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Developmental Precursors of Antisocial Behavior - PowerPoint

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					The Early Childhood
Antecedents of Youth
Antisocial Behavior

     Daniel Shaw
University of Pittsburgh
 www.pitt.edu/~ppcl
           Special Thanks to:
       Richard Bell, Joan Vondra
     Kate Keenan, Emily Winslow
   Elizabeth Owens, Monica Garcia
     Erin Ingoldsby, Miles Gilliom
  Michael Schonberg, Michael Criss
              Daniel Nagin
Staff of the Pitt Mother & Child Project
Women, Infants, and Children Program
  National Institute of Mental Health
             Aims
Describe developmental model
of early conduct problems

Review support for components
of model

Briefly discuss implications for
further basic and applied work
The Spread
Of Antisocial
Behavior
Child Effects
Model
Parent Effects Model
Parent, Family, and Neighborhood
               Developmental
               Transformations:
               12 to 24 Months
Increase in
 undirected
 anger
Walking to
 toddling
12-24
Months:
Transition
to Physical
Mobility
Attachment     Sensitivity in 1st two years
                promotes child compliance
Theory:
Early          By preschool age, parental
                requests should be honored
Starting
                differentially based on the
Conduct         quality of the parent-child
Problems        relationship and the stakes
(Ainsworth,     for displeasing parents
Sroufe,        Supports parents making
Greenberg)      investment in child early on
Patterson’s   PARENTS:
   Early      Deficits in Family
              Management skills
  Starter
  Model                            Coercive
                                   Cycles of
                                   Interaction
              CHILD
              Irritability,
              Hyperactivity
 Child
          Infancy
Factors   Emotionally dysregulated, angry,
          demanding, irritable (Sanson & Prior)



          Toddlerhood
          Oppositional, undirected then directed
          aggression, uninhibited (Keenan & Shaw)



          Preschool
          Oppositional, aggressive (Campbell;
          Richman & Graham)
“Rejecting”
Parenting
“Reactive”
Parenting
“Proper”
Parenting
            Infancy to          Preschool-
            Toddlerhood         School-Age
Parenting
            Maternal            Parental
Factors     Unresponsiveness    Uninvolve-
                                ment

            Hostile/Rejecting   Hostile/
            Discipline          Rejecting
                                Discipline
Siblings
Matter
               • First long-term peer
                 relationship
               • Sample of behavioral
Why should       style with peer
   sibling     • Does it represent a
relations be     marker of behavior
important?       problems?
               • If so, is it more than
                 a marker?
                                  Totals
                  Sex of child             310 boys
Demographic
                  Yearly Income            $12,708
Characteristics
of Sample         Mother’s age             28, range 17-43

                  Maternal education       12.6 years

                  % Married/
                  Living Together          62

                  % White/Afr. Amer.       53/36

                  Criminality              36%
              Pitt Mother & Child Project:
                   Follow-Up Schedule
1 yr. 1.5 yr. 2 yr. 3.5 yr. 5 yr. 5.5 yr. 6 yr. 8 yr. 10 yr. 11 yr. 12 yr. 15 yr. 17 yr. 20. yr
Lab Lab       Lab/ Lab      Home Home Lab Home Home Lab Home Home Home Home
              Home          Twice
                                                  ---- Camp ----           --- Court Data ---

                                       ----------Teacher and School Data -------
Measurement Strategies

Focus on observation of developmentally salient
issues (e.g., maternal responsiveness & infant
persistence at age 1, discipline practices at age 2)


Assess in multiple contexts (e.g., home,
lab, summer camp, school) with observations of
target child interacting with parents, sibs, peers,
best friends, and romantic partners

Supplement observations with reports of family,
child, and community risk factors using multiple
family members, peers, best friends, romantic
partners, teachers, school and official records
           High Chair Task at 1 yr: Maternal Responsiveness and Infant
           Persistence


           Child Noncompliance at 2 yrs: observed during clean-up task
Measures
           Behaviorial Inhibition at 2 yrs: In response to distressing gorilla
           sounds

           Parenting Practices at 1.5 & 2 yrs: Hostile/Rejecting based on
           molecular and global ratings during clean-up task

           Sibling Conflict at 5 yrs: Verbal and physical conflict between
           target child and closest-age sib during 1 hour directed play session



           Maternal Resources: HOME Acceptance (2 yrs.), Beck Depression
           Inventory (1.5 to 5 years), General Life Satisfaction (1.5 yrs.), and
           Parenting Daily Hassles (1, 5, 2, & 3.5 yrs.)

           Child IQ at 5.5 yrs: 4 subscales of the WPPSI-R

           Achenbach CBCL/TRF at 2, 3.5, 5, 6, & 8 yrs: Externalizing,
           Aggression, and other DSM-based factors

           Elliott Self-Report of Delinquency at 10, 11, 12, 15, 17 yrs.
      Child and Parenting Predictors: Boys

Persistence                            .29*
(12 Months)
                                       .38**
                 Noncompliance
                  (24 months)
        .19x                                                             CBCL
                                      CBCL                .70***      Externalizing
                                   Externalizing                       Problems
                                    Problems                          (42 months)
                                   (24 months)

                                 .18x
   -.33**          Maternal
                  Rejection
                                   .39**
                 (24 months)
   Maternal                                        -.23*
Responsiveness
 (12 months)                       x   p < .10, * p < .05, ** p < .01, *** p < .001
                                       Shaw et al. (1998), Journal of Abn. Child Psych.
Two-way                                     66




                       Mother Report CBCL
interaction between



                        Aggressiont-score
                                            64
rejecting parenting                         62                                      High Sib
and sibling conflict                                                                Conflict
                                            60
in predicting CBCL                                                                  Low Sib
Aggression at age                           58                                      Conflict

5/6                                         56
                                            54
                                                 -1 SD            +1 SD
                                                 Rejecting Parenting



                                                         Garcia, Shaw, Winslow, & Yaggi, 2000
                                                         Developmental Psychology
Two-way
interaction between                        58




                      Teacher Report TRF
rejecting parenting                        57




                       Aggressiont-score
                                           56
and                                                                   High Sib
                                           55
                                                                      Conflict
sibling conflict in                        54
                                                                      Low Sib
relation to TRF                            53                         Conflict
Aggression at age 6                        52
                                           51
                                           50
                                                -1 SD        +1 SD
                                                Rejecting Parenting
             Trajectories Leading to Clinically-Elevated Scores on
             TRF Aggression at age 8: CBCL Aggression at Ages 2,
             3.5, 5, & 5.5


             68
             66
             64
CBCL
Aggression   62
             60                                                      Nonproblem
             58                                                      at or > 90th %
             56
             54
             52
                   2         3.5       5           5.5
                       Age of Child in Years
                                               Effect size = -.1 - .48 sd
                                               Shaw, Bell, & Gilliom, Clinical Child
                                               and Family Psychology Review (2000)
             Trajectories Leading to Clinically-Elevated Scores on
             TRF Aggression at age 8: Maternal Depressive Symptoms
             At Ages 1.5, 2, 3.5, and 5.5


             16
             14
             12
Maternal
             10
Depressive
              8                                               Nonproblem
Symptoms
              6                                               at or > 90th %
              4
              2
              0
                  1.5       2       3.5     5.5



                                                  Effect size = .27 - .73 sd
           Trajectories Leading to Clinically-Elevated TRF
           Aggression Scores at Age 8: Maternal Social Support
           at Age 1.5




           55
Maternal
Social     50
Support
           45

           40

           35
                       Nonproblem   > 90th %



                                                 Effect size = .80 sd
        Trajectories Leading to Clinically-Elevated TRF
        Aggression at age 8: HOME Total at Age 2




        35

HOME    33
Total
        31

        29

        27

        25
                   Nonproblem   at or > 90th %


                                                 Effect size = .56 sd
Developmental Trajectories of Overt Antisocial Behavior
                            7

                            6
Overt Antisocial Behavior




                            5

                            4

                            3

                            2

                            1

                            0
                                2        3.5                   5                     6                     8
                                                          Age (years)

                            Low-actual     Mod. desister-actual    High desister-actual    Chronic-actual

                            Low-pred.      Mod. desister-pred.     High desister-pred.     Chronic-pred.

                                           Shaw, Gilliom, Ingoldsby, & Nagin (2003), Developmental Psychology
3 factors       • Child fearlessness
that            • Maternal depression
distinguished   • Maternal caregiving
high and low
truly early-
starting
antisocial
trajectories
from ages 2
to 8
                            Age 11-12                     Age 15
                                 Elliott Self
                                  Report                  stole something
                                Delinquency                  from a car

Follow-Up                                              picked up by police
              .21***       .20*
to Youth &                            .21*
                                                          and brought to
                                                              station

  Teacher
                 Observed               .26*
 Reports of      Rejecting
                                                               arrested

              Parenting: Age 2
Adolescent
                                        .16+
 Antisocial                                                marijuana use

 Behavior
                       .21***          .19*
                                 Achenbach                   having sex
                                    TRF
                                Externalizing
                                                *** p < .001, * p < .05, + p < .10
Developmental Trajectories of Youth Antisocial Behavior Ages 10-17




 4 group solution with highest BIC score, all posterior probabilities > .85
              • Low Stable -- 62% of sample: 25%
Trajectory
              • High ‘Decreasing’ -- 5% of sample:
Group           60%
Differences   • Late Increasing --10% of sample:
on Juvenile     49%
Court         • High Increasing -- 22% of
Petitions       sample:78%
               Accounting for all other predictors in
Trajectory     early childhood,
Group          • Factors that discriminated high
Differences       increasers from low stable: maternal
                  depression at ages 1.5-3.5 years
based on       • Factors that discriminated ‘high
Early             decreasing’ group: rejecting parenting
                  and maternal depression
Childhood
Risk Factors
                 Methods: Assessing Threat
• Functional Imaging
      • Amygdala reactivity paradigm – angry, fearful, neutral and
        surprised faces




      •   3T platform
             –   Gradient echo EPI sequence: TR/TE = 2000/25msec
             –   34 slices = 3 mm thick
      •   Processed using the GLM of SPM8
      •   Individual contrast images of Faces > Shapes were entered into a second level random effects
          models
      •   Extracted individual values for the main effect of task for the cluster and maximum voxel and did
          analyses outside of SPM8
Amygdala
reactivity
  and AB
Trajectory
  Groups
 (N = 51)
  Summary of Findings
For boys, child and parenting precursors of
serious antisocial behavior identifiable from
1.5-2 years of age
   - Emphasizes the salience of both child behavior and
     parental response to such behavior in the 2nd year
Factors that compromise parenting also related to
  persistence of conduct problems
  - Maternal depression, social support

Implications and challenges for early identification
  and treatment
  - Multisystemic approach warranted
  - not child but dyad at risk
            • Combine all data collected on youth
              adjustment and their social environments
Continued     from birth to through adolescence with
Follow-Up     genetic data (collected at age 17) and to-
              be-collected brain function data (at ages
of Sample     20 and 22) in relation to antisocial
during        behavior and drug use during early
              adulthood
Early       • Will also allow us to examine potential
Adulthood     protective roles of quality of instrumental
              functioning (e.g., steady employment,
              higher education) and social relationships
              (e.g., stable and positive relationship with
              significant other) during the early 20’s
The Early Childhood
Antecedents of Youth
Antisocial Behavior

     Daniel Shaw
University of Pittsburgh
 www.pitt.edu/~ppcl

				
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posted:9/27/2012
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