Ethics Consistency principle

Document Sample
Ethics Consistency principle Powered By Docstoc
					         Ethics
Morality
Morality in general is concerned
with what is “right” and what is
“wrong”.
How can we know what is “right”
and what is “wrong”.
Ethics is the study of morality.

             TOK-ETHICS            1
1. Facts and values

Relation between facts and values.
Moral and aesthetic values.
Instrumental and terminal values.




                  TOK-ETHICS          2
TOK-ETHICS   3
We can judge actions by intentions and
 consequences.
Acts of commission and acts of omission:
  “Turning off a respirator is like turning on the
   gas chamber.”




                      TOK-ETHICS                      4
2. Freedom

“Freedom is a precondition for a moral
 assessment of agent.”
B.F. Skinner “Beyond freedom and
 dignity”. Values of an individual are a
 product of the evironment he was brought
 up in.



                  TOK-ETHICS                5
3. Reason and experience

We expect a degree of consistency in the
 making of moral judgements.
Can we reason from an “is” to an “ought”?
Head versus heart!
Importance of experience and empathy.
4. Moral problems insoluble and
 inescapable
                  TOK-ETHICS                 6
TOK-ETHICS   7
Case studies

Discuss these subjects from (all) possible
  moral points of view.
Write down your reflexions for further
 analyses later on.
Abortion and genetic engineering.
Animal rights.
Drugs and smoking.
                   TOK-ETHICS                8
TOK-ETHICS   9
Where do our values come from?

We may have many sources of our moral
 values!
  The word of a divine Creator, a moral law
   independant of human beings
  An innate conscience
  The teachings of our societies
  Enlightened self-interest


                    TOK-ETHICS                 10
Moral theories

Utilitarianism
Duty
Virtue
Religious




                  TOK-ETHICS   11
TOK-ETHICS   12
Guidance by consequences

Utilitarianism - John Stuart Mill.
   Goal to minimize harm and maximize benefit to one
    self and others
Principle of utility
   Greatest happiness for the greatest number
Difficulties in practise
   The uncertainty of predicting concequences and
    difficulties of weighting them.
   To define key concepts as “justice”.

                        TOK-ETHICS                      13
Guidance by principles / duty

Deontological theories - Immanuel Kant.
  Principles of justice.
  Duty to do no harm.
  Duty to help.
Difficulties in practise
  How to rank duties when they contradict.
  To define key concepts as “justice”.

                     TOK-ETHICS               14
Guidance by virtue

Teleological theories - Aristoteles.
  The ultimate goal for a living creature is
   happiness.
  By living a virtuous life you will gain
   happiness
What are” the virtues”?



                     TOK-ETHICS                 15
Guidance by Supreme Being

Obey God.
Treat others as yourself.
Respect God’s creatures.
?
?
?


                  TOK-ETHICS   16
Objective or subjective

 Is there a possibility of moral universals?
 Moral relativism!
   Should our respect for different cultural traditions
      overrule our respect for human rights?
 Moral education!
   Can morality be taught? If the answer is “yes”, then how?
   If our moral beliefs are the results of a cultural
      conditioning, why not say the same about our
      scientific belief?
   Are intelligent people more moral than unintelligent
      people?
                           TOK-ETHICS                           17
Ethics connections to other fields

Science
Art
History
Religion




               TOK-ETHICS            18
Science

Can ethics be reduced to a science?
To what extent do our belifs about human
 nature affect our moral belifs? Consider, for
 example, Social-Darwinism.
The pursuit of science presupposes various
 intellectual virtues, such as tolerance and
 devotion to truth.
What is the moral responsibility of the scientist?
 Should we pursue the truth at any price?
                      TOK-ETHICS                  19
Art

Should art be morally uplifting, or does it
 have nothing to do with morality? Can we
 learn from it?
What is the difference between art and
 pornography?
Media violence and censorship!



                   TOK-ETHICS                  20
History

Has moral developed from a lower level to
 a higher level throughout history?
Does history have a direction or purpose?
Does history contain a moral lesson?
Should history as a subject be value-free?
Can history be value-free?


                  TOK-ETHICS              21
Evolution

Does evolution have:
  an aim?
  a purpose?
Is moral a part of the evolution?
  Has moral developed from a lower level to a
   higher level throughout history?



                    TOK-ETHICS                   22
Religion

“If God is dead, then everything is
 permitted” (Dostoyevsky).




                   TOK-ETHICS          23

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:9
posted:9/27/2012
language:simple
pages:23