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What is a bird?
 Birds are reptile like animals that maintain a constant
  internal body temperature.
 They have an outer covering of feathers, and two legs
  that are covered with scales.
 The most important thing about birds is the feathers.
  The feathers help them fly, and they also keep the bird
Northern Cardinal   Pileated Woodpecker
Hummingbird   Emerald Toucan
Roseate Spoonbill
                    Hawaiian Honeycreeper
Peregrine falcon
 Pelicans and their relatives: Pelicans, frigate birds, cormorants
 Parrots: Macaws, lovebirds, cockatoo’s
 Birds of prey (Raptors): Condors, hawks, owls, eagles, falcons
 Perching birds: Sparrows, crows, mockingbirds, cardinals
 Cavity-nesting birds: Barbet, toucans, woodpeckers
 Herons and their relatives: Storks, ibises, spoonbills, herons,
 Ostriches and their relatives: Ostriches, emu’s, Kiwi’s,
Group of Birds
Groups Cont.
Groups Cont.
         Cavity-Nesting Birds
Groups Cont.
          Perching Birds
 Groups Cont.
Heron and Their Relatives

                            Great blue heron

Groups Cont.
      Ostriches and Their Relatives
Groups Cont.
          Birds Of Prey
Evolution of Birds
  Birds evolved from
   extinct reptiles
  The embryo’s of birds
   and reptiles develop
   within amniotic eggs
   (hard outer shell)
  Birds and dinosaurs
   both evolved from a
   common ancestor called
Body Temperature control
 Birds are endotherms
  (generate their own body

 Highly efficient
  circulatory & respiratory
  systems enable them to
  burn calories quickly,
  producing body heat.

 Feathers insulate, keeping
  body heat inside.
 Birds beaks, or bills are adapted
    to the kind of food they eat.
   Insect-eating birds have short-
    fine bills that can pick ants or
    other insects up.
   Seed-eaters have short, thick
   Carnivorous birds shred their
    prey with strong hooked bills.
   Long, thin bills can be used for
    gathering nectar or probing soft
    mud for worms and shellfish.
 Digestion system
 The crop stores and moistens
  food before the food goes to
  the digestive tract.
 From the crop the food goes
  to the stomach.
 Birds that eat insects or seeds
  have a gizzard. The gizzard
  grinds the food so it is easier
  to digest.
 Food then moves from the
  stomach to the small intestine
  where the food is absorbed
  into the body, and digestive
  wastes leave the body through
  the cloaca.
 Complex systems of air sacs and breathing tubes
  ensures that air flows into the air sacs in one direction.
 Constant, one way flow of oxygen-rich air helps birds
  maintain high metabolic rate.
Air sacs & 1-way air flow
               Inhaled air flows down the
                trachea, bypasses the lungs, and
                fills up posterior air sacs (b). At
                the same time, anterior air sacs
                fill with stale air from the lungs

               When exhaling, both sets of air
                sacs deflate, forcing fresh air
                from the posterior sacs into the
                lungs (c), and stale air from the
                anterior sacs out through the
                trachea (e).
 Birds have four-chambered
  hearts and two separate
  circulatory loops
 A bird’s heart has two separate
  ventricles. One half of the heart
  receives oxygen-poor blood that
  gets pumps blood into the
 Oxygen-rich blood goes to the
  other side of the heart to be
  pumped to the rest of the body.
 The double loop system ensures
  that oxygen collected by the
  lungs is distributed to the body
            Well-developed sense organs
             (eyes and ears) enable birds to
             coordinate movements
             required for flight.

            Birds have very well-
             developed eyes and sizable
             optic lobes in the brain. They
             can see color very well.

            Birds also have a brain that
             can quickly interoperate and
             respond to incoming signals.
 Feathers help the bird survive
  in the environment by
  providing them heat, helping
  them fly, and camouflage.

 Flying birds have many large
  bones that are fused together
  to form a sturdy frame that
  anchors the muscles used for

 Birds also have large chest
  muscles that power the
  upward and downward wing
  strokes necessary for flight
 Bird eggs are amniotic
  eggs. They are similar to
  reptile eggs but they
  have a hard outer shell.

 Most birds incubate their
  eggs until they have

 Fertilization takes place
 Herbivores- Seed, berries and fruit eaters help distribute tree and
    wildflower seeds.
   Pollinators- Nectar sippers like Hummingbirds, help pollinate
    the flowers for nectar.
   Small carnivores- Insect and invertebrate eaters, like
    woodpeckers, help keep down large populations of insect pests.
   Large carnivores- help keep down the populations of mice, voles,
    rabbits, squirrels, and fish. Waterfowl like ducks, geese and
    swans, keep down populations of amphibians (frogs, toads, and
   Detritivores/scavengers- such as turkey vultures, crows and bald
    eagles, keep our forests, parks, streets and rivers clean by eating
    the dead animals they find.
   Birds are also a important food source.
          Heaviest Drinker?
 Broad-tailed
 North America
 Can drink up to five
  times its
  body weight in a day
 If any other animal,
  including human tried
  to drink even one times
  its body weight it
  would be dead before it
  could even do so.
     Longest Nonstop Flier?
 Eurasian Swift
 Europe and Asia, Middle
  East, Africa
 Legs so stumpy they
  can’t perch easily, so they
 rarely land on the
 ground. They can eat,
 drink, and sleep while
        Longest Migration?
 Arctic Tern
 Flies 18,600
  miles round-trip
  between Arctic
  and Antarctic.
 Fly around 100
  miles every day
  while migrating
Fastest Flying Animal?
 Peregrine falcon
 Every continent
  except for
 Speed can be more
  than 186 mph
 It plunge dives to
  catch a bird in
              Biggest Bird?
 Ostrich
 Drier regions of
  Africa, south of
  the Sahara
 Size: up to 9 ft. tall
  and 353lbs. In weight
 Even though it can
  defend itself with it
  powerful legs it is on
  of the most gentle

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