# Example Prepare an overhead analysis sheet showing the

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```					ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Example 24

(a)   Prepare an overhead analysis sheet showing the allocation and apportionment of
overhead costs to cost centres.

(b)   Using appropriate bases, re-apportion the service cost centres’ overheads to production
cost centres, applying the repeated distribution and commencing with the canteen.

(c)   Calculate an appropriate overhead absorption rate for each production cost centre (to 2
decimal places).

Bark removal      Sawing    Cleaning      Canteen
Direct wages related costs        210            112            63         21            14
Supervisory salaries              92             30             36         14            12
Maintenance wages                 42             8.4           25.2       4.2           4.2
Lighting and heating              54           16.875          33.75       0           3.375
Power                             88           17.600         52.800     8.800         8.800
Production scheduling             26            9.75           16.25
512          194.625        227.000    48.000        42.375
Re-apportionment:
Canteen (14:8:3)                                23.73          13.56     5.085        (42.375)
Cleaning                                       16.589         33.178    (53.085)       3.318

(d)   Distinguish between the terms allocation and apportionment in the context of accounting
for overhead, giving an example of each from the question.

Allocation: overheads are charged to specific cost centre without sharing with other departments
(cost centres). Examples of allocated costs are supervisors’ salaries

Apportionment: overheads are shared between two or more cost centres. Basis of apportionment
has to be determined. Examples of apportioned costs are maintenance wages, lighting and heating
costs.
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Question 3

Shown below are next year’s budgeted operating costs for Octopus Ltd, a company with three production
and two service departments.

Production Dept                             Service Dept
Weaving          Proofing       Finishing     Personnel           Equipment       Total
dept              dept           dept         service           maintenance
\$’000            \$’000           \$’000           \$’000               \$’000       \$’000
Direct materials                       7,000            2,000          1,500               -                   -         10,500
Direct wages                           2,500            5,500          2,000               -                   -         10,000
Indirect materials & wages             1,100             900            300           1,500                 3,800         7,600
Power                                  5,200            1,000           200               100                800          7,300
Rent & rates                                                                                                              8,000
Factory admin & supervision                                                                                              10,000
Machine insurance                                                                                                         2,400

Additional data extracted from next year’s budget is shown below.
Weaving            Proofing       Finishing    Personnel           Equipment        Total
dept                dept           dept        service           maintenance
Floor area sq metres                  12,000           27,000          6,000        12,000                  3,000      60,000
Machine hours                       1,600,000          400,000        400,000             -                    -      2,400,000
Direct labour hours                 1,200,000         1,800,000       600,000             -                    -      3,600,000
Number of employees                    600              1,000           400             100                  400       2,500
Gross BV of equipment                 \$4.0m             \$1.0m          \$1.0m                                           \$6.0m

Production Dept                             Service Dept
Weaving          Proofing       Finishing     Personnel           Equipment       Total
dept              dept           dept         service           maintenance
\$’000            \$’000           \$’000           \$’000               \$’000       \$’000
Direct materials                       7,000            2,000          1,500               -                   -         10,500
Direct wages                           2,500            5,500          2,000               -                   -         10,000
Indirect materials & wages             1,100             900            300           1,500                 3,800         7,600
Power                                  5,200            1,000           200               100                800          7,300
Rent & rates                           1,600            3,600           800           1,600                  400          8,000
Factory admin & supervision            2,400            4,000          1,600              400               1,600        10,000
Machine insurance                      1,600             400            400                -                   -          2,400
21,400            17,400         6,800          3,600                 6,600      55,800
Reapportionment:
Personnel                              900              1,500           600          (3,600)                 600          -
Maintenance                            4,800            1,200          1,200               -                (7,200)       -

Floor area sq metres        12,000       27,000          6,000       12,000      3,000          60,000

Rent & rates                                                                                       8,000
1600            3600          800         1600       400              0.1333
Number of employees          600            1,000         400         100        400             2,500

Factory     admin      &                                                                          10,000
supervision
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

2400      4000       1600       400     1600            4

Gross BV of equipment   \$4.00     \$1.00      \$1.00                      \$6.00

Machine insurance                                                         2,400

1600    \$400.00    \$400.00                       400

Calculate the budgeted overhead absorption rates for each production department using the
following methods.

(a)    A machine hour rate in the weaving department

(b)    A direct labour hour rate on the proofing department

(c)    Another suitable method in the finishing department

It may be assumed that the equipment maintenance department does not service the personnel services
department. All workings and assumptions should be clearly shown.
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Short Questions

Q1:   It is possible for an item of overhead expenditure to be shared amongst many departments.

It is also possible that this same item may relate to just one specific department.

If the item was charged specifically to a single department this would be an example of:

A     Apportionment                                C      Re-apportionment

B     Allocation                                   D      Absorption

Q2:   A method of dealing with overheads involves spreading common costs over cost centres on the
basis of benefit received. This is known as:

A     Overhead Absorption                          C      Overhead Apportionment

B     Overhead Allocation                          D      Overhead Analysis

Q3:   A company is considering the following methods for apportioning heating and lighting costs to its
various departments:

1     The relative floor areas of departments

2     The relative cubic capacity (volume) of departments

3     The relative usage ascertained from meters

Which of the above would be acceptable?

A     Method 1 and 2 only                          C      Method 2 and 3 only

B     Method 1 and 3 only                          D      Method 1, 2 and 3

Q4:   The following extract of information is available concerning the four cost centres of EG Limited.
Machining      Finishing    Packing      Canteen
Number of direct employees                        7             6             2          -
Number of indirect employees                      3             2             1          4
Overhead allocated and apportioned              \$28,500      \$18,300     \$8,960       \$8,400
The overhead cost of the canteen if to be re-apportioned to the production cost centres on the
basis of the number of employees in each production cost centre.

After the re-apportionment, the total overhead cost of the packing department, to the
nearest \$, will be:

A     \$1,200                                       C      \$10,080

B     \$9,968                                       D      \$10,160
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Q5:   The management accountant of Gympie Limited has already allocated and apportioned the fixed
overheads for the period although she has yet to reapportion the service centre costs. Information
for the period is as follows:

Production departments                Service departments             Total
1                2              Stores         Maintenance
Allocated and apportioned       \$17,500           \$32,750           \$6,300            \$8,450         \$65,000
Work done by:
Stores                        60%              30%                 -                 10%
Maintenance                   75%              20%                5%                  -

What are the total overheads included in production department 1 if the reciprocal
method is used to reapportion service centre costs?

A       \$27,618                                      C          \$28,398

B       \$28,171                                      D          \$28,453

Q5:   Overheads distribution schedule
Production                            Service              Total
1                2            Stores         Maintenance
Allocated and apportioned          \$17,500          \$32,750            \$6,300              \$8,450      \$65,000
Re-apportionment:
Stores (6:3:1)                      3,780            1,890             (6,300)                630           -
Maintenance (75:20:5)               6,810            1,816                 454            (9,080)
Stores (6:3:1)                          272           136                  (454)              46
Maintenance (75:20:5)                   36                10                 -                (46)
Total overheads                    28,398           36,602                   -                 -       65,000
Answer: C

The following information relates to Q6 and Q7:

A company has established the following budgeted fixed overheads for the forthcoming period:
\$’000             Bases of apportionment
Heating and Lighting                     12           Cubic capacity
Welfare costs                                7        Number of employees
Power                                    42           Kwh usage
Total                                    61

Other information:
Department 1        Department 2                Maintenance          Total
3
Cubic capacity (m )                  6,000                    7,500                2,500             16,000
Employees (number)                      20                     30                    6                 56
Power (kwh usage)                   35,000                 25,000                                    60,000
Labour hours                        28,000                 48,500                                    76,500
Machine hours                       40,000                 39,000                                    79,000

The maintenance department splits its time between Department 1 and Department 2 on a ratio
of 2:3. The management accountant has partially completed an allocation and apportionment
statement:
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Department 1    Department 2               Maintenance
\$                 \$                     \$
Heat and Light                      4,500             5,625                     1,875
Welfare                             2,500
Power                              24,500
Total                              31,500

Q6:    What would be the total cost allocated and apportioned to Department 2 excluding the
reapportionment of the maintenance costs?

A       \$21,250            B   \$26,875            C            \$27,625                   D       \$29,500

Q7:   What would be the overhead absorption rate in Department 1 (to 3 decimal places)?

A       \$0·788/machine hour                      C         \$1·125/labour hour

B       \$0·814/machine hour                      D         \$1·163/labour hour

Answer: Q6 & Q7
Departments
1              2            Maintenance
Heat and Light                                                   4,500           5,625               1,875
Welfare                                                          2,500           3,750                  750
Power                                                            24,500          17,500                  -
Total                                                            31,500         26,875               2,625

Reapportionment:
Maintenance                       (2:3)                          1,050           1,575              (2,625)
Total overheads                                                  32,550          28,450                  -
Machine hours                                                    40,000
Labour hours                                                                     48,500
Overhead absorption rate                                        \$0.814/         \$0.587/
mach hr          lab hr

Q8:   A factory consists of two production cost centres (G and H) and two service cost centres (J and
K). The total overheads allocated and apportioned to each centre are as follows:

G                       H                              J                                 K
\$40,000                 \$50,000                        \$30,000                           \$18,000

The work done by the service cost centres can be represented as follows:
G                   H                 J                K
Percentage of service cost centre J to                30%                 70%                –                –
Percentage of service cost centre K to                50%                 40%            10%                  –

The company apportions service cost centre costs to production cost centres using a method that
fully recognises any work done by one service cost centre for another.

What are the total overheads for production cost centre G after the reapportionment of
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

all service cost centre costs?

A     \$58,000                                    C         \$59,000

B     \$58,540                                    D         \$59,540

Q8:   Answer:
G                  H          J            K
Overheads allocated and apportioned       \$40,000             \$50,000   \$30,000      \$18,000
Reapportionment:
K       (5:4:1)                            9,000               7,200     1,800       (18,000)
G       (3:7:-)                            9,540              22,260    (31,800)
58,540              79,460       -            -

Machine hours are used to absorb overheads in a production cost centre. Overheads allocated and
apportioned to the cost centre are:

\$

Allocated                                            13,122

Apportioned                                          7,920

Reapportioned from service cost centres              2,988

216,000 units of product are manufactured at a rate of 120 units per machine hour.

What is the overhead absorption rate per machine hour?

A     \$7.29                                      C         \$11.69

B     \$11.13                                     D         \$13.35
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Overheads Absorption: Over/ Under Absorption of overheads…

~ Overheads incurred for a period of time. It is time related (period costs).
 the actual overheads incurred will only be known or determined at the end of the period.

~ However, evaluation of cost units (calculation of cost/ unit) is an on-going process throughout the
period.
 predetermined overhead absorption rates are required in advance of the period using
estimated or budgeted figures for overhead and for the number of units of the absorption base.

~ During the period:

Cost per unit:         Direct materials cost                                                         X
Direct labour cost                                                            X
Direct expenses                                                               X
Prime cost                                                                    X
Production overhead absorbed                                                  X
Cost per unit (for stock valuation & cost of sales calculation)               X

As a result of the absorption, some adjustments are required in the year end profit statement:

Period: START                     Period: DURING                               Period: END

Budgeted overheads                              OAR                         Total overheads absorbed
÷ Budgeted base                         x Actual base                  ~ Total actual overheads incurred
OAR                      Overheads absorbed            Over/ under absorption of overheads

Example 1:

Machining Dept        Finishing Dept                 Total
Budgeted overheads                               \$100,000                \$25,000                 \$125,000
Budgeted direct labour hours                      10,000                  10,000                   20,000
Overhead absorption rate                      \$10.00 per DLH        \$2.50 per DLH              \$6.25 per DLH

If the firm has to price two jobs where:

    Job 1 requires 1 machine hour and 6 finishing hours

    Job 2 requires 12 machine hours and 2 finishing hours

Calculate the overhead charge using:

(a)       A single plant wide (blanket) absorption rate

Job 1                                                Machining           Finishing          Total
OAR                                                     10.00              2.50
Labour hours                                              1                  6
Oh absorbed                                             10.00              15.00            25.00

Job 2
OAR                                                     10.00              2.50
Labour hours                                              12                 2
Oh absorbed                                             12.00              5.00             17.00
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

(b)   A separate departmental overhead absorption rates

Job 1              Job 2              Total
OAR                                                        6.25               6.25
Total labour hours                                          7                  14
OH absorbed                                               43.75              87.50

Example 2:

A company has two departments, Printing and Packing. Both departments use a single overhead
absorption rate based on labour hours.

The budget and actual data for period are as follow:
Department      Direct Wages (\$)     Labour Hour      Machine hours           Production O/H Costs
Budget:      Printing             24,000            4,000                12,000                   180,000
Packing              70,000            10,000               1,000                    100,000
94,000            14,000               13,000                   280,000

Actual:      Printing             30,000            5,000                14,000                   200,000
Packing              59,500            8,500                  800                    95,000
89,500            13,500               14,800                   295,000

During the period, a batch of product S was made. The direct material cost of the batch was \$890.

Total labour hours worked was 500 hours (200 in printing and 300 in packing) and total machine hours
worked was 400 hours.

(a)   Using a single blanket OAR based on labour hours, calculate the cost of the batch.

Budgeted overheads                                     280,000
Budgeted labour hours                                     14,000
OAR                                                 \$20 per hour

Cost of the batch
Materials                                                                     890
Labour       : Print (24,000/4,000 x 200)                 1,200
: Pack (70,000/ 10,000 x 300)                2,100              3,300
Prime cost                                                                   4,190
Overheads (20 x 500)                                                         10,000
Cost per batch                                                              14,190

(b)   It has been suggested that appropriate departmental overhead absorption rate (OAR) may be
more realistic. Calculate the OAR for:

(i)    the printing department (absorbed based on machine hours)

(ii)   the packing department (absorbed based on labour hours) and

Print             Pack
Budgeted overheads                                  180,000            100,000
Labour hours                                                           10,000
Machine hours                                        12,000
OAR                                                15 per m hr       10 per lab hr
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

(iii)   using departmental OARs, the cost of the batch

Prime cost                                                              4,190
overheads    : Print (15 x 400)                        6,000
: Pack (10 x 300)                         3,000            9,000
Total cost                                                             13,190

Question 4

ACD has two production departments, cutting and assembly, which are supported by a further two service
departments, stores and maintenance. Both of the service departments undertake work for each other as
well as for the production departments.

The costs of the service departments are recharged as follows.
Cutting          Assembly           Stores          Maintenance
Stores charged to                               40%              30%             –                  30%
Maintenance charged to                          70%              20%           10%                   –

Cost information for period seven was as follows.
Cutting          Assembly           Stores          Maintenance
Actual overhead                            \$77,000              \$99,000      \$125,000              \$50,000

Cutting                           Assembly
Budgeted overhead *                                   \$180,000                         \$156,000
Budgeted activity                           7,200 machine hours              48,000 direct labour hours
Actual activity                             7,030 machine hours              52,580 direct labour hours
* after recharges

(a)   Calculate the total actual overhead for both the cutting and the assembly departments in
Period 7, after apportionment of the two service departments using the repeated
distribution method (show workings to the nearest \$).

C                   A                  S                M
Actual overhead                       \$77,000               \$99,000        \$125,000            \$50,000
Re-apportionment:
S (4:3:3)                           50,000.00              37,500.00       (125,000)           37,500
M (7:2:1)                           61,250.00              17,500.00           8,750           (87,500)
S (4:3:3)                            3,500.00              2,625.00            (8,750)          2,625
M (7:2:1)                            1,837.50               525.00             262.50          (2,625)
S (4:3:-)                             150.00                112.50          (262.50)                -
Total overheads                     193,737.50            157,262.50              -                 -

(b)   Calculate the predetermined absorption rates for the cutting and assembly departments.
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

(c)   Determine any over or under absorption of overhead for the cutting and the assembly
departments for Period 7. Show all your workings.

Cutting           Assembly
Budgeted overheads                                      180,000            156,000
Budgeted activity                                        7,200             48,000
OAR                                                   25.00/ m hr         3.25/ l hr
Actual activity                                          7,030             52,580
OH absorbed                                           175,750.00          170,885.00
Actual OH                                             193,737.50          157,262.50
Over/ (under) absorption                             (17,987.50)          13,622.50

Question 5

PPS Limited has three main departments – Casting, Dressing and Assembly – and for period 2 has
prepared the following production overhead budgets for an output level of 110,000 units.

Department                                  Casting                Dressing                  Assembly
Production overheads                      \$225,000                 \$175,000                  \$93,000
Expected production hours                   7,500                      7,000                  6,200

During period 2, actual results were as follows for an output level of 117,500 units.
Department                                  Casting                Dressing                  Assembly
Production overheads                      \$229,317                 \$182,875                  \$94,395
Production hours                            7,950                      7,280                  6,696

(a)   Calculate predetermined departmental overhead absorption rates for period 2.

Department                             Casting                Dressing                 Assembly
Production overheads                  \$225,000                \$175,000                 \$93,000
Expected production hours               7,500                     7,000                 6,200
OAR                                      \$30                      \$25                    \$15

(b)   Calculate the under/over-absorption of overheads for each department for period 2.

Department                             Casting                Dressing                 Assembly
Production overheads                  \$225,000                \$175,000                 \$93,000
Expected production hours               7,500                     7,000                 6,200
OAR                                      \$30                      \$25                    \$15
Actual production hours                 7,950                     7,280                 6,696
Overheads absorbed                     238,500                 182,000                 100,440
Overheads incurred                    \$229,317                \$182,875                 \$94,395
Over/ (under)                           9,183                     (875)                 6,045
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Short Questions

Q1:   A company has two production departments, Cutting and Finishing.

The budgeted overheads and operating hours for the two departments for next year are:

Cutting               :        \$210,000           60,000 machine hours       4,000 labour hours

Finishing             :        \$200,000           5,000 machine hours        14,000 labour hours

From the information given the pre-determined overhead absorption rates for the
departments should:

A     be based on machine hours for the cutting department and labour hours for the finishing
department

B     be based on labour hours for the cutting department and machine hours for the finishing
department

C     both be based on machine hours

D     both be based on labour hours

Q2:   A company absorbs production overheads using a machine hour basis. In order to calculate any
over or under absorbed overheads which of the following would be needed, in
additional to the pre-determined machine hour rate?

A     Budgeted overheads and actual overheads incurred

B     Budgeted overheads and actual hours worked

C     Actual overheads incurred and budgeted hours

D     Actual overheads incurred and actual hours worked

Q3:   Which of the following are acceptable bases for absorbing production overheads?

1     direct labour hour                          3    as a percentage of prime cost

2     machine hours                               4    per unit

A     method 1 and 2 only                         C    method 1, 2, 3 or 4

B     method 3 and 4 only                         D    method 1, 2 or 3 only

Q4:   An overhead absorption rate is used to:

A     Share out common costs over benefiting cost centres (allo)

B     Find the total overheads for a cost centre (allo+app+re-app)

C     Charge overheads to product

D     Control overheads

Q5:   Over-absorbed overheads occur when:

A     Absorbed overheads exceed actual overheads

B     Absorbed overheads exceed budgeted overheads

C     Actual overheads exceed budgeted overheads

D     Budgeted overheads exceed absorbed overheads
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Q6:    An overhead absorption rate of \$12.00 per direct labour hour was established based on a budget
of 2,100 hours.

Actual direct labour hours worked was 2,180 and actual overhead expenditure was \$25,470.

What was the over/under absorption of overhead?

A     \$270 under absorbed                          C     \$960 over absorbed

B     \$690 over absorbed                           D     \$960 under absorbed

Budgeted overheads                                     25,200
Budgeted labour hours                                   2,100
OAR                                                     12.00
Actual labour hours                                     2,180
Overheads absorbed                                     261,60
Overheads incurred                                     25,470
Over/ (under) absorption                                690

Q7:    In a given year a production department incurred actual overheads of \$178,000. Overheads are
absorbed using actual machine hours and pre-determined rate per hour. The budgeted overhead
for the year was \$180,000 and the budgeted machine hours were 90,000. The overheads for the
year were over-absorbed by 4,000. What were the actual machine hours?

A     89,000                                       C     91,000

B     90,000                                       D     92,000

Budgeted overheads                                     180,000
Budgeted machine hours                                 90,000
OAR                                                     2.00
Actual machine hours                                   91,000
Overheads absorbed                                     182,000
Overheads incurred                                     178,000
Over/ (under) absorption                                4,000

Q8:    A company had the following budgeted and actual production overhead costs in its two
production cost centres, Machining and Assembly:

Budget                             Actual
Machining                                  \$210,000                            \$212,000
Assembly                                   \$136,000                            \$134,000
What statement is true?

A     From the data available it is not possible to determine overhead over/under absorption

B     Machining overheads were over-absorbed: Assembly overheads were under-absorbed

C     Machining overhead were over-absorbed: Assembly overheads were over-absorbed

D     Machining overhead were under-absorbed: Assembly overheads were over-absorbed

Q9:    The production overhead of department D is absorbed using a machine hour rate. Budgeted
production overheads for the department were \$280,000 and the actual machine hours were
70,000. Production overheads were under absorbed by \$9,400.
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

If actual production overheads were \$295,000 what was the overhead absorption rate per
machine hour (to the nearest \$)?

A     \$4.00                                 C     \$4.21

B     \$4.08                                 D     \$4.35

Budgeted overheads                              \$280,000
Budgeted machine hours
OAR                                               4.08
Actual machine hours                             70,000
Overheads absorbed                              285,600
Overheads incurred                              295,000
Over/ (under) absorption                        (9,400)

Data for Q10 and Q11:
Budgeted labour hours    : 8,500            Actual labour hours     : 7,928
Budgeted overheads       : \$148,750         Actual overheads        : \$146,200

Q10:   Based on the data given above, what is the labour hour overhead absorption rate?

A     \$17.50 per hour                       C     \$18.44 per hour

B     \$17.20 per hour                       D     \$18.76 per hour

Q11:   Based on the data given above, what is the amount of overhead under/over-absorbed?

A     \$2,550 under-absorbed                 C     \$2,550 over-absorbed

B     \$2,529 over-absorbed                  D     \$7,460 under-absorbed

Budgeted overheads                              148,750
Budgeted labour hours                            8,500
OAR                                              17.50
Actual labour hours                              7,928
Overheads absorbed                              138,740
Overheads incurred                              146,200
Over/ (under) absorption                        (7,460)

Q12:   A management consultancy recovers overheads on chargeable consulting hours. Budgeted
overheads were \$615,000 and actual consulting hours were 32,150. Overheads were under-
recovered by \$35,000.

If actual overheads were \$694,075, what was the budgeted overhead absorption rate per
hour?

A     \$19.13                                C      \$24.59

B     \$20.50                                D      \$22.68

Budgeted overheads                              615,000
Budgeted labour hours
OAR                                              20.50
Actual labour hours                              32,150
Overheads absorbed                              659,075
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

Overheads incurred                                       694,075
Over/ (under) absorption                                 (35,000)

Q13:   The following production overhead costs relate to a production cost centre:

(1)   Budget                   :    \$124,000

(2)   Actual                   :    \$126,740

(3)   Absorbed                 :    \$125,200

Which of the following statements is true?

A     overheads were over-absorbed by \$1,200

B     overheads were over-absorbed by \$1,540

C     overheads were under-absorbed by \$1,200

D     overheads were under-absorbed by \$1,540

Q14:   Overheads are absorbed at a pre-determined rate based on direct labour hours. The following
additional information is available for a period:

Budget                         Actual
Overhead expenditure                           \$164,000                       \$158,000
Direct labour hours                             10,000                         9,800

What was the overhead over/under-absorption in the period?

A     \$2,720 over-absorbed                          C      \$3,280 under-absorbed

B     \$3,224 over-absorbed                          D      \$6,000 under-absorbed

Budgeted overheads                                       164,000
Budgeted labour hours                                     10,000
OAR                                                       16.40
Actual labour hours                                       9,800
Overheads absorbed                                       160,720
Overheads incurred                                       158,000
Over/ (under) absorption                                  2,720

Q15:   A company uses absorption costing. In a period, 34,000 units of the company’s single product
were manufactured and 33,000 units were sold.

Consider the following two statements:

1.    Fixed production overheads would be over-absorbed.

2.    Profit would be higher than in the previous period.

Are the statements true in relation to the situation described or is it not possible to
determine whether or not they are true?

Statement 1                                        Statement 2

A     Cannot determine                                   Cannot determine

B     Cannot determine                                   True

C     True                                               Cannot determine

D     True                                               True
ACCA F2 Management Accounting

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