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					                                                             Management Assignment




Table of content
List of figure……………………………………………………………………………..4

List of table……………………………………………………………………………....5

The executive summary………………………………………………………………… 6

Introduction……………………………………………………………………………... 7

     Purpose………………………………………………………………………….... 7

     Background information………………………………………………………….. 7

     Proposed main findings…………………………………………………………… 7

     Scope……………………………………………………………………………… 7

    Methodology………………………………………………………………………. 8

    Assumptions and limitations………………………………………………………. 8

    Plan………………………………………………………………………………… 8

Identify the Fred Hollows Foundation with related concepts and theories……………… 8

    Planning…………………………………………………………………………….. 8

    Types of planning…………………………………………………………………... 9

    Organising…………………………………………………………………………... 9

    Organisation level and type………………………………………………………….9

    Decision making…………………………………………………………………......10

    Planning continuous………………………………………………………………….10

    Strategic management………………………………………………………………...11

    Management with global environment…………………………………………….....11

Brief discussion ……………………………………………………………………………12

   How planning functions are useful for management in global environment………….12

   How organising functions are useful for management in global environment………..13


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                                   Management Assignment


Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………. 16




Recommendation……………………………………………………………………………16

Reference…………………………………………………………………………………….17

Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………….…18-19




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                 Management Assignment




List of Figure
Figure 1   9

Figure 2   10

Figure 3   11

Figure 4   15




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                Management Assignment




List of Table
Table 1   14

Table 2   14




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The executive summary

This report is to identify, discuss and evaluate how idea from planning and organising
functions that helps the Fred Hollows Foundation to manage effectively across national
borders. The purpose and background information of Fred Hollows Foundation are provided
in the introduction of this report. Meanwhile, the main finding from text book, the scope with
related theories (strategic management& planning and global environment), methodology,
assumption and plan are also provided. The plan of this report is focus on 5 steps include
identify the Fred Hollows Foundation with related concepts and theories ( planning, types of
planning, organising, organisation level and type, decision making, planning continuous,
strategic management and global environment), brief discussion, conclusion and
recommendation. Furthermore, there are two tables may fully indicates the main discussion
of how planning and organising helps Doolan manage Fred Hollows Foundation across
national borders.




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                                                                    Management Assignment




                         MCD2040 Management Report




Introduction
Purpose

This report is to identify, discuss and evaluate how idea from planning and organising
functions that helps the Fred Hollows Foundation to manage effectively across national
borders.

Background

The Fred Hollows Foundation is a non-profit aid organisation based in Australia founded in
1992 by eye surgeon Fred Hollows. The Foundation focuses on treating and preventing
blindness and other vision problems. It operates in Australia, The Pacific, South and South
East Asia, and Africa (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2008). Recently, there are three
foundations separately in Australia, New Zealand and The United Kingdom. Additionally, it
improves its structure by building global network that combining all the Fred Hollows
Foundations together to achieve best efficiency (The Fred Hollows Foundation, 2012).



Proposed main findings

Brian Doolan, as a CEO of the Fred Hollows Foundation. He ultimately uses the management
skills to manage the big changeling of no-profit organisation. In this case, Brian Doolan
believed that the experience help him to manage the Hollows Foundation and also think about
how to meet target demand of eye surgery as a result of helping more people. The Fred
Hollows Foundation wins a reward in 2008 due to the success of a previous five years long
term plan. Additionally, there is a new strategic framework for period between the years from
2011 to 2014 has now been developed. Set the long term plan and how to build a new
strategic which could result in planning and organising functions (Robbins , Bergman, Stagg
& Coulter, 2008).

Scope

This report refers to the information of the Fred Hollows Foundation which covers several
management theories, including the four functions of management, the global environment
from text book, and the strategic planning from research. The main information that focuses
on this report is come from test book, official website of the Fred Hollows Foundation and
other online research.



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                                                                    Management Assignment




Methodology

The mainly resources that focus on this report are come from the academic journals, websites,
text book, and Monash university data bases.



Assumptions and limitations

During the research, some academic journal articles related to the Fred Hollows Foundation
cannot be found in Monash Library. Otherwise, the information can be found from other
available databases and the official websites of Fred Hollows Foundation.



Plan

The plan for this report will focus on the flowing list below.

Identify the Fred Hollows Foundation with related concepts and theories

Planning, Types of planning, Organising, Organisation level and type, Decision making,

Intuition, planning continuous, Strategic management, Management with global environment.

Brief discussion

Conclusion

Recommendation




Identify the Fred Hollows Foundation with related
concepts and theories

Planning

Planning is a management function that involves defining goals, establishing strategies for
achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities (Robbins,
Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2008). Additionally, it simply refers to deciding in advance what
is to be done and how it is to be done. For example, you decide in advance where to study
(Monash University or the University of Sydney) and what to study (bachelors of commerce

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                                                                       Management Assignment


or engineering). And, it may also need to plan for admission, transport arrangement and
purchases of books and stationeries. In this case, Brian Doolan needs to plan for Fred
Hollows Foundation by thinking of what is to be done and how it is to be done.



Types of Planning

The most popular ways to describe organisational plans are by their breadth, time frame,
specificity and frequency of use (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2008).

Figure 1 Types of plan (Monash MCD2040 ppt.)




In this case, based on Brian Doolan set plan for five-year time frame, it can be identified as a
long-term strategic plan.



Organising

Organising means arranging and structuring work to accomplish the organisation’s goals
(Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2008). In case of planning a manager decides what is
to be done in future. In case of organising, it is decided on ways through which it will be
easier to achieve what has been planned. In this case, Brian Doolan needs to build
relationship inside and outside of the organisation that ensure the strategy can be done
effectively.



Organisation level and type

Mahoney, Jerdee & Carroll (1965) states that manager’s job varies depending on position in
the organisation. The function may separate from the organisation level and have different
focuses. In addition, as a CEO like Brian Doolan, he may focus on planning and organising
while managing the operation of the Fred Hollows Foundation. Furthermore, it may also
result in Katz’s theory in 1974 that explained the top level manager use conceptual skills to

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                                                                     Management Assignment


plan and organise the business operations. Otherwise, the type of organisation may also affect
the management operation. In Doolan’s view, the Fred Hollows Foundation is a non-profit
organisation; it could be a challenge task due to the non-purely bottom line.




Figure 2 distribution of time per function by organisational level

(Industrial Relations, Vol.4, No.2,)



Decision making

An effective decision making can be a result of planning, organising, leading and controlling.
In addition, decision making is the process of choosing between alternatives. Decision
making may come from three perspectives such as rationality, bounded rationality and
intuition (Robbins, Bergman, Stagg & Coulter, 2008). Additionally, Burke & Miller (1999)
state that the experience-based decisions are generally indicates the decisions based on
manager’s past experiences. In this case, Brian Doolan believed that the experience help him
to manage the Hollows Foundation as a result of intuition.



Planning continuous

Planning is a continuous process. Strategic planning has long been used as a tool for
transforming and revitalizing corporations, government agencies and non-profit organizations.
In organisations, plans are usually made for a specific period followed by new plans for
further period. Even though the long term plan is set by Doolan, and sometimes the
conditions or circumstance change requiring the plans to be revised (Robbins, Bergman,
Stagg & Coulter, 2008).

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                                                                       Management Assignment




Strategic management

Strategic management is the process by which organizations develop and determine their
long-term vision, direction, programs, and performance. Strategic planning involves various
techniques and tools to ensure careful formulation, effective and efficient implementation,
and evaluation. Strategic management integrates organizational functions and units into more
cohesive, broader strategy. In most cases, it involves the ability to steer the organization
as a whole through strategic change under conditions of complexity and uncertainty (Hales,
2002). For Fred Hollows Foundation, the strategic management is used for formulating a
mission and objectives, and for achieving them more effectively and efficiently. In this case,
that strategic planning may also affect by other external factors while the organisation across
national borders.




Figure 3 Level of management (International Journal of Hospitality Management, 2012)



Management with global environment

Across the national border refer to the organisation becoming international. For non-profit
organisation, it can result in Salamon and Anheier (1997) for cross-national research, which
refers to organizations that are organized, private, self-governing, non-profit distributing, and
voluntary. While Fred Hollows Foundation go into international, it is more difficult for
Doolan’s decision making. It may affect by global environment. Dealing with globalization is
the single most important concern for all types of multinational enterprises. At the global
level, the organizational form is determined by the self-determination, economies of scale,
resource acquisition, protection of global brand, pressures for global accountability, scale of
impact, and technology (Lindenberg and Dobel, 1999). In 2011, Fred Hollows Foundation is
undertaking eye health initiatives in 19 countries in East Asia, South Asia and Africa. During
the planning phase of a program, Fred Hollows Foundation also works with local
stakeholders, non-government organisation partners and civil society groups to identify the
provinces or districts of greatest need within each country.




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                                                                     Management Assignment




Brief Discussion


How Planning Functions are useful for management in global environment

As a non-profit organisation, Fred Hollows Foundation launched several divisions and
strategies though Doolan’s contribution. Doolan’s contribution can be identified though
planning and organising. While the Fred Hollows foundation across national borders, it is
necessary for Doolan to consider the external factors for strategic planning. (The legal-
political environment, economic environment, cultural environment) The legal-political
environment refers to the government implement laws and regulations which affects the way
of business operation. In addition, it explained the social and political system may different.
To launch the new strategic framework, Doolan must consider the political climate of the
market place, the amount of government activities and the stability of the political
environment. The economic environment consists of force that influence consumer buying
power and marketing strategies. (Swiatkowski, 2011). However, as a non-profit organisation,
the economic environment is usually depending on currency exchange rates, inflation rates
and diverse tax policies. As Fred Hollows Foundation, the management of wealth may
difficult because the funds are usually comes from donation. So, it is necessary to consider
the currency exchange rate while setting the plans as a result of reducing costs. The strategic
planning may also affect by cultural environment. The social cultural environment defines the
relationship between marketing and its culture within society ( Lai, Ozuah, Williams,
Piccinini, 2012 ). By setting the long term plan, the plan may different according to the
various value, perception and behaviours. For example, while creating service
				
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