ADA Coordinator Responsibilities by wuzhenguang


									                 ADA Coordinator Responsibilities

The ADA Coordinator will have the following responsibilities:

    Answer inquiries about programs, planning and coordination of
     compliance efforts, i.e., public notice, grievance procedure,
     confidentiality, etc.

    Receive and investigate disability accommodation requests

    Work with students with disabilities to determine appropriate
     disability accommodations

    Work with adult education instructors working with students with
     disabilities to monitor accommodation usage

    Receive and investigate ADA-related grievances

    Work with staff of adult education program to create awareness of

Note: If your program chooses to cooperate within your organization, i.e.,
community college, to utilize their existing ADA Coordinator, students
enrolled in adult education programs should be assured the above services.
       Steps to Follow for Students with Disabilities

1. Student Self Discloses and/or Requests Accommodation (s)

2. Have student complete release of confidential information form

3. Explain Rights and Responsibilities of Students with Disabilities (p.

4. Obtain Disability Documentation

5. Review Disability Documentation

6. Complete Functional Needs Interview if unsure what accommodations
   are appropriate for adult education classroom OR Approve
   Accommodation Request (pp. 69-70).

7. Identify appropriate Accommodation (s)

8. Complete Accommodation Selection Record (p. 68).

9. If reasonable accommodation is denied, complete Denial of Request
   Form (pp. 71-72)) AND give student a copy of grievance procedure
   (eg., 74-77).

10.If reasonable accommodation request is approved, meet with
   instructor(s) regarding accommodation (s) for classroom.

11.Check to see if student needs assistance with using the

12.Devise a method for monitoring accommodation usage in your

13.Have a staff meeting with all adult education staff to increase
   disability awareness.
                            Disability Etiquette

People with Disabilities

People with disabilities are not conditions or diseases. They are individual
human beings. For example, a person is not an epileptic, but rather a person
who has epilepsy. First and foremost, they are people. Only secondarily do
they have one or more disabling conditions. They prefer to be referred to in
print or broadcast media as PEOPLE with Disabilities. (Refer to Glossary of
Acceptable Terms)

Distinction between Disability and Handicap

A Disability is a condition caused by an accident, trauma, genetics or
disease, which may limit a person’s mobility, hearing, vision, speech or
mental function. Some people with disabilities have one or more

A Handicap is a physical or attitudinal constraint that is imposed upon a
person, regardless of whether that person has a disability. Webster’s defines
handicap as to put at a disadvantage.


Some people with disabilities use wheelchairs. Stairs, narrow doorways and
curbs are handicaps imposed upon people with disabilities who use

Reception Etiquette

Know where accessible restrooms, drinking fountains and telephones are
located. If such facilities are not available, be ready to offer alternatives,
such as the private restroom, a glass of water or your desk phone.

Use a normal tone of voice when extending a verbal welcome. Do not raise
your voice unless requested.
When introduced to a person with disability, it is appropriate to offer to
shake hands. People with limited hand use or who wear an artificial limb
can usually shake hands. Shaking hands with the left hand is acceptable.
For those who cannot shake hands, touch the person on the shoulder or arm
to welcome and acknowledge their presence.

Treat adults in a manner befitting adults:

    Call a person by his or her first name only when extending that
     familiarity to all others present.
    Never patronize people using wheelchairs by patting them on the head
     or shoulder.
    When addressing a person who uses a wheelchair, never lean on the
     person’s wheelchair. The chair is part of the space that belongs to the
     person who uses it.
    When talking with a person with a disability, look at and speak
     directly to that person rather than through a companion who may be
    If an interpreter is present, speak to the person who has scheduled the
     appointment, not to the interpreter. Always maintain eye contact with
     the individual, not the interpreter.
    Offer assistance in a dignified manner with sensitivity and respect. Be
     prepared to have the offer declined. Do not proceed to assist if your
     offer is declined. If the offer is accepted, listen to or accept
    Allow a person with a visual impairment to take your arm (at or about
     the elbow.) This will enable you to guide rather than lead the person.
    Offer to hold or carry packages in a welcoming manner.
    When offering to hand a coat or umbrella, do not offer to hand a cane
     or crutches unless the individual requests otherwise.
                       Conversation Etiquette

When talking to a person with a disability, look at and speak directly to
that person, rather than through a companion who may be along.

Relax. Don’t be embarrassed if you happen to use accepted common
expressions such as “See you later” or “Got to be running along” that
seem to relate to the person’s disability.

To get the attention of a person with a hearing impairment, tap the person
on the shoulder or wave your hand. Look directly at the person and
speak clearly, naturally and slowly to establish if the person can read lips.
Not all persons with hearing impairments can lip-read. Those who can
will rely on facial expression and other body language to help in
understanding. Show consideration by placing yourself facing the light
source and keeping your hands and food away from your mouth when
speaking. Keep mustaches well trimmed. Shouting won’t help. Written
notes may.

When talking with a person in a wheelchair for more than a few minutes,
use a chair, whenever possible, in order to place yourself at the person’s
eye level to facilitate conversation.

When greeting a person with a severe loss of vision, always identify
yourself and others who may be with you. When conversing in a group,
give a vocal cue by announcing the name of the person to whom you are
speaking. Speak in a normal tone of voice, indicate in advance when you
will be moving from one place to another and let it be known when the
conversation is at an end.

Listen attentively when you’re talking to a person who has a speech
impairment. Keep your manner encouraging rather than correcting.
Exercise patience rather than attempting to speak for a person with
speech difficulty. When necessary, ask short questions that require short
answers or a nod or a shake of the head. Never pretend to understand if
you are having difficulty doing so. Repeat what you understand, or
incorporate the person’s statements into each of the following questions.
The person’s reactions will clue you in and guide you to understanding.
If you have difficulty communicating, be willing to repeat or rephrase a
   question. Open-ended questions are more appropriate than closed-ended

   Do not shout at a person with a hearing impairment. Shouting distorts
   sounds accepted through hearing aids and inhibits lip reading. Do not
   shout at a person who is blind or visually impaired—he or she can hear

  To facilitate conversation, be prepared to offer a visual cue to a person
  with a hearing impairment or an audible cue to a person with a visual
  impairment, especially when more than one person is speaking.
Do and Don’ts
   Do learn how to communicate with people who have disabilities.
   Do ensure that your enrollment and other forms do ask disability-
     related questions and that they are in formats that are accessible to all
     persons with disabilities.
   Do consider having written descriptions that identify the essential
     abilities, skills and competencies of each class.
   Do provide reasonable accommodations that the qualified student will
     need to participate in the program.
   Do treat an individual with a disability the same way you would treat
     any student—with dignity and respect.
   Do know that among those protected by the ADA are qualified
     individuals who have AIDS, cancer, who are mentally retarded,
     traumatically brain-injured, deaf, blind and learning disabled.
   Do understand that access includes not only environmental access but
     also making forms accessible to people with visual or cognitive
     disabilities and making alarms and signals accessible to people with
     hearing disabilities.
   De develop procedures for maintaining and protecting confidential
   Do train instructors on making reasonable accommodations.
   Don’t assume that persons with disabilities do not want to get an
   Don’t assume that alcoholism and drug abuse are not real disabilities,
     or that recovering drug abusers are not covered by the ADA.
   Don’t ask if a person has a disability during enrollment.
   Don’t admit a person with a disability if that person is at significant
     risk of substantial harm to health and safety of the public and there is
     no reasonable accommodation to reduce the risk or harm.
    Don’t admit a person with a disability who is not qualified to perform
     the essential functions of the classroom, including abilities, skills and
    Don’t assume that the environment will be unsafe if a student has a
    Don’t assume that reasonable accommodations are expensive.
    Don’t speculate or try to imagine how you would perform in class if
     you had the student’s disability.
    Don’t assume that you don’t have any classes that a person with a
     disability can qualify for.
    Don’t assume that your program is accessible.
    Don’t make medical judgments.
    Don’t assume that a person with a disability can’t do class work due
     to apparent or nonapparent disabilities.

                         Glossary of Acceptable Terms

Acceptable: Person with a disability.
Unacceptable: Cripple-the image conveyed is of a twisted, deformed,
useless body.

Acceptable: Disability, a general term used for functional limitation that
interferes with a person’s ability, for example, to walk, hear or lift. It may
refer to a physical, mental or sensory condition.
Unacceptable: Handicap, handicapped person or handicapped.

Acceptable: People with cerebral palsy, people with spinal cord injuries.
Unacceptable: Cerebral palsied, spinal cord injured, etc. Never identify
people solely by their disability.

Acceptable: Has a disability, has a condition of (spina bifida, etc.), or born
without legs, etc.
Unacceptable: Defective, defect, deformed. These words are offensive,
dehumanizing, degrading and stigmatizing.
Acceptable: Deafness/hearing impairment. Deafness refers to a person
who has a total loss of hearing. Hearing impairment refers to a person who
has a partial loss of hearing within a range from slight to severe. Hard of
hearing describes a hearing-impaired person who communicates through
speaking and who usually has listening and hearing abilities adequate for
ordinary telephone communication. Many hard of hearing individuals use a
hearing aid.
Unacceptable: Deaf and Dumb is as bad as it sounds. The inability to hear
or speak does not indicate intelligence.

Acceptable: Person who has a mental or developmental disability.
Unacceptable: Retarded, imbecile, idiot. These are offensive to people
who bear the label.

Acceptable: Use a wheelchair or crutches; a wheelchair user; wlks with
Unacceptable: Confined/restricted to a wheelchair; wheelchair bound.
Most people who use a wheelchair or mobility devices do not regard them as
confining. They are viewed as liberating; a means of getting around.

Acceptable: Able-bodied; able to walk, see, hear, etc.; people who are not
Unacceptable: Healthy, when used to contrast with “disabled.” Healthy
implies that the person with a disability is unhealthy. Many people with
disabilities have excellent health.

Acceptable: People who do not have a disability.
Unacceptable: Normal. When used as the opposite of disabled, this
implies that the person with a disability is abnormal.

Acceptable: A person who has (name of disability).
Unacceptable: Afflicted with, suffers from, afflicted. Most people with
disabilities do not regard themselves as afflicted or suffering continually. A
disability is not an affliction.
    What are the legal responsibilities of adult education programs?

Although most adult educators are probably aware of the Americans with
Disabilities Act and its overall importance, they may not be aware of some
of the specific provisions within the law. In addition to the general
requirements of program and facility accessibility and non-discrimination in
programs, five administrative requirements in the ADA, Title II, apply to
adult education programs administered through state, county, or city

      1.   Designate a responsible employee (ADA coordinator)
      2.   Provide public notice
      3.   Establish grievance procedure
      4.   Conduct self-evaluation
      5.   Develop transition plan

Designate a Responsible Employee as an ADA Coordinator

Section 35.107(required as of 1-26-92)

This requirement applies only to entities with fifty or more employees, but
includes all employees of an entity, not just the adult education program.
This person is responsible for answering inquiries about programs, planning
and coordination compliance efforts, and receiving and investigating ADA-
related grievances concerning programs, services, practices, and
employment. Written notice displaying the name, office address, and
telephone number of the employee designated as the ADA Coordinator must
be posted in each building or room where services are offered (see sample
public notice).

Provide Notice of ADA Requirements

Section 35.106 (required as of 1-26-92)

This requirement applies to all public entities, regardless of size. All such
entities must provide information to applicants, participants, and other
interested parties regarding the rights of people under Title II and how Title
II applies to their particular programs, services, and activities. Methods of
providing this information include, but are not limited to, publication in
handbooks, manuals, pamphlets, and enrollment/application materials that
are distributed to the public to describe a public entity’s programs and
activities. Other methods include the display of informational posters in
service centers and other public places and/or the broadcast of information
by television or radio (See sample notice). The entity must provide this
information in an ongoing basis.

Public notice of ADA requirements must be made available in alternative
formats to meet the diverse communication needs of persons with
disabilities. Alternate formats include large print, Braille, computer disk,
and audio tape.

Establish a Grievance Procedure

Section 35.107 (required as of 1-26-92)

Public entities employing 50 or more people are required to establish a
grievance procedure for prompt and equitable resolution of complaints
concerning program accessibility, equal opportunity, supplementary aids and
services, and accommodations. This requirement becomes important when
problems, such as obtaining an accommodation cannot be resolved at a
lower level. (See sample grievance procedure)

Conduct a Self Evaluation

Section 35.105 (required as of 1-26-92)

All public entities, regardless of size, must conduct a self-evaluation of
current services, policies, and practices to ensure that they are in compliance
with the ADA (see accessibility checklist and learning disabilities
compliance checklist)

Develop a Transition Plan

Section 35.150 (completed by June, 2007)

In the event that structural changes to facilities need to be undertaken to
achieve program accessibility, a public entity with 50 or more employees
must develop a transition plan designating the steps necessary to complete
these changes. At a minimum, the plan must perform the following: a)
identify physical obstacles that limit accessibility; b) describe the methods
that will be used to correct these obstacles; c) specify a schedule for the
changes; and d) indicate the person(s) responsible for implementing the plan.

In addition, each adult education program in Illinois will complete a
transition plan depicting what steps will be taken to provide
accommodations for students with disabilities and the individual responsible
for implementing the plan.
                        Sample of Public notice
                     Required under Title II of the ADA

(Name of Adult Education Program) does not discriminate on the basis of
disability in admission to its programs, services, or activities, in access to
them, in treatment of individuals with disabilities, or in any aspect of their
operations. The (program) also does not discriminate on the basis of
disability in its hiring or employment practices.

This notice is provided as required by Title II of the Americans with
Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of
1973. Questions, complaints, or requests for additional information
regarding the ADA and Section 504 may be forwarded to the designated
ADA compliance coordinator:

      Name and Title:
      Office Address:
      Phone Number:
      Days/Hours Available:

This notice is available from the ADA compliance coordinator in large print,
on audio tape, and in Braille. (If additional alternative formats are
available, such as computer bulletin boards, the program may state that
this notice is available in additional alternative formats).
                       SAMPLE STATEMENTS

Equal Opportunity Statements

Long Version (for use in program bulletins, handbooks, and application

The (insert your program’s name) is committed to the policy that all persons
shall have equal access to its programs, facilities, services without regard to
race, color, creed, religion, national origin, sex, age, marital status,
disability, or sexual orientation.

*In adhering to this policy, this program abides by the Federal Civil Rights
Act, 42 U.S.C. 2000e; by the requirements of Title IX of the Education
Amendments of 1972; by Sections 503 and 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of
1973; by the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; and by other
applicable statutes and regulations relating to equality and opportunity.

*This section of the statement may be deleted on certain publications to
conserve space.

Short Version (for use on posters and cases of severe space limitation):

The (insert your program’s name) is an equal opportunity educator and
            Sample Disability Access Statements

1. General Accessibility and Accommodations Requests:

  All activities offered by (name of program/agency) are held in
  accessible locations. Accommodations for individuals with a
  disability are available upon request. Please contact (name of
  coordinator/location/phone number)

  If you are a person with a disability who requires an accommodation
  in order to participate in any program or activity, please contact (name
  of coordinator/location/phone) for further assistance.

  Individuals with a disability who may need accommodations are
  requested to contact (name of coordinator/location/phone) at least 2
  weeks in advance of the event in order that appropriate
  accommodations/arrangements may be made.

2. Alternate Formats/Accommodations Requests:

  These materials (This brochure…) are available in alternate formats
  upon request. For assistance, please contact (name of

  This (newsletter/brochure) is available on disk or in large print upon
  request. To obtain a copy, please contact (name of

  Printed materials will be made available in alternate formats (e.g.,
  large print, audio format, Braille) upon request. For assistance, please
  contact (name of coordinator/location/phone)

3. Statements for GED Test Accommodations:

  Accommodations on the GED Test(s) are available for qualified
  individuals with a documented disability. For more information,
  contact (name of coordinator/location/phone)
Disability Access Statements:

For use on registration brochures, invitations, or fliers:

To request disability accommodations, please contact (name, department,
address, phone number).

For use on program bulletins and brochures:

It is the policy of insert your program’s name to provide, on a flexible and
individualized basis, reasonable accommodations to students who have
disabilities that may affect their ability to participate in class activities or to
meet class requirements. Students with disabilities are encouraged to
contact (name, address, phone number) to discuss their needs for
                     ADA Grievance Complaints

The ADA grievance procedure is as follows:

   a. All ADA complaints shall be submitted to the adult education
      program ADA Coordinator or, in the event that the complaint alleges
      a violation by the ADA Coordinator, to the Program Director. (In that
      event, all references here to the ADA Coordinator shall mean the
      Program Director.)

   b. All complaints must be filed in writing, must contain the name and
      address of the complainant, and must describe the alleged violation.

   c. The complaint must be filed within 90 calendar days after the
      complainant becomes aware of the alleged violation.

   d. The program will conduct an informal investigation, affording all
      interested persons and their representatives with notice and an
      opportunity to be heard and to submit relevant information.

   e. A written decision on the complaint will be issued by the ADA
      Coordinator no later than 15 business days after the complainant’s

   f. The ADA Coordinator will, subject to program procedures and any
      applicable laws or regulations, maintain the files and records relating
      to the complaint.

   g. If the student wishes to appeal the ADA Coordinator’s written
      determination or proposed resolution, the student may appeal within
      15 business days of its receipt. The appeal request must be in writing,
      describe the basis for his/her appeal, and be submitted to the Program

   h. A written decision on the appeal, and a description of the proposed
      resolution, if any, will be issued by the Program Director no later than
      15 business days after its submission. The determination of the
      Program Director shall be final and binding.
                          Grievance Procedure
This grievance procedure is established to meet the requirements of the
Americans with Disabilities Act. It may be used by anyone who wishes to
file a complaint alleging discrimination on the basis of a disability in
educational practices and policies or the provision of services, activities,
programs, or benefits by (name of adult education program).

The complaint should be in writing and contain information about the
alleged discrimination such as name, address, phone number of complainant
and location, date and description of the problem. Alternative means of
filing complaints, such as personal interviews or a tape recording of the
complaint will be made available for persons with disabilities upon request.

The complaint should be submitted by the grievant and/or his/her designee
as soon as possible but no later that 90 calendar days after the alleged
violation to:

             Name of ADA Coordinator
             Phone Number of ADA Coordinator
             Business mailing address of ADA Coordinator

Within 15 calendar days after receipt of the complaint, the ADA Coordinator
will meet with the complainant to discuss the complaint and possible
resolutions. Within 15 calendar days after the meeting, the ADA
Coordinator will respond in writing, and, where appropriate, in a format
accessible to the complainant, such as large print, Braille, or audio tape. The
response will explain the position of the adult education program and offer
options for substantive resolution of the complaint.

If the response by the ADA Coordinator does not satisfactorily resolve the
issue, the complainant an/or his/her designee may appeal the decision of the
ADA Coordinator within 15 calendar days after the receipt of the response
to the Adult Education Program Director.

Within 15 calendar days after receipt of the appeal, the Adult Education
Program Director will meet with the complainant to discuss the complaint
and possible resolutions. Within 15 calendar days after meeting, the Program
Director will respond in writing, and, where appropriate, in a format
accessible to the complainant, with a final resolution of the complaint.
All written complaints received by the ADA Coordinator, appeals to the
Program Directors, and responses from the ADA Coordinator and Program
Directors will be kept by the adult education program for at least three years.
                  Sample Grievance Procedure Form

(Program Name) has adopted an internal grievance procedure providing
prompt and equitable resolution of complaints for members of the public,
visitors, clients, and employees not covered under existing agency’s
grievance procedure alleging any action prohibited by the U.S. Department
of Justice regulations, implementing Title II of the Americans with
disabilities act. Title II state, in part, that “…not otherwise qualified disabled
individual shall, solely by reason of such disability, be excluded from the
participation in, be denied the benefits for, or be subjected to
discrimination…” in programs or activities sponsored by a public entity.

Complaints shall be addressed to: (Name, address, and phone number of
ADA coordinator), who has been designated to coordinate ADA compliance

1.    A complaint shall be filed in writing or verbally contain the name and
      address of the person filing it, and briefly describe the alleged
      violation of the regulations.

2.    A complaint shall be filed within five (5) working days after the
      complainant becomes aware of the alleged violation. Processing of
      allegations of discrimination, which occurred before this grievance
      procedure was in place, will be considered on a case-by case basis.

3.    An investigation, as may be appropriate, shall follow a filing of
      complaint. The investigation shall be conducted by (Name of ADA
      Coordinator) or in (his/her) absence, any other person designated by
      the program or agency director. This process contemplates informal
      by thorough investigations, affording all interested persons and their
      representative, if any, an opportunity to submit information relevant to
      a complaint.

4.    A written determination as to the validity of the complaint and a
      description of the resolution, if any, shall be issued by (Name of ADA
      Coordinator) or the person designated by the program or agency
      director, and a copy forwarded to the complainant no later than ten
      (10) working days after its filing.
5.     The ADA Coordinator shall maintain the files and records of (Name
       of Program) relating to the complaints filed.

6      The complainant can request a reconsideration of the case in instances
       where he or she is dissatisfied with the resolution. The request for
       reconsideration must be made within five (5) working days to (Name,
       address, and phone number of program or agency director).

7.     The right of a person to a prompt and equitable resolution of the
       complaint filed hereunder shall not be impaired by the person’s
       pursuit of other remedies such as the filing of an ADA complaint with
       the responsible federal department or agency. Us of this grievance
       procedure is not a prerequisite to the pursuit of other remedies.

8.     This entire process shall be constituted to protect the substantive
       rights of interested persons to meet appropriate due process standards
       and to assure that the (Name of program) complies with the ADA and
       implementing regulations.

This will certify that (Name of ADA Coordinator) will serve (Name of
Program) as the Coordinator/Counselor for:

A.     Title VI (prohibits discrimination on the basis of race)

B.     Title IX (prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex)

C.     Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (prohibits
       discrimination on the basis of disability)

D.     Other

Date                      Signature of Program or Agency Director
            Release of Confidential Information (Form 1)
I____________________________authorize (Name of Program) ___________

to request and receive information specified below, from the following organization:

       Organization Name:_______________________________________

       Address: _______________________________________________

       City, State, Zip: __________________________________________

       Phone Number: __________________________________________

       Information Requested: ____________________________________



This release of confidential information is only valid from the date of signature to
__________ (specify ending date) or until cancelled by the undersigned in writing. I
understand the information will be kept confidential and will not be shared with any other
agency without my consent. This release form has been read/reviewed with me and I
understand its content.





Received by:

Program Signature

            Release of Confidential Information (Form 2)
I, _________________________________authorize ______(Name of Program)

to release the following information to the individual(s) and/or organization listed below.

       Information to be released:




       Individual(s) and/or Organization:

       Name of Organization

       Name of Individual(s)


       Business Address

       City                          State                   Zip

This release of confidential information is only valid from the date of signature to
__________ (specify ending date) or until canceled by the undersigned in writing. I
understand the information will be kept confidential and will not be shared with any other
agency without my consent. This release forma has been read/reviewed with me and I
understand its content.

Client/Student Signature

             Release of Confidential information (Form 3)
I,                                            authorize_______(Program)

to release the following information to the individual(s) listed below:

       Information to be released:

Individual(s): (student should initial each box he/she wishes the information to be shared

       ( ) Name                                      ( ) Name

       ( ) Name                                      ( ) Name

       ( ) Name                                      ( ) Name

This release of confidential information is only valid from the date of signature to
____________(specify ending date) or until canceled by the undersigned in writing. I
understand the information will be kept confidential and will not be shared with any other
agency without my consent. This release form has been read/reviewed with me and I
understand its content.

Student Signature

                              Sample Consent Form
                               “Name of Program”
                            Consent to Release Records

 Adult Learner                               Birth Date           Social Security Number

I hereby give my permission for the Adult Learning Center to release or obtain
information or records that pertain to my course of study and/or to accommodations or
equipment that may be useful for me.

The following records or information may be gathered:
Records:                                          Source:

I understand that I may discontinue this agreement at any time by simply informing the
Adult Learning Center that they no longer have my permission to disclose or obtain
information about me.

Expiration date * (specify if desired):


       (Here you may want to reiterate that you want only records directly relevant to
       confirming a disability and/or documenting past usage of accommodations,
       assistive technology, or adaptive equipment.)

Signed:                                                             Date:
  * This release form expires one year from date of signing, unless otherwise specified..
                 Summary of Accommodation Model

                    Disability Confirmation Component

Step 1 Explain disability, associated rights, and responsibilities
Step 2 Obtain disability documentation
Step 3 Review disability documentation

                 Functional Needs Assessment Component

Step 1 Complete the Functional Needs Interview
Step 2 Identify previous approaches or accommodations for meeting

                  Accommodations Selection Component

Step 1 Identify the learner’s goals
Step 2 Review and prioritize the learner’s goals
Step 3 Identify strengths and resources available to the learner
Step 4 Identify possible accommodations using matrix
Step 5 Learner selects accommodation(s)
Step 6 Verify the selected accommodation(s)

                    Accommodation Usage Component

Step 1 Acquire needed devices or materials for the
Step 2 Instruct the learner in using the accommodation(s)

                 Accommodation Monitoring Component

Step 1 Gather qualitative and quantitative information that describes
        the results of accommodation(s)
Step 2 Discuss the results of using the accommodation(s) with the
Step 3 Record progress of accommodation usage
Step 4 Plan next steps
                          What is a disability?

The legal definition for “disability” differs in the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). These differences may be
attributed, in part, to the circumstances or aims of the legislation.

Within IDEA, the definition of “children with disabilities” includes school-
age children with mental retardation, hearing impairments, visual
impairments, serious emotional disturbance, orthopedic impairments,
autism, traumatic brain injury, other health impairments, or specific learning
disabilities. The aim of this legislation is to provide “free and appropriate
public education” to students who need special education and related

The term “individual with a disability” in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation
Act of 1973 is aimed at a broader population. However, this law applies
only to entities receiving any type of federal funding. In Section 504, an
individual with a disability is defined as any person who has a physical or
mental impairment which constitutes or results in a substantial impediment
to employment and who has a physical or mental impairment which
substantially limits one or more of major life activities.

The definitions of disability contained in Section 504 of the Rehabilitation
Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) are almost
identical. The primary difference between these two pieces of legislation is
that the aim of ADA is broader and more far-reaching because it extends
non-discrimination and accommodations mandates to private institutions.
Under the ADA, a person is considered disabled who (a) has a physical or
mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of the major life
activities of the individual; (b) has a record of such an impairment; or (c) is
regarded as having such an impairment [28 CFR §]. Adults with disabilities
include persons with conditions, diseases, and infections, such as orthopedic,
visual, speech, and hearing impairments; epilepsy, muscular dystrophy,
multiple sclerosis; cancer; heart disease; diabetes; and infection with HIV.
Major life activities include the following:
o   Caring for oneself
o   Performing manual tasks
o   Walking
o   Seeing
o   Hearing
o   Speaking
o   Breathing
o   Learning
o   Working
                  Rights and Responsibilities for Persons with

     We are committed to meeting the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act
     and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. As part of our commitment, we want to ensure
     your rights and responsibilities are understood and avoid any discrimination in services to


               Some free adult education services

               Staff meets needs of students with a disability

               No discrimination

               Use of barrier-free facilities

               Evaluation for appropriate placement

               Accommodations, modifications, or auxiliary aids during learning
                and tests


               Self-identify as having a disability if you seek accommodations

               Request services (your choice)

               Document your disability through testing and assessment reports
                by professionals such as a physician, educational counselor,
                psychologist, special education teacher, or rehabilitation counselor.

                                  Specific learning disabilities occur more often they you
Community Resources               might think. They make reading, writing, and arithmetic
for Confirming                    very difficult for some people. For other people, a
Learning Disabilities             learning disability makes communication and
                                  comprehension very difficult. A number of people in
                                  most communities can help with learning disabilities.
                                  They can help with testing for learning disabilities and
                                  finding services.
                            Who can help?
1.    For the person under the age of 22 and who did not complete
      high school, the school district provides free testing if a disability
      is suspected. Prepare to explain why a disability is suspected.
2.    Check with the local office of vocational rehabilitation. If
      guidelines are met testing is free.
3.    A psychologist working for the school district may help. Fees for
      such an evaluation are usually very reasonable. The school
      district staff has names of local school psychologists.
4.    The community mental health agency would include staff who
      complete testing for learning disabilities.
5.    If a college or university is nearby, training programs in areas
      such as school psychology, clinical psychology, and counseling
      psychology have students who need to practice testing under
      supervision of a faculty member.
6.    Some employers have services to assist employees with testing
      for disabilities.
7.    Some communities have psychologists in private practice who
      might complete testing for learning disabilities.
8.    If the local or regional hospital provides mental health services,
      staff members could complete the testing.
9.    Several organizations may be able to help locate assessment
      services. They include the Learning Disabilities Association of
      America or the Orton Dyslexia Society. Check for a local

10.   This listing is not complete but will provide some ideas for the
      testing of learning disabilities.
                        Disability Confirmation


Disability confirmation is the initial component of the Accommodations
Model. The intent of this component is to provide the ADA Coordinator
with the information needed to verify the learner has a disability. In actual
practice, the Coordinator may complete this component as a first step to
accommodations or may find documentation can be completed later.
Completing this component depends largely on the efforts of the learner and
awareness of his or her disability, goals, and needs. The relationship or
rapport between the learner and the Coordinator is also important because
this component sometimes requires a discussion of personal and confidential

Step 1: Explain disability, associated rights, and responsibilities

A reasonable assumption is that many persons who seek assistance in adult
education are unaware that Federal legislation (e.g., the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA) and Individual with Disabilities Education Act
(IDEA) offers certain protections and entitlements to persons with
disabilities. Explaining information on legal rights and responsibilities to
learners is the first step in disability confirmation.

As part of the program enrollment or orientation process, information about
disabilities, rights, and responsibilities should be explained to learners. The
explanation should incorporate both written materials and an oral discussion
that encourages learners to ask questions.

Step 2: Obtain disability documentation

Some learners may have copies of materials that document their disabilities.
These copies are important for verification. Similarly, documents are useful
and most often necessary when requesting accommodations in an
employment or postsecondary setting or from an outside agency (e.g., the
GED Testing Service). While local adult education programs may not
encounter difficulties when accommodating learners, other agencies,
postsecondary settings, or employers may want extensive documentation.

Have learner(s) sign a consent form that allows the adult education program
to obtain copies of materials that verify a disability. On the consent form, be
as specific as possible about the information requested (e.g., reports and test
scores). For medical disabilities, a physician’s diagnosis is typically
sufficient. Some other disabilities may require the results of educational and
psychological testing for verification.            Such disabilities include
psychological disabilities, learning disabilities, developmental disabilities,
and attention deficit disorders. For educational disabilities, request scores
on intelligence, aptitude, achievement, language, and motor tests. If you
know the names of tests, identify them by name.

On the consent form, emphasize your request not only for documents related
to disability verification, but also information about disability interventions,
especially accommodations that were used. Information about interventions
may be included in records such as Individual Educational Plans (IEPs),
Individual Transition Plans (ITPs), or progress records and may be relevant
to planning accommodations at the adult education program. Distinguish
between accommodations that were used, not just recommended. Needed
accommodations may change depending on context. Therefore, what was
needed and recommended could change in the adult education context.

The program has legal responsibilities regarding identifiable information.
Documentation of disability information must be kept in a secure location
with restricted access just as other confidential information is secured.

Step 3: Review disability documentation

Review the records with the learner to verify materials were received. This
review will give you and the learner a basis for further discussions about
goals and how they might be reached.

Identify and record the documented disability in the learner’s records with
enough detail so anyone making a subsequent inquiry will have sufficient
information (e.g., name, address, and type of records) for obtaining
comparable materials. Recording disability information on the enrollment
form is helpful. Enrollment forms provide a summary of information that is
included in state and federal reports, which frequently collect information
regarding the n umber of persons with disabilities.

Caution! Disability confirmation is very different from reviewing the
records or test results of a comprehensive psychological or educational
evaluation. Few adult education personnel have sufficient training or
experience to determine if a disability exists. Do not make
determinations/diagnoses unless you have the training and experience. The
intent is to record information about a disability someone else assessed as
impairing a major life activity.

Test results may be sketchy or unavailable for many learners. The
documentation may be insufficient for deciding whether a disability was
determined. In this case, other records or additional assessments may be
necessary. To seek additional testing, identify appropriately trained
professionals in the community who have credentials for testing and
interpretation. You may find it helpful to contact community agencies for
names of resources. The resources might be listed on a page that could be
shared with learners. It is the responsibility of the learner to receive, pay for,
and provide additional documentation of a disability.
                           Functional Needs


Once the learner’s disability is documented, the ADA Coordinator can
determine how the disability might influence the learner’s goals with the
Functional Needs Assessment Component. The activities in this component
focus on assessment of the learner’s areas of difficulties that inhibit goal
attainment. In this assessment, information about the learner’s previous
experiences in meeting goals are reviewed and needs assessed. The
assessment is completed using the Functional Needs Interview.

Additional information is provided in this component about the functional
impact of various disabilities.

Step 1: Complete the Functional Needs Interview

For most individuals with disabilities, the challenges they confront
are not new. For example, the learner with a visual impairment is
challenged in an adult education setting as he or she is elsewhere.
Accommodating needs in the adult education program may require
combining modifications familiar to the learner with some that may
be unique to the learning environment.

The Functional Needs Interview is an individually administered
assessment procedure. The interview is useful for assessing a
learner’s areas of difficulty and approaches to difficulties.
Approaches include accommodations or other interventions
previously used regardless of the outcome. The interview also elicits
information about the learner’s current approaches to successfully
functioning in problem areas.

Upon completion of the interview, the learner and coordinator will have a
basis for planning appropriate interventions and other accommodations.

Step 2: Identify previous approaches or accommodations for meeting
As part of the interview, ask questions about approaches the learner used
previously. Descriptions of these accommodations, regardless of outcome,
are needed.

A list of common accommodations for specific functional needs might be
useful in reviewing previous accommodations. (See list)
These accommodations may have been useful in the past, but they may not
be the best for a learner’s current goals and context. Unless you are certain
the learner’s reading skills are very good, you will need to review the list
together. Giving examples of accommodations on the list may be helpful.
This list is intended to help a learner recall past accommodations and
provide ideas for new ones. As you review the list with a learner, he or she
may realize modifications, alterations, assistive devices, etc. were used but
did not consider them accommodations. This is important for planning
subsequent accommodations.

   Disabilities and Possible Challenges in the Learning Environment

In the learning environment, focus should be on “essential classroom
functions”-necessary tasks and interactions the learner will encounter in your
setting that must be negotiated to be successful.

Disability and assessment issues must be discussed with the learner. The
learner’s strengths and challenges will be unique; no two learners with the
same disability will face the classroom in the same way. The ADA
Handbook warns: “public entities are required to ensure that their actions
are based on facts applicable to individuals and not on presumptions as to
what a class of individuals with disabilities can or cannot do.”

(refer to the list on p.?? for examples of challenges learners with disabilities
may face in the classroom setting.)
                      Accommodations Selection


In this component, the previously gathered information is reviewed and
applied to the selection of accommodations that have the greatest benefit for
the learner. This component can be completed immediately following the
Functional Needs Assessment Component.

Step 1: Identify the learner’s goals

Learner’s goals are critical in planning accommodations. A thorough
understanding of their goals is important. Confirm learner goals on a regular
basis. Goals may change as priorities change.

Step 2: Review and prioritize the learner’s goals

Information from interviews, program enrollment, or orientation activities
will indicate areas of concern for the learner (e.g., I don’t do math well; I
have trouble getting to appointments on time; Much of the print I am
supposed to read I have trouble seeing; I have trouble moving around in my
wheelchair in the classroom). In the context of this component, such
statements sound like consequences of a disability. Emphasize how such
statements can be reworded as goals. Review the learner’s goal statements
and assist in setting priorities. These questions might be helpful:
       1. What’s most important for you to do?
       2. What goal makes the most sense for you to work on first?
       3. What goals are most realistic for you?
       4. What goals are easiest for you to work on?

If goals are selected wisely, other steps will be easier to complete and the
learner will have a clear point of reference for later decisions. This
information also serves as a check of the information obtained in the
Functional Needs Interview. The list of prioritized goals should be recorded
on the Accommodation Selection Record. (see?????)
Step 3: Identify strengths and resources available to the learner

Discuss the learner’s perceptions of strengths or assets that are available.
Some assets are personal characteristics; others are available elsewhere in
the environment. Personal strengths might include the ability to read Braille,
prior experience in using a computer, an attitude of patience and persistence,
or strong oral communication skills. Environmental supports might include
persons or services, such as a personal attendant to reach books or turn
pages. Because some accommodations are more extensive in nature, having
support outside the adult education program will help ensure the successful
implementation and utilization of the accommodation(s).

Review other available information about the learner (e.g., doctor records,
school reports, etc.) and identify strengths that can help the learner reach his
or her goals. Record this information on each learner’s Accommodation
Selection Record.

Step 4: Identify possible accommodations using matrix

Generate a list of accommodation options that might help the learner reach
his or her goals. The Matrix of Accommodation Strategies (see?????) is a
useful index of accommodations. The accommodations are organized
according to learners’ needs. To use the matrix, locate the pages that most
closely match a learner’s needs and goals expressed in the Functional Needs

    Each page of the matrix lists a number of accommodations.
    Review these accommodations with the learner.
    Discuss whether the list reminds either of you about other
     accommodations that might be appropriate. If so, add them to your
     list of considerations.
    Check the accommodations against the adult education program’s
     standards for reasonableness, financial burden, and compatibility with
     the essential requirements of the program.
    The accommodation should not compromise the fundamental
     requirements of the program or pose an undue program burden.
Step 5: Learner selects accommodation(s)

With the learner, compare the potential benefits and drawbacks associated
with each accommodation. Ask questions to encourage thought about the
best choice. Have the student envision using the accommodation(s). This
will help draw out the features that will be most beneficial to the learner and
also those that may concern the learner.

Step 6: Verify the selected accommodation(s)

Think about the accommodation(s). Does it make sense in light of the
selection criteria? Will it be practical in the adult education setting? Is the
student comfortable with the selection?

Record the selected accommodation(s) on the Accommodation Selection
Record. (see???????) (149) (insert pp154-173)
                         Accommodation Usage


Many accommodations are available. Accommodations that provide access
to a building or modify a specific task are comparatively easy to learn.
These accommodations are usually more permanent and exist in a location
(e.g., ramp or large-print text books). Learning to use an adaptive or
preventive accommodation, however, is similar to learning other new skills,
behaviors, or information. These types of accommodations are more likely
to be portable and designed for the individual learner (e.g., whole page
magnifiers or software to enlarge computer text).

Since most of us find learning difficult in at least one area, learning to use an
accommodation may also be difficult.             The Accommodation Usage
component serves as a reminder that the coordinator has a role in teaching
the learner about a selected accommodation. If the learner has a long history
of experience with accommodations or has used one similar to the selected
accommodation, the transition will be relatively easy. Therefore, the steps
outlined in this and the following components are not equally applicable to
all accommodations. For some accommodations, the step will be easy to
complete. For others, additional effort and time will be required. The
following steps will assist in increasing the likelihood that the
accommodations are successfully implemented.

Step 1: Acquire needed devices or materials for the accommodation(s)

Local community resources such as libraries, vocational rehabilitation
services, assistive technology centers, school resource centers, and
community civic organizations and agencies can be helpful for locating

Step 2: Instruct the learner in using the accommodation(s)
                      What is an accommodation?

“Accommodation” means any change to a classroom environment or task
that permits a qualified student with a disability to participate in the
classroom process, to perform the essential tasks of the class, or to enjoy
benefits and privileges of classroom participation equal to those enjoyed by
adult learners without disabilities. An accommodation is a legally mandated
change that creates an equitable opportunity for task completion or
environmental access. Further, an accommodation is an individually
determined adjustment to a functional need. Specific accommodations can
range from low-tech rubber pencil grips to high-tech voice recognition
software for a computer.

An accommodation may include use of equipment or changes in
environments, procedures, or attitudes:

   o   Additional time to complete tasks
   o   Assistive devices
   o   Adaptive tools
   o   Taped, large print, or brailled text
   o   Readers
   o   Taped, typed or dictated answers
   o   Private work areas
   o   Calculators
   o   Note takers
   o   Repeated instructions
   o   Oral or sign language interpreters
   o   Modification of existing equipment
   o   Written instructions
   o   Changes in desk height
   o   Changes in lighting

A public entity is not required to take action or provide any accommodation
that would result in a fundamental alteration in the nature of its service,
program, or activity or in undue financial and administrative burdens. A
program is permitted to determine the essential requirements of a course. If
providing an accommodation would in some way compromise those
requirements, the program is not required to do so. For example, if changing
the format of a test fundamentally alters its capacity to measure the skill
being tested, then a format change is not required. However, the program
should attempt to investigate other changes that might be possible.

In addition, a program is permitted to consider the cost of an accommodation
when deciding between equivalent means of providing access. For example,
if two types of software are available that magnify the text on a computer
monitor for a student with a visual impairment, the program can choose to
provide the less expensive version, so long as it is equally effective.

The ADA provides guidelines for documenting a claim of undue burden or
fundamental alteration.         Nevertheless, claiming undue hardship or
fundamental alteration does not relieve a public entity of its obligation to
provide accommodations for people with disabilities. If a program is not
able to provide a particular modification or accommodation to ensure equal
access, the program staff must take other measures, to the maximum extent
possible, to ensure that it does not discriminate against individuals with
disabilities in any of its services or activities.

Thus, the following are guidelines to consider in selecting an
accommodation. An accommodation should:

   (a) be based on documented individual needs
   (b) allow the most integrated experience possible
   (c) not compromise the essential requirements of a course or program
   (d) not pose a threat to personal or public safety
   (e) not impose undue financial or administrative hardship on the
   (f) not be of a personal nature, e.g., personally prescribed devices such
       as eyeglasses, or personal services such as assistance in eating or
                   Accommodation Selection Record

Learner                                               Date

       This form is completed by the learner and ADA Coordinator. The
information serves as a written record for the learner’s future reference. Such
documentation may be important for other occasions on which the learner may
need assistance in obtaining accommodations (e.g., testing or employment

Learner Goal Statements

Personal Strengths

Resources Available and Needed

Characteristics for Selecting Accommodations

Accommodations Options

Accommodation(s) Selected/Provided
        Functional Needs Interview – Interviewer Protocol
Learner’s Name:                                                          Date:


1. Which of the following areas do we need to work on to help you meet y our goals?
Please tell me all that apply to you.

______ Reading
______ Seeing things around the room
______ Writing/Spelling
______ Doing math
______ Paying attention
______ Staying on track
______ Getting used to changes in the classroom
______ Remembering
______ Getting frustrated
______ Hearing the teacher
______ Talking with the teacher and others
______ Getting my ideas across to the teachers and others
______ Getting into or around in the classroom
______ Sitting still or in one place for very long

2. Are there any other areas in which you think you need help?

3. Did you have problems in these areas when you were in school?

4. Do you have any records from school or another agency (like an IEP or test
information) or any other information from a teacher or a counselor?

5. Are you taking any medications that might affect your school work, maybe
medications that make you drowsy, thirsty or nauseated?

         Functional Needs Interview – Learner Protocol

1. Which of the following areas do we need to work on to help you achieve
   your goals?

Work Areas
Seeing things around the room
Doing math
Paying attention
Staying on track
Getting used to changes in the classroom
Getting frustrated
Hearing the teacher
Talking with the teacher and others
Getting my ideas across to the teachers and others
Getting into or around in the classroom
Sitting still or in one place for very long

2. Are there any other areas in which you think you need help?

3. Did you have problems in these areas when you were in school?

4. Do you have any records from school or another agency (like an IEP or
   test information) or any other information from a teacher or a counselor?

5. Are you taking any medications that might affect your school work,
   maybe medications that make you drowsy, thirsty or nauseated?
                        Learner Questionnaire
1. Which of the following areas do we need to work on to help you achieve
   your goals? Please check all that apply.

       Reading (Do you read very slowly or have difficulty seeing the

        Seeing things around the room, like the blackboard or posters.

       Writing/Spelling (Do you have problems like mixing up letters or
       writing very slowly?)

       Doing math (Do you get numbers out of order or get confused by
       word problems?)

        Paying attention (Is it hard for you to listen to the teacher for more
       than a few minutes?)

        Staying on track (Do you get bored or distracted easily?)

        Getting used to changes in the classroom (Do changes in the
       classroom make you uncomfortable?)

        Remembering (Is it hard to remember new things?)

        Getting frustrated (Do you get angry or upset when trying to

        Hearing the teacher (do you get confused by noise around you, or
       is it hard for you to hear unless you sit near the person who is

        Talking with the teacher and others (Do you have trouble talking
       to people or having people understand you?)

      Getting my ideas across to the teachers and others
        Getting into or around in the classroom (Do you have trouble
       walking? Do you have trouble seeing things on the floor or in your

      Sitting still or in one place for very long.

2.    Are there any other areas in which you think you need help?

3. Did you have problems in these areas when you were in school?

4. Do you have any records from school or another agency (like an IEP or
test information) or any other information from a teacher or a counselor?

5. Are you taking any medications that might affect your school work,
maybe medications that make you drowsy, thirsty or nauseated?
                    Accommodations by Functional Need

      Rewrite the student’s text
      Allow extra time
      Provide shorter assignments
      Allow another learner to read material to learner before the learner is
       required to read
      Use large print
      Use larger type face while word processing
      Encourage learner to use typoscope
      Tape the material and allow reading along
      Decrease the need to read handwritten materials, such as notes or
      Provide a talking calculator
      Allow learner to seek out different sources and intensities of light
      Provide speech synthesis for reading on the computer screen

Accessing Information with Low Vision
   Refer for low vision treatment
   Use appropriate magnification devices
   Use large, bolded print texts and materials
   Allow extra time
   Provide Typoscope
   Allow learner to sit close to materials that must be viewed
   Provide yellow acetate overlays or other yellow filter to enhance print
      Provide an assistant to read and/or tape items
      Have audio-taped presentation of items
      Use a computer with a larger display
      Color code keys on calculator or keypad
      Use adapted computer capabilities, such as Zoom Text
      Allow learner to seek out different sources and intensities of light
      Provide adjustable lamp, lighting
      Allow learner to wear brimmed cap to reduce glare
      Use a computer with speech recognition capabilities

Accessing Information with No Vision
   Use Braille texts
   Provide slate and stylus or brailler for Braille writing
   Allow learner to read/study at home, where equipment/technology is
      available that is not available in the classroom
     Provide an assistant to read and/or tape items
     Have audio-tape for presentation of items or for recording responses
     Use of a computer with speech recognition capabilities
     Use print scanner

     Provide an alphabet chart
     Teach alternate methods of holding the writing utensil
     Use adaptive devices such as grips, rulers, guides, paper with raised
      lines, or universal cuff
     Use a paper stabilizing device (e.g., Scotch tape)
     Allow the learner to type or use word processing
     Use computer software such as voice recognition
     Use computer hardware such as key guard to prevent multiple
      simultaneous keystrokes
     Experiment with different writing utensils (felt tip pen, pen, pencil,
      oversized pencil)
     Try different writing surfaces such as different types of paper, more than
      one layer, or sandpaper underneath paper
     Use graph paper or wide lined paper
     Adapt work surface (e.g., height)
     Allow more time; avoid setting time limits
     Have shortened work intervals; encourage breaks
     Allow scribe or tape-recorder
     Require less writing

Solving Math Problems
     Have smaller tasks
     Use manipulatives (e.g., blocks, cuisinaire rods)
     Allow extra time
     Have shortened work intervals
     Use an abacus
     Use computer software or calculator
     Use graph paper
     Use lined paper oriented vertically

     Teach learner to make cue notes
     Write all assignments in assignment book
     Use step by step checklists for completing tasks
     Demonstrate tasks to be completed in small steps
     List assignments with instructions on the blackboard

Paying Attention to Oral Directions
     Give explanations in small, distinct steps
     Provide written copy of oral directions and lectures
     Provide visual cues on chalkboard or overhead
     Have learner repeat directions orally, or use a written clue

Attention to Task
     Free work area from distractions; use carrel or quiet corner
     Use sound absorbing surfaces
     Allow more time to complete assignments
     Use a typoscope when reading
     Use different types of input such as audio tapes
     Avoid lengthy periods of desk work
     Specify time frame to complete tasks; use a timer
     Encourage breaks and physical movement during breaks
     Have learner work with a partner who will cue learner to stay on task
     Use white noise

Getting Started
     Break work into smaller amounts
     Allow learner to decide what task to do first, second, and third
     Help learner set time goals for each task
     Help learner develop a checklist for each step of the task
     Assign peer coaches
     Use a timer

Staying on Track
     Provide specified time frame for task completion
     Provide checklists for assignments
     Use carrel, earplugs
     Use earphones (if music decreases distractibility)
     Use a typoscope if learner is distractible while reading

Staying Organized
     Use mnemonics
     Use a notebook to keep track of materials and assignments
     Use color coding or visual cues when correction learners’ papers
     Keep materials in file folder
     Work on only one subject at a time
     Provide a checklist of assignments
     Use a backpack or briefcase to keep things together
Dealing with Change
     Help learner know what to expect, outline day’s plan
     Post daily routine, discuss changes as soon as possible
     Allow learner adequate time to acclimate to new areas, new staff, new
     Provide clear, predictable break between two activities
     Allow learner to bring support person to class when difficult changes are

     Have shortened work intervals
     Allow more time for tasks
     Set up break times; allow physical movement during breaks
     Use rocking chair for calming effect
     Use soft, relaxing music (if it is not distracting)
     Use study carrel to decrease distraction
     Allow learner to set up own schedule

Accessing Information with Impaired Hearing
     Provide written copy of oral directions and lectures
     Use a microphone/amplifier combination
     Provide visual cues (such as flashing lights for timed tasks)
     Allow close placement in rooms
     Stand directly in front of learner
     Provide an interpreter
     Use compressed speech
     Eliminate background noise

Accessing Information with No Hearing
     Provide written copy of oral directions and lectures
     Use signing, lip reading, or an interpreter
     Provide visual cues on chalkboard or overhead
     Have group discussions in a semicircle so persons with hearing
      impairments can see everyone
     Stand directly in front of the learner who is lip reading

Assessing Facilities with Low or No Vision
     Teach layout of the classroom; provide Braille maps of facilities
     Enhance visibility of small objects with brightly colored tape
     Keep room arrangement constant, unless change is required for better
     Enhance contrast of desk edges and other protruding objects with colored
     Store cords and other hindrances away from traveled areas
Expressing Self Verbally
     Accept alternative forms of information sharing (demonstrations, taped
      instead of oral reports, debates)
     Give extra response time
     Use computer synthesized speech
     Communication board
     Use signing or an interpreter
     Accept responses in demonstration or written format
     Organizational aids (i.e., cue cards)
     Allow learner to use a study partner

Accessing Facilities in a Wheelchair
     Adjust computer table heights
     Change door and aisle widths
     Store cords and other hindrances away from traveled areas

Sitting Tolerance: Sitting Increases Agitation and Distraction
from Task
     Use fidget objects (paper clips, small balls) to relieve tension
     Allow food in classroom
     Have learner chew gum, licorice, lollipops
     Encourage learner to wear comfortable clothes
     Use different kinds of chairs (beanbag, rocking, therapy ball)
     Have learner sit close to the teacher, far from the window, in a study
      carrel, or near a quiet corner
     Lower lights, adjust room temperature
     Encourage breaks; encourage physical movement during breaks

Sitting Tolerance: Sitting Causes Pain or Fatigue
     Allow student to stand up or lie down whenever necessary
     Allow extra time to complete assignments
     Use lumbar support chair, footstool
     If student is unable to maintain comfort in class, allow work at home,
      checking in by phone, or weekly/biweekly at center
     Encourage learner to change positions every 10-15 minutes to prevent
      pain and fatigue
   Some of these accommodations may be appropriate for you:
            Class and test settings free from interruptions and distractions

            Extra time for testing and learning

            Aids for students with impaired sensory, manual, or speaking
             skills, to be used in the school environment
             Hearing Disability       ~ written instructions/information
                                      ~ oral or sign language interpreters
                                      ~ Assistive Listening Devices ALD)
             Visual Disability        ~ readers
                                      ~ taped text
                                      ~ large print text
                                      ~ Braille text
                                      ~ taped, typed, or dictated test answers
             Disability               ~ note-takers
                                      ~ adapted classroom equipment
                                      ~ architectural accessibility
             Learning Disability      ~ note-takers
                                      ~ repeated instructions/directions
                                      ~ quiet room without auditory or visual
                                      ~ taped or typed answers
                                      ~ individual testing
                                      ~ extended time
                   Accommodation Selection Record

Learner                                               Date

       This form is completed by the learner and ADA Coordinator. The
information serves as a written record for the learner’s future reference. Such
documentation may be important for other occasions on which the learner may
need assistance in obtaining accommodations (e.g., testing or employment

Learner Goal Statements

Personal Strengths

Resources Available and Needed

Characteristics for Selecting Accommodations

Accommodations Options

Accommodation(s) Selected/Provided
     Examples for Students with Special Learning Needs

   Orientation to services
   Admission and registration assistance
   Early or priority registration
   Signage clear, readable and noticeable
   Lighting (natural, flexible, strobe/florescent)
   Release of syllabi, study guides, etc.
   Note takers
   Readers
   Scribes
   Large print versions of materials and text
   Alternative electronic formats of materials
   Materials/books on audiocassette
   Audio taping permission for classes, seminars, lectures, etc.
   Tape players/recorders (4-track for books on tape)
   Computer screen and text reading software
   Speech recognition software
   Closed-caption TV and videos
   Computer and electronic technology
   Foot/knee pedal function key controls
   Various sizes keyboards.
   Mouse styles (finger pad, top or side click, foot click, pencil point).
   Computer bells/whistles.
   Scanners
   Larger VCR screens and computer monitors.
   Ear muffs or headsets.
   FM-looped systems.
   FM mike/tape recorder system.
   Printed script of audiovisuals
   Printed outlines of lectures.
   Computer screen filters.
   Icons and pictures (visible, clear and consistent)
   Alternate testing formats and methods.
   Extended testing time.
   Private rooms for testing.

Name of Individual requesting reasonable accommodation:

Classroom/location of Requesting Individual:

 1.   Reasonable accommodation: (check one)

      _______ Approved

      _______ Denied (If denied, attach copy of the written denial letter)

 2.   Date reasonable accommodation requested:

      Who received request: ___________________________

 3.   Date reasonable accommodation request referred to ADA Coordinator:

      Name of ADA Coordinator: _______________________

 4.   Date reasonable accommodation approved or denied:

 5.   Date reasonable accommodation provided (If different from date approved):

 6.   If time frames for providing reasonable accommodation not met, please
      explain why.

 7.   Reasonable accommodation needed for: (check one)

      _______ Enrollment Process

      _______ Performing Classroom Functions or Accessing the Classroom

      _______ Testing
 8.    Type(s) of reasonable accommodation requested (e.g., adaptive equipment
       removal of architectural barrier):

 9.    Type(s) of reasonable accommodation provided (If different from what was

 10. Was medical information required to process this request? If yes, explain

 11. Was documentation provided by individual requesting reasonable
     accommodation? List type of documentation provided.


Submitted by:___________________          Phone: _________________________

Attach copies of all documents obtained or developed in processing this request.

          (Must complete numbers 1-4; complete number 5, if applies)

1.   Name of Individual requesting reasonable accommodation:

2.   Type(s) of reasonable accommodation requested:

3.   Request for reasonable accommodation denied because: (may check more
     than one box)

      o Accommodation Ineffective

      o Accommodation Would Cause Undue Hardship

      o Documentation Inadequate

      o Other (Please identify) ____________________

4.   Detailed Reason(s) for the denial of reasonable accommodation (Must be
     specific, e.g., why accommodation is ineffective or causes undue hardship):

5.   If the individual proposed one type of reasonable accommodation which is
     being denied, but rejected an offer of a different type of reasonable
     accommodation, explain both the reasons for denial of the requested
     accommodation and why you believe the chosen accommodation would be
6.   If an individual wishes to appeal the denial of reasonable accommodation,
     he/she must follow steps in the grievance procedure.

      o Was the individual given a copy of the grievance procedure?
                  Yes _____      No ______

      o Was the grievance procedure explained?
                   Yes _____    No ______

_______________________________              ___________________________
Name of Deciding Official                     Signature of Deciding Official

Date reasonable accommodation denied _____________________________
     Disabilities Resources for Adult Learning Professionals

National Resources

The National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY)
P.O. Box 1492
Washington, DC 20013-1492
(800)695-0285 v/tty
(202)884-8441 fax

NICHCY is the national information and referral center that provides information
on disabilities and disability-related issues for families, educators, and other
professionals. NICHCY provides information and makes referrals in areas
related to: specific disabilities, early intervention, special disability organizations,
professional associations, education rights, transitions to adult life, and much
more. NICHCY’s services include personal responses to individual questions,
publications on a wide variety of disability related topics, referrals to other
organizations and sources of help, and information searches of their database
and library.

The National Clearinghouse on Postsecondary Education for Individuals
with Disabilities (HEATH)
The George Washington University
HEATH Resource Center
2121 K Street NW, Suite 220
Washington, DC 20037
(202)973-0904 v/tty
(202)973-0908 fax

HEATH is a center for information exchange about educational support services,
policies, procedures, adaptations, and opportunities at American campuses,
vocational-technical schools, and other postsecondary training entities for
individuals with disabilities. HEATH publishes resource papers, fact sheets,
directories, and fosters a network of professionals in the arena of disability
The Job Accommodations Network (JAN)
PO Box 6080
Morgantown, WV 26506-6080
(800)ADA-WORK v/tty
(304)293-5407 fax

JAN represents the most comprehensive resource for job accommodations
available. JAN provides information on job accommodations and information on
the Americans with Disability Act. JAN’s work helps employers, people with
disabilities, rehabilitation professionals, and people affected by disability.

The National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC)
4200 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 202
Lanham, MD 20706
(800) 459-2742
(301) 459-5900 v
(301) 459-5984 tty

NARIC is an information center funded by the National Institute on Disability and
Rehabilitation Research to serve members, health professionals, educators,
rehabilitations counselors, students, librarians, administrators, researchers, and
other professionals. NARIC offers information products online. NARIC also has a
literature collection and they make their products available in a variety of ways.

American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
Main Office
1629 K Street NW, Suite 503
Washington, DC 20006
(202)457-0046 v/tty

AAPD is the largest national nonprofit cross-disability member organization in the
United States, dedicated to ensuring economic self-sufficiency and political
empowerment for the more than 56 million Americans with disabilities. AAPD
works in coalition with other disability organizations for the full implementation
and enforcement of disability nondiscrimination laws, particularly the Americans
with Disabilities Act of 1990 and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

                  Attention Deficit Disorders Organizations

Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD)
8181 Professional Place, Suite 150
Landover, MD 20785
National Resource center of AD/HD
(301)306-7070 v
(301)306-7090 fax

CHADD, founded in 1987, is a national non-profit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3)
organization providing education, advocacy and support for individuals with
AD/HD. In addition to an informative web site, CHADD also publishes a variety
of printed materials to keep members and professionals current on research
advances, medications and treatments affecting individuals with AD/HD.

Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA)
PO Box 543
Pottstown, PA 19464
(484)945-2101 v
(610)970-7520 fax

                       Visual Impairment Organizations

American Council of the Blind (ACB)
1155 15th Street, NW, Suite 1004
Washington, DC 10001
(212)502-7600 v
(212)502-7777 fax
AFB has been eliminating barriers that prevent the ten million Americans who are
blind or visually impaired from reaching their potential. AFB is dedicated to
addressing the most critical issues facing this growing population: independent
living, literacy, employment, and technology. AFB is a one-stop information and
referral resource for people who are blind or visually impaired the organizations
and individuals that serve them, and the general public. AFB is the leading
publisher of professional materials on blindness and low vision through its
publishing arm, AFB Press.

Recordings for the Blind and Dyslexic (RFB&D)
20 Roszel Road
Princeton, NJ 08540
(866)732-3585 v
(800)221-4792 member services
(609)987-8116 fax

RFB&D is an organization that serves all people with “print disabilities” by
providing recorded textbooks and other school related materials to individuals
who cannot read standard print because of a disability.

                  Speech/Hearing Impairment Organizations

American Speech-language-Hearing Association (ASHA)
10801 Rockville Pike
Rockville, MD 20852
(800) 498-2071 Professionals/Students
(800) 638-8255 Consumer Line
(301) 897-7355 fax

ASHA is the professional, scientific, and credentialing association for over
110,000 audiologists, speech-language pathologists, and speech, language, and
hearing scientists. ASHA’s mission is to ensure that all people with speech,
language, and hearing disorders have access to quality service to help them
communicate more effectively.
American Association of the Deaf-Blind (AADB)
8630 Fenton Street, Suite 121
Silver Spring, Maryland 20910-4500
(301) 495-4402 TTY
(301) 495-4403 v
(301) 495-4404 fax

AADB endeavors to enable deaf-blind persons to achieve their maximum
potential through increased independence, productivity and integration into the
community. AADB has deaf-blind members from all walks of life with diverse
educational, vocational, social, and ethnic/racial backgrounds. Membership also
includes organizations and many people who are not deaf-blind themselves but
who support AADB’s mission and activities. Members receive quarterly
publications of the “Deaf-Blind American” magazine, which is available in large
print, Braille and disk formats. AADB hosts biannual national conferences.
AADB is a non-profit §501(c)(3) organization under the Internal Revenue Service

National Association of the Deaf (NAD)
814 Thayer Avenue Suite 250
Silver Spring, MD 20910-4500
(301) 587-1789 TTY
(301) 587-1788 v
(301) 587-1791 fax

NAD, established in 1880, is the oldest and largest constituency organization
safeguarding the accessibility and civil rights of 28 million deaf and hard of
hearing Americans in education, employment, health care, and
telecommunications. A private non-profit organization, NAD is a dynamic
federation of 51 state association affiliates including the District of Columbia,
organizational affiliates, and direct members.

Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID)
333 Commerce Street
Alexandria, VA 22314
(703) 838-0030 v
(703) 838-0459 TTY
(703) 838-0454 fax

It is the goal of RID to promote the professions of interpreting and transliterating
American Sign Language and English. RID provides international, national,
regional, state, and local forums and an organizational structure for the continued
growth and development of the professions. Information on speakers,
workshops, and classes are offered for the following: the American with
Disabilities Act, the interpreting profession, Interpreter Preparation Programs,
National Testing and Certification, Certification Maintenance Program for
professional development, national Ethical Practices System,
Testimony/Technical Assistance, Interpreter Referral Services, career
opportunities, mentoring, internships, and scholarships to cover testing fees.

                     Developmental Disabilities Organizations

National Mental Health Association (NMHA)
2001 N. Beauregard Street, 12th Floor
Alexandria, Virginia 22311
(800) 969-NMHA (6642)
(703) 684-7722 v (Main Switchboard)
(800) 433-5959 TTY
(703) 684-5968 fax

NMHA was established in 1909 by former psychiatric patient Clifford W. Beers.
The National Mental Health Association is the country’s oldest and largest
nonprofit organization addressing all aspects of mental health and mental illness.
With more than 340 affiliates nationwide, NMHA works to improve the mental
health of all Americans, especially the 54 million people with mental disorders,
through advocacy, education, research and service. We have educated millions
about mental illnesses and reduced barriers to treatment and services. As a
result of our efforts, many Americans with mental disorders have sought care and
now enjoy fulfilling, productive lives in their communities.

Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA)
4590 MacArthur Blvd., NW, Suite 250
Washington, DC 2007-4226
(800) 621-3141
(202) 944-3285 v
(202) 944-3295 fax

SBAA exists to promote the prevention of spina bifida, and enhance the lives of
all affected. The association was founded in 1973 to address the specific needs
of the spina bifida community, and serves as the national representative of
almost 60 chapters. SBAA’s efforts benefit thousands of infants, children, adults,
parents and professionals each year. The SBAA is a §501 (c)(3) nonprofit
organization. SBAA provides services such as toll free (800) information and
Referral Service, bi-monthly newsletters, insights, legislative updates,
publications, scholarship fund, etc.

American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR)
444 North Capitol Street, NW
Suite 846
Washington, D.C. 20001-1512
(800) 424-3688
(202) 387-1968 v
(202) 387-2193 fax

AAMR promotes progressive policies, sound research, effective practices, and
universal human rights for people with intellectual disabilities. Since 1876,
AAMR has been providing leadership in the field of mental retardation. AAMR is
the oldest and largest interdisciplinary organization of professionals (and others)
concerned about mental retardation and related disabilities. Over 9,500
members in the U.S. and 55 other countries have chosen AAMR as their

Tourette Syndrome Association, Incorporated (TSA)
42-40 Bell Boulevard
Bayside, NY 11361-2820
(718) 224-2999 v
(718) 279-9596 fax

The Tourette Syndrome Association, Inc. (TSA) was founded in 1972 in Bayside,
New York. TSA is the only national voluntary non-profit membership
organization in this field. Its mission is to identify the cause of, find the cure for,
and control the effects of this disorder. Today, TSA has grown into a major
national health-related organization with approximately 50 U.S. chapters and 300
support groups, and international contacts around the world. TSA develops and
disseminates educational material to individuals, professionals, and to agencies
in the fields of health care, education and government; coordinates support
services to help people and their families cope with the problems that occur with
TS; funds research that will ultimately find the cause of and cure for TS and, at
the same time, lead to improved medications and treatments.

United Cerebral Palsy Association, Incorporated (UCP)
1660 L. Street, NW, Suite 700
Washington, DC 20036
(800) 872-5827
(202) 776-0406 v
(202) 973-7197 TTY
(202) 776-0414 fax

For 50 years UCP has been committed to change and progress for persons with
disabilities. The national organization and its nationwide network of more than
100 affiliates in 37 states, and the District of Columbia, strive to ensure the
inclusion of persons with disabilities in every facet of society – from the Web to
the workplace, from the classroom to the community. As one of the largest
health charities in America, UCP’s mission is to advance the independence,
productivity and full citizenship of people with cerebral palsy and other
disabilities, through our commitment to the principles of independence, inclusion
and self-determination.

                     Psychiatric Disabilities Organization

Autism Society of America (ASA)
7910 Woodmont Avenue, Suite 300
Bethesda, Maryland 20814-3067
(800) 3autism (28-8476)
(301) 657-0881 v
(301) 657-0869 fax
The Autism Society of America was founded in 1965 by a small group of parents
working on a volunteer basis out of their homes. Over the last 35 years, the
Society has developed into the leading source of information and referral on
autism. Today, over 20,000 members are connected through a working network
of over 200 chapters in nearly every state. Membership in ASA continues to
grow as more and more parents and professionals unite to form a collective voice
representing the autism community. Members receive “The Advocate”, a
quarterly magazine. The mission of the Autism Society of America is to promote
lifelong access and opportunity for all individuals within the autism spectrum and
their families, to be fully participating, included members of their community.

Epilepsy Foundation of America (EFA)
4351 Garden City Drive
Landover, MD 20785-7223
(800) 332-1000
(800) 213-5821 Membership and catalog sales
(800) 332-4050 National Epilepsy Library
(301) 577-2684 fax

EFA is a national charitable organization, founded in 1968. The only such
organization wholly dedicated to the welfare of people with epilepsy, our mission
is simple: to work for children and adults affected by seizures through research,
education, advocacy and service. More than 60 affiliated Epilepsy Foundations
serve people with seizures, and their families, in hundreds of communities
nationwide. A volunteer board of directors governs our work; a distinguished
board of physicians and scientists oversees the scientific and medical programs.
EFA has a national Epilepsy Library available to allied health professionals and
the general public. EFA is a member of the National Health Council and the
International Bureau for Epilepsy.

                     Learning Disabilities Organizations

Learning Disabilities Association of America (LDA)
Learning Disabilities Association of America
4156 Library Road
Pittsburgh, PA 15234-1349
(412) 341-1515 v
(412) 344-0224 v

LDA is a non-profit volunteer organization advocating for individuals with learning
disabilities. It is national organization devoted to defining and finding solutions
for the board spectrum of learning disabilities. LDA has a local chapter in all fifty
states, Washington DC, and Puerto Rico.

National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD)
381 Park Avenue South Suite 1401
New York, NY 10016
(888) 575-7373
(212) 545-7510 v
(212) 545-9665 fax

The mission of the National Center for Learning Disabilities (NCLD) is to increase
opportunities for all individuals with learning disabilities to achieve their potential.
NCLD accomplishes its mission by increasing public awareness and
understanding of learning disabilities, conducting educational programs and
services that promote research-based knowledge, and providing national
leadership in shaping public policy. NCLD provides solutions that help people
with LD participate fully in society.

International Dyslexia Association (IDA)
Chester Building, Suite 382
8600 LaSalle Road
Baltimore, Maryland 21286-2044 USA
(410) 296-0232 v
(410) 321-5069 fax

IDA is a non-profit organization dedicated to helping individuals with dyslexia,
their families and the communities that support them. IDA is the oldest learning
disabilities organization in the nation – founded in 1949 in memory of Dr. Samuel
T. Orton, a distinguished neurologist. Throughout our rich history, our goal has
been to provide the most comprehensive forum for parents, educators, and
researchers to share their experiences, methods, and knowledge.
                         Chronic Illness Organizations

National Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI)
Colonial Place Three
2107 Wilson Blvd., Suite 300
Arlington, VA 22201-3042
(703) 524-7600 v
(703) 516-7227 TTY
(703) 524-9094 fax

NAMI is a nonprofit, grassroots, self-help, support and advocacy organization of
consumers, families, and friends of people with severe mental illnesses, such as
schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive
disorder, etc. Founded in 1979, NAMI today works to achieve equitable services
and treatment for more than 15 million Americans living with sever mental
illnesses and their families.

National Chronic Pain Outreach Association, Incorporated (NCPOA)
P.O. Box 274
Millboro, VA 24460
(540) 862-9437 v (9am-6pm Eastern)
(540) 862-9485 fax

NCPOA is a non-profit organization established in 1980. Its purpose is to lessen
the suffering of people with chronic pain by educating pain sufferers, health care
professionals, and the public about chronic pain and its management. NCPOA
helps people with chronic pain regain control of their lives, spreading the
message, “You can lead a fulfilling life despite the pain.” NCPOA is funded
entirely by membership fees, donations, foundations, corporate gifts, along with
federal, state, and local government employee contributions.

Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA)
8201 Greensboro Dr., Suite 611
McLean, VA 22101
(703) 761-0750 v
(703) 761-0755 fax
BIAA was founded in 1980 by a group of individuals who wanted to improve the
quality of life for their family members who had sustained brain injuries. Despite
phenomenal growth over the past two decades, the Association remains
committed to its grassroots. The Brain Injury Association of America
encompasses a national network of more than 41-chartered state affiliates
across the country, as well as hundreds of local chapters and support groups.
BIAA is proud to be a national nonprofit organization working on behalf of
individuals with brain injury and their families. The association recognizes the
tireless accomplishments of its constituents across the country-from individuals
with brain injury, medical professionals and family members to educators,
attorneys and corporate partners. Much of the Association’s success is due to
the support of these courageous peoples.

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