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					Field research:
Sampling
Data gathering
Questionnaires
Presentations
        Primary data sources
    Qualitative data sources
– In depth interviews
– Focus group interviews
– Observations

    Quantitative data sources
–   Postal interviews
–   Personal interviews
–   Telephone interviews
–   Experiment
    Quantatative data and choice of
                method
•   Use of quantitative data:
•   Knowledge about a product or service
•   Attitude towards a product
•   Buying Behavior


•   Choice of Methods:
•   Sampling
•   Types of questions
•   Costs and time
•   Number of responses
The sampling process
       Define the population




    Search for sampling frame




    Specify         Determine
   sampling          Sample
    method             size




        Select the sample
           Sampling methods
Probability selection:
• Simple random sample
• Stratified random sample
• Cluster sample

•   Conscious selection:
•   Convenience sample
•   Quota sample
•   Expert sample
•   Snow-ball
           Sampling errors
• Systematical errors

• Non systematical/random errors
• Non answers
• Incorrect answers:
  – Overreporting
  – underreporting
       A comparison of different contact methods
                               Face to face Phone   Mail   Internet
Questionnaire                                                     Face to Face
                               Phone        Mail
Use of open ended questions    High         Medium         Low         Low
Ability to probe               High         Medium         Low         Low
Use of visual aids             High         Poor           High        High
Sensitive questions            Medium       Low            High        Low
Resources
Cost                           High         Medium         Low         Low
Sampling
Widely dispersed populations   Low          Medium         High        High
Response rates                 High         Medium         Low         Low
Experimental control           High         Medium         Low         Low
Interviewing
Control of who completes
             questionnaires    High         High           Low         Low/High
Interviewer bias               Possible     Possible       Low         Low
  Stages in the development of a
           questionnaire
Definition of the research       Information required
         problem                Definition of population   Planning
                                     Target groups         Stage
  Exploratory research              Survey method


           Ordering of topics        Type of question
                Wording and instructions
                                                           Planning
            Layout                    Scaling
            Probes and prompts        Coding



      Pilot testing
                                                           Pilot
                                   Final questionnaire
                                                           Stage
        Redesign
            Questionnaire design
 Preliminary considerations:
- Which kind of information is required
- The respondents who are to be surveyed
- Which method is appropriate

Structure of the questionnaire:
Introduction:
be persuasive
qualify the respondents as belonging to the sample
The content
knowledge, opinions, attitudes, motives and possible future behaviour
Basic data:
information about the individual and the household
         Design of questionnaire
            question content
Question content:
- Is the question necessary?
- Does the respondent understand the question?
- Will the question suffice to elicit the required data?
- Does the respondent have the necessary information to
    answer the question?
  The ability depends on:
   - The extent to which the respondent is informed
   - How good is the respondent's memory?
   - How articulate is the respondent
          Design of questionnaire
            Question phrasing
 Question phrasing
- Clarity and simplicity
- Length of questions
- Ambiguity and vagueness
- Biased words and leading or loaded questions
- Negative questions
- Questions asking for estimates or generalisations
- Hypothetical questions
- Implicit assumptions
- Response choices should not overlap
- Double-barrelled questions
- Reliability and validity of questions
          Design of questionnaire
            Types of questions
Types of response format
Closed-ended:
    - Dichotomous question
    - Multiple choice question
    - Scale question
Open-ended:
 - Unstructured question
Projective techniques:
  - Word association
               - Sentence completion
               - Story completion
               - Picture completion
          Design of questionnaire
          Sequence of questions
Question sequence
Initial questions
Embarrassing questions
General to specific questions
Logical flow
Funnelling
   Design of questionnaire
The layout of the questionnaire
Questionnaire layout
Paper
Body as trim as possible
Break up the text
Different typefaces
Colouring if possible
Instructions to guide the respondent
Easy to answer
        Data analysis and control
• Data analysis and control:
• Reliability: you are testing and are getting the same
  results every time

• Internal validity: you are not asking the proper question;
  “you are not solving the problem stated in the problem
  formulation”

•   External validity: possibility of transferring the results to
    other universes

				
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posted:9/28/2012
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