1st Quarter Benchmark Review

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1st Quarter Benchmark Review Powered By Docstoc
					1st Quarter Benchmark
12.1 Students explain the fundamental principles and
moral values of American democracy as expressed in
the U.S. Constitution and other essential documents of
American democracy.
.3 Explain how the U.S. Constitution reflects a balance
   between the classical republican concern with
   promotion of the public good and the classical
   liberal concern with protecting individual rights; and
   discuss how the basic premises of liberal
   constitutionalism and democracy are joined in the
   Declaration of Independence as "self-evident truths."
.5 Describe the systems of separated and shared
   powers, the role of organized interests (Federalist
   Paper Number 10), checks and balances (Federalist
   Paper Number 51), the importance of an independent
   judiciary (Federalist Paper Number 78), enumerated
   powers, rule of law, federalism, and civilian control
   of the military.
12.4 Students analyze the unique roles and
responsibilities of the three branches of government as
established by the U.S. Constitution.

.1 Discuss Article I of the Constitution as it relates to
   the legislative branch, including eligibility for office
   and lengths of terms of representatives and
   senators; election to office; the roles of the House
   and Senate in impeachment proceedings; the role of
   the vice president; the enumerated legislative
   powers; and the process by which a bill becomes a
.4 Discuss Article II of the Constitution as it relates to
   the executive branch, including eligibility for office
   and length of term, election to and removal from
   office, the oath of office, and the enumerated
   executive powers.
12.9 Students analyze the origins, characteristics, and
development of different political systems across time,
with emphasis on the quest for political democracy, its
advances, and its obstacles   .

 .1 Explain how the different philosophies and
   structures of feudalism, mercantilism,
   socialism, fascism, communism,
   monarchies, parliamentary systems, and
   constitutional liberal democracies influence
   economic policies, social welfare policies,
   and human rights practices.
 .3 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages
   of federal, con federal, and unitary systems
   of government
• Please take out your Benchmark Review
• 1st Quarter Benchmark = Tomorrow!

• Benchmark Review worksheet due
  Tomorrow = 15 points

• Homework: STUDY - STUDY!
    Unit 1: What is Government?
           Standard 12.9.3
Unitary System – gives all “key”
  powers to the national or
  central government
• States are created and given
  limited sovereignty
• Great Britain, Italy, France
  – Efficient but too much
    centralized power
Confederal(Confederacy) – a loose union of independent
• The U.S. Articles of the Confederation failed before the
  Constitution instituted a Federal System
Federal System/Federalism – divides the
  powers of government between national
  and state governments

• U.S. after 13 colonies became states
   – “We the people, in order to form a more
     perfect union, establish justice, insure
     domestic tranquility…”
   – The preamble to the Constitution shows the new govt. meant
     to increase cooperation among the states

• Federalism combines concern with the
  public good and protection of individual
 Unit 2: Origins of American Government
                 Standard 12.1.3

• Popular Sovereignty – In the U.S., the
  people have all authority

  – “We the people…” Constitution preamble
  – “Government derives it power from the
    consent of the governed” Declaration of
    Steps toward Democracy
The Declaration of Independence
• Written by Thomas Jefferson to create a new govt.
• Natural/unalienable rights are “self evident” and
  given by God and are a vital part of Democracy
   – “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness”
• “Governments are instituted among men, deriving
  their just powers from the consent of the governed
  (the people)”
       Two forms of Democracy
1. Direct Democracy – people vote to make any decisions
2. Representative Democracy – people elect representatives
   and give them the power and responsibility to make laws
   and conduct government
   –   Republic – voters hold sovereign power and elected
       representatives are responsible to the people to exercise that
       power…”We the people…”
    Unit 3: The Constitution & Federalism
                          Standard 12.1.5

•       Constitution – a written plan for the rules of

•       Constitutional Government – a government of limited

    –     It limits the power of those who govern
    –     It Values the “Rule of Law”-all persons (individuals and
          government) are subject to law
    –     This helps to establish the idea of a “government of laws, not

•       representative democracy, republic, and constitutional
        republic all mean: “a system of limited government
        with representatives where people are the ultimate
        source of governmental power”
• James Madison              • Thomas Jefferson
  – Classical Conservative      – Classical Liberal view
    (Republican) view

• “Protect the public        • “Protect individual
  good”                        rights
       Characteristics of a
     Constitutional Democracy
• Individual Liberty
• Majority Rule with Minority Rights
   – Without a Constitution, we would have a “Tyranny of the

• Free Elections
   – “One person, one vote” – all votes are equal
   – Open elections
   – Secret ballots

• Competing Political parties
The Federalist Papers – a series of articles written by
  James Madison, Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to
  promote a “Federal System” and the Constitution

The Federalist #10 – arguments for a Representative

• Tyranny of the majority is a risk
• Factions always exist
• Opposition is best handled by a Representative
• A “bill of Rights” protects against tyranny of the
The Federalist #51 – Separation of powers, checks and
• Government reflects imperfect human nature
• 3 branches of govt. are needed
• Separation of powers
• Checks and balances (ex. Executive branch vetoes bills)
• “the accumulation of all govt. powers in the same hands
   is the definition of tyranny”
                                     James Madison

Representative Democracy is based on the two major
   principles of:
1. Separation of powers
2. Federalism (ex. State and federal govt. both can tax
   and establish courts)
    Powers of the National Government

delegated powers, meaning that it only has those powers
        delegated (granted) to it in the Constitution.

• The expressed powers are those found directly within the
• The implied powers are not expressly stated in the
  Constitution, but are reasonably suggested, or implied by,
  the expressed powers.
• The inherent powers belong to the National Government
  because it is the government of a sovereign state within the
  world community.

                                        Chapter 4, Section 1
                  The States
  Powers Reserved to the          Powers Denied to the
             States                         States
• The 10th Amendment          • Just as the Constitution
  declares that the States      denies many powers the
  are governments of            National Government, it
  reserved powers.              also denies many powers
• The reserved powers           to the States.
  are those powers that the   • Powers denied to the
  Constitution does not         States are denied in
  grant to the National         much the same way that
  Government and does           powers are denied to the
  not, at the same time,        National Government;
  deny to the States.           both expressly and
                                      Chapter 4, Section 1
      The Division of Powers
The federal
determines the
way that powers
are divided and
shared between
the National and
                     Chapter 4, Section 1
Clause 18 – The: “Elastic Clause” or
                 “Necessary and Proper Clause”
• Congress can pass other laws needed to implement
  provisions of the Constitution.
• The basis for “implied powers” which are not stated in
  the Constitution but implied to be given
• No powers are added but gives congress the ability to
  decide “HOW” clauses 1-17 will be exercised
   – Although no more powers are given, Congress has tried to
     interpret this clause to use more power
Unit 5: The Legislative Branch
        Standard 12.4.1
 House of Representatives
     (435 members)

1. 2 years Terms
2. 25 yrs. old/ 7 yrs. citizen
3. propose tax laws
4. can impeach the president.
          (100 members)
5. Senators serve a 6-year term
6. A senator must be 30 years old to be
  elected and have been a citizen for 9
7. Can approve presidential appointments
8. Ratifies treaties with foreign
9. Can try the president after impeachment
         Both together

10. Can propose laws
11. Can declare war
12. Can override the president’s
 veto with a 2/3 vote
13. Can propose amendments
 to the   Constitution with a
 2/3 vote
Clause 4 – President of the Senate
• The Vice President of the U.S. presides
  over the Senate
  – Does not debate or vote unless there is a
Impeachment: To bring formal charges of high crimes and
  misdemeanors against a high official.

Clause 6 – Impeachment trials
• The House must first vote to impeach
• The Senate has the power to “try” impeachment
• The Senate chamber is the “Court” for an impeachment
   – Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is the judge
   – The Senate is the Jury
   – A 2/3 vote is needed to convict

Clause 7 – Impeachment penalties
• A conviction requires removal from office only
• There may be a separate criminal court trial
Clause 2 – How a bill becomes a law
• To become a law, A bill has to:
   – Pass both houses of congress
   – Be signed by the President or if he doesn’t
     veto it within 10 days

• The President may “veto” (forbid) a bill
   – It is then returned to the house where it
     originated with an explanation by the President
   – Congress may change the bill to get the president’s approval

• The Conference Committee is designed to find a
  compromise on conflicting versions of a bill

• The majority of bills introduced in Congress die in
President, Vice President,
      Enforces Laws
•   The President serves a 4-year term.
    – Term limits = 22nd amendment
•   The president must be at least 35 years
    old, a 14- year resident, and native born
•   Has power to approve or veto laws
•   Make treaties with foreign governments.
•   Nominates judges to the Supreme Court
•   Appoints cabinet members
•   Is Commander-in-Chief of U.S. military
Why did the framers put civilians in
     charge of the military?
• The framers believed that too strong a
  military would jeopardize personal liberties
• The framers believed that military force
  must always be conditioned by diplomacy.
• Since the president has enumerated
  powers to make treaties an develop
  foreign policy so the framers saw the
  military as extension of this power.

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