Earth Moon

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					 Earth’s Moon

Chapter 1 – Section 4
      Essential Questions

• What features of the moon can be
  seen with a telescope?

• How did the Apollo landings help
  scientists learn about the moon?
The Structure & Origin of
        the Moon
The moon is ______ kilometers in
diameter, a little less than the distance
across the ______ ______.

• 3,476

• United States
The moon only contains ____ -
_______ as much mass as

• One – eightieth
The theory that best fits how the
moon was formed is known as the
_______ theory.

• collision
The Collision Theory
Looking at the Moon From
In 1609, the Italian astronomer
______ ______ made a telescope
by putting two lenses in a wooden

• Galileo Galilei

     • A device built to
       study distant
       objects by making
       them appear closer

    • A round pit on the
      moon’s surface
What caused craters to
form on the moon’s surface?

• For about 300 years, scientists believed
  that the craters were formed by
  volcanoes, like the ones on Earth

• 50 years ago, scientists concluded that the
  craters on the moon were caused by the
  impacts of meteoroids, rocks from space
     • The space missions to the moon have confirmed this
   Checkpoint: What are maria?
                    • Maria are large flat
                      plains on the moon’s

                    • These areas are low
                      and flat that were
                      flooded with molten
                      material billions of
                      years ago

What features of the moon can
be seen with a telescope?

• Craters

• Highlands

• Maria
Missions to the Moon
For what reason did the
unmanned spacecraft Surveyor
land on the moon?

• The Surveyor’s mission to the surface
  of the moon was to study the surface
  to see if spacecraft would sink into
  the moon’s surface, or land on solid
On July 20, 1969 Apollo 11 astronauts
______ ______ & ______ ______ launched
a lunar module called ______, leaving Mike
Collins in orbit in the Command Module.

                        • Neil Armstrong

                        • Buzz Aldrin

                        • Eagle
Figure 21 Inferring Why was it
important for the lunar module to
land on a flat spot on the moon?

                   • Landing on a flat
                     spot allowed the
                     astronauts and the
                     landing gear
                     outside the craft
                     to land safely
What are almost all of the
moon rocks made of?

• Almost all of the rocks on the moon were
  formed from the cooling of molten
  material, which proves that the moon’s
  surface must have been extremely hot

• Some rocks showed that they have been
  broken apart by impacts and then
     • This supports that the moon’s surface has been
       bombarded by meteoroids
Checkpoint: What did scientists
discover about the interior of the
moon as a result of the moon

• Scientists discovered that the
  interior of the moon has cooled
  almost completely since it was
Figure 23 Observing What are
the round features in this
photograph called?

                • The round features
                  are craters

                • The far side of the
                  moon’s rough
                  terrain appears to
                  be caused by
                  impact craters
How did the Apollo landings
help scientists learn about the

• Scientists collected moon rocks made of
  molten material
• Scientists studied the moon’s interior and
  discovered that the moon has weak quakes
  and that the moon’s interior has almost
  completely cooled
• Since the moon’s interior has almost
  completely cooled, craters were caused by
  impacts, not volcanic activity

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