigat#able,
    navigat#able, demonstrat#able
• But +able is sometimes found on stems that
  are not transitive verbs
  – poss+ible (from Latin posse ‘to be able’)
  – ris+ible (from Latin ride:re ‘to laugh’)
  – Note that both examples are words borrowed
    from Latin

				
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posted:9/28/2012
language:English
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