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					                            Stephan Körnig
                            Wolfgang Meier
                            Rudi Schmiede

  User Needs and Digital Libraries Design


     Darmstadt University of Technology
            Working group telos
   (technology for electronic libraries and
   the organization of the semantic web)


7 September 2004   Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   1
                          Rudi Schmiede

  User Needs and Digital Libraries Design (1):

     Information and Knowledge in the “Information
                        Society”
      Distributed Information Structures in Science




7 September 2004   Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   2
                   Outline
                   • What are user needs?
                   • What does “information society”
                     mean?
                   • Information and/vs. knowledge
                   • What is new in the digital era?
                   • Distributed digital information
                     structures
                   • Strategic issues in DL design
7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   3
User needs
                   The social frame
„Information
Society“
                   • User needs are not fixed entities,
Information
and                  not simply to be questionaired
knowledge
                   • Formed by work situation and
Digital era          environment
Distributed        • Dependent on possibilities of
systems              access
Strategic          • Change according to “communi-
issues
                     ties of practice”
7 September 2004     Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   4
User needs
                   Distributed concepts
„Information
Society“
                   • Make possible to access mani-
Information
and                  fold resources and services
knowledge
                   • Local interface must be simple
Digital era          and powerful
Distributed        • Today’s universal access tool:
systems              The Web browser
Strategic          • “Global information at your
issues
                     fingertips”
7 September 2004     Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   5
User needs         Virtual Integration of
„Information       resources and services
Society“
                   • Same user in different roles:
Information
and                  Modelling of “use cases”
knowledge
                   • Differences according to scientific
Digital era
                     disciplines and to work in univer-
Distributed          sitiy or industry
systems
                   • Importance of local and discipli-
Strategic
issues               nary resp. thematic accesses

7 September 2004     Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   6
User needs         Heterogeneous
„Information       information objects
Society“
                   • Scenes have to be made transparent to
Information
and                  the user
knowledge
                   • Important are documents, but also
Digital era          people (in their different roles), projects,
                     communities, institutions, providers,
Distributed
systems              archives
                   • Consequence: Highly modularized
Strategic
issues               design of scientific information systems

7 September 2004       Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   7
User needs         The Social Framework:
„Information       Informational Capitalism
Society“
                   • Answers to world economic crisis of the
Information
and
                     mid-70ies: globalization and
knowledge            informatization
                   • Intensified competition in the world
Digital era
                     market in 80ies and 90ies
Distributed        • Omnipresence and new immediacy of
systems
                     economics
Strategic          • Castells: “Informational Capitalism”
issues               Schiller: “Digital Capitalism”

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   8
User needs         Globalization and
„Information       Networking
Society“
                   • Neoliberalism, de-regulation,
Information
and                  erosion of the national state
knowledge
                   • Transnational enterprises
Digital era
                   • International markets for goods,
Distributed
systems              capital and labour
Strategic
                   • Networking on all levels
issues
                   • Social polarization
7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   9
User needs
                   Informatization
„Information
Society“
                   • Ubiquity of digital IuC technologies
Information
and
knowledge
                   • IuC technologies as technological
                     basis of informational capitalism
Digital era
                   • SOA/Web Services as a new stage
Distributed
systems              of network technology adequate to
                     globalization
Strategic
issues             • New drive towards standardization

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   10
User needs         Informatization: New
„Information       quality of information
Society“
                   • Development of globalized socio-tech-
Information
and                  nical systems to generate, communi-
knowledge            cate and process information in “real
Digital era
                     time”
                   • Reflexivity of information, knowledge
Distributed
systems              and innovation
                   • Basis for new dimensions of division of
Strategic
issues               labour and global networking

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   11
User needs         New Markets and
„Information       Organizations
Society“
                   • Market-oriented forms of organi-
Information
and                  zations in business and society
knowledge
                   • Re-engineering, specialization
Digital era
                   • Network and virtual enterprises,
Distributed
systems              horizontal organizations
Strategic
                   • Decentralization and centralization
issues
                   • Increased uncertainty and risks
7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   12
User needs
                   Knowledge resources
„Information
Society“
                   • Increasing importance of knowledge
Information
and                  resources in organizations
knowledge
                   • Enhanced importance of external
Digital era          sources of information and knowledge
Distributed
                   • Separation information searching –
systems              information provision by specialists
Strategic
                   • Orientation to contribution to value-
issues               creating chain (“intellectual” capital)

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   13
User needs
                   Knowledge work
„Information
Society“
                   • Polarization into upper layer of
Information
and                  “symbol analysts” (Reich) and
knowledge            majority of victims of informati-
Digital era          zation and rationalization
Distributed
                   • Erosion of “normal” work forms
systems            • Discontinuous working biographies
Strategic          • Scientific work 30% in institutions
issues
                     of science, 70% in business
7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   14
User needs         Information vs.
„Information       knowledge
Society“
                   • Information is raw material: Abstracted
Information
and
                     formalized content
knowledge          • Information always positively defined,
                     otherwise it can not be modelled
Digital era
                     technically
Distributed        • Knowledge bound to subject, oriented
systems
                     to experience, to be interpreted and
Strategic            communicated, can be defined only
issues               negatively

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   15
User needs         Knowledge beyond
„Information       information
Society“
                   • Knowledge is critique of information,
Information
and                  systematically includes non-knowledge
knowledge
                   • Knowledge remains “tacit” or “implicit”
Digital era          or “personal”
Distributed
                   • Close relation to acknowledgement and
systems              appreciation
Strategic
                   • Social and political embedding:
issues               “Knowledge is power” (Bacon)

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   16
User needs
                   Knowledge management
„Information
Society“
                   • Increasing role in business and
Information
and
                     organizations
knowledge          • Between the two poles of information
                     management and social network
Digital era
                   • Limits: Dependence on culture of
Distributed          appreciation, motivation, and
systems
                     cooperation
Strategic          • Bound to working networks and people
issues               willing to give away their knowledge

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   17
User needs         The Past: The
„Information       “Gutenberg-Galaxis”
Society“
                   • Resources and providers: Printed mate-
Information
and
                     rial, specialized scientific information
knowledge            centers with special databases
                   • Products: Book and journals, working
Digital era
                     papers, “grey” literature, personal
Distributed          distribution
systems
                   • Libraries and archives to keep the
Strategic            printed sources as cultural heritage
issues               (and often protect them against users)

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   18
User needs         The “Gutenberg-Galaxis”:
„Information       Functions and problems
Society“
                   • Quality evaluation by refereeing
Information
and                • System of status and career access and
knowledge
                     allocation
Digital era        • Central role of science publishers
Distributed        • Role of universities and learned
systems              societies in scientific publishers,
Strategic
                     ambivalent interests of scientists
issues
                   • Slow and expensive publication process

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   19
User needs         The future: Distributed digital
„Information
                   information structures
Society“
                   • Today already: Distributed digital access
Information
and                  to scientific information is basis of
knowledge            modern scientific work
Digital era        • Heterogeneity of forms and resources of
                     information: Not only numbers, letters,
Distributed
systems              pictures, maps, but also algo-rithms and
                     large calculation systems, simulations
Strategic
issues
                     and results, visualization, interactive
                     objects (“dynamic” documents)
7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   20
User needs         Distributed digital information
„Information
                   structures: New problems
Society“
                   • Heterogeneity of providers: Individuals,
Information
and
                     institutes, universities, enterprises,
knowledge            service providers, state authorities etc.
                   • Heterogeneity of forms or provision:
Digital era
                     Commercial, fee-based and cost-free
Distributed          goods
systems
                   • Heterogeneity of user access: Local/
Strategic            regional, theme or discipline-based or
issues               general access

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   21
User needs         Distributed digital information
„Information
                   structures: New qualities
Society“
                   • In principle unlimited possibility to
Information
and                  multiply and transport contents
knowledge
                   • In principle unlimited access to infor-
Digital era          mations not protected via the web
Distributed
                   • “Private” publicity becomes possible,
systems              e.g. by homepages, links in publica-
                     tions, chat, newsgroups, i.e. new
Strategic
issues               access to media

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   22
User needs         Distributed digital information
„Information
                   structures: New issues
Society“
                   • Culture of multitude vs. “explosion of
Information
and
                     nonsense” (Wehrsig): New constella-
knowledge            tion of private and public interests
                   • Situation in transition: First experi-
Digital era
                     ments to bring new structures and
Distributed          order into the growing chaos
systems
                   • Digital publications by science publi-
Strategic            shers, autonomous networks of scien-
issues               tists (e.g. MathNet, PhysNet, SozioNet),
                     new university publishers etc.
7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   23
User needs         Distributed digital information
„Information
                   structures: Areas of R & D
Society“
                   • Creating and collecting information on
Information
and
                     user behaviour and user needs
knowledge          • Improvement of local access and
                     information and knowledge manage-
Digital era
                     ment in scientific institutions
Distributed        • Building of domain-specific disciplinary
systems
                     portals and services
Strategic          • Standardization to make possible open
issues               access

7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   24
User needs
                   The current situation
„Information
Society“
                   • Competing, often particularized concepts
Information
and
                   • Strong tendencies to international standards
knowledge            of web-based services/
                     XML as universal format
Digital era
                   • Scientific information: Domain specific tools
Distributed
                     and portals, interdisciplinary islands
systems            • Models for self-publishing and distributed
                     authorship
Strategic
issues             • Generally, bad and worsening financial
                     situation on user side
7 September 2004       Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   25
User needs
                   Strategic issues: The user
„Information
Society“
                   • Integration of the multitude of interesting re-
Information          sources and services for the users at their
and
knowledge            workplace
                   • Distributed concept: Access to as many resour-
Digital era          ces and services as possible, integration via
                     local interfaces
Distributed
systems            • Improvement of transparency of the scientific
                     scene, variable access points (local, discipli-
Strategic            nary, theme- or domain-specific)
issues
                   • Research on scientific collaboration reality

7 September 2004       Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   26
User needs         Strategic issues:
„Information
                   Standardization
Society“
                   • Crucial importance of open standards
Information        • Multiplicity of standards, often not transparent,
and
knowledge
                     interest dominated development
                   • Low level of European participation
Digital era        • Close relation between research and standar-
                     dization, often not seen by research funders
Distributed
systems
                   • Problems of long-term preservation (OAIS-
                     standard) under-estimated
Strategic          • Central role for realization of user needs most
issues               often not seen

7 September 2004       Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   27
User needs         Strategic issues: Disciplinary
„Information
                   services and interoperability
Society“
                   • Modelling activities for disciplinary and domain-
Information          specific needs necessary
and
knowledge          • One of the central access points for users,
                     concentrated efforts necessary
Digital era
                   • Integration of pay- (publishers, provider ser-
Distributed
                     vices, databases) and non-pay contents and
systems              services crucial
                   • Integration of heterogeneous contents and
Strategic
issues               documents (intellectually structured and raw
                     resources) necessary

7 September 2004       Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   28
User needs
                   Strategic issues: Local access
„Information
Society“
                   • Importance of local and regional relations
Information
and
                   • Integration of various displinary worlds at
knowledge            universities
                   • Integration of different providers
Digital era
                   • Local information and knowledge management
Distributed          to be made a central issue of institution’s
systems              management
Strategic
                   • Improvement of ability to work with digital
issues               media, enabling of abilities to compare and
                     evaluate traditional and digital media
7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   29
User needs
                   Strategic issues: User access
„Information
Society“
                   • Realizing user interests by providing
Information
and                  integrated access in the dimensions of
knowledge

Digital era          -- rights and authentification
                     -- disciplinary and thematic integration
Distributed
systems              -- the economic, pay-related side of
                        usage
Strategic
issues
                     -- information support, counselling and
                        mediation
7 September 2004      Third DELOS International Summer School ISDL 2004   30

				
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