Document Sample



      January 16, 2009

      Prepared by:
                            Today’s Solutions for Tomorrow’s Transportation Needs

                            Table of Contents
                               Study Purpose ...................................................................................... 1 

                                 Study Methodology............................................................................... 1 

                               Intercity Bus Service Defined ............................................................... 2
                            FTA PROGRAMS ........................................................................................4
                               Section 5311(f)...................................................................................... 4 

                            HISTORY OF INTERCITY BUS SERVICE IN THE U.S. .................................8 

                            EXISTING INTERCITY BUS SERVICE IN INDIANA ................................... 11 

                                 Burlington Trailways ............................................................................ 11 

                                 Greyhound Lines, Inc.......................................................................... 13 

                                 Indian Trails......................................................................................... 15 

                                 Lakefront Trailways ............................................................................. 16 

                                 MEGABUS .......................................................................................... 16 

                            INDIANA’S SECTION 5311(F) SUPPORTED EFFORTS ............................ 18 

                                 Past ..................................................................................................... 18 

                                 Present ................................................................................................ 18 

                                 Project Solicitation .............................................................................. 19 

                            INTERCITY BUS NEEDS ........................................................................... 21 

3131 S Dixie Hwy ● Dayton, Ohio 45439 ● 937.299.5007 voice ● 937.299.1055 fax ●

                            ASSESSMENT OF OTHER STATE DOT INTERCITY PROGRAMS ............... 34 

                                 Oregon ................................................................................................ 34 

                                 Pennsylvania ....................................................................................... 35 

                                 Iowa .................................................................................................... 36 

                                 Georgia ............................................................................................... 38 

                                 North Carolina ..................................................................................... 39 

                                 Ohio .................................................................................................... 41 


                            OBSERVATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.......................................... 43 

                            BUS PROGRAM........................................................................................ 46 

                                 Proposed Section 5311(f) Process ..................................................... 48 

                                 Criteria to Screen Services Proposed from Returned Surveys ........... 49 

                                 Application Evaluation Criteria (points based) ................................... 49 

                            AMTRAK PASSENGER RAIL SERVICE ..................................................... 50 

                                 Major Facilities .................................................................................... 53

                                 Station Improvements ......................................................................... 54

                                 Other State Rail Services .................................................................... 54

                                 Passenger Rail Service Needs ........................................................... 59

                                 State-Supported Amtrak Service ........................................................ 63
                                 Amtrak Service .................................................................................... 67 

3131 S Dixie Hwy ● Dayton, Ohio 45439 ● 937.299.5007 voice ● 937.299.1055 fax ●

                                Recommendations for Further Consideration of State-Supported
                                Amtrak service .................................................................................... 69 

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    Indiana, like other states across the country, has seen the abandonment of numerous
    unprofitable intercity bus routes as a result of federal deregulation of the intercity bus industry
    in the early 1980’s. The termination of intercity bus routes had a profound impact on the
    volume of available service, particularly in rural areas.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the status of the intercity bus industry in Indiana, with
    particular emphasis on assessing the need for intercity bus service across the state. The
    study evaluates the impact of service changes over the past thirty-two years. Further, the
    study addresses the federal requirements associated with the receipt of federal Section
    5311(f) funds and the current use of these intercity bus funds, and provides
    recommendations for utilizing these funds to enhance the future provision of intercity bus
    service. In addition to intercity bus service, the study also evaluates the utilization of
    Indiana’s Amtrak service and the possibility of using state funds to support passenger rail
    service in the future.


    The study methodology consisted of data collection and evaluation followed by the
    determination of recommended policies. The following study methodology was utilized:

     ♦ Collect data on existing intercity bus services and evaluate intercity routes and
         schedules to determine statewide service trends, ridership and number of communities
     ♦   Collect and evaluate survey data from rural public transportation providers, local
         governmental officials, economic development offices, and other community groups to
         determine the adequacy of existing services and the need for additional intercity
     ♦   Evaluate other state DOT intercity bus programs to determine their methodology for
         using Section 5311(f) funds and the structure of their program pursuant to SAFETEA–
         LU (Pub. L. 109–59, 119 Stat. 1144, August 10, 2005);
     ♦   Evaluate INDOT’s Section 5311(f) program from the perspective of the volume of funds
         utilized, the impact of the services provided with these funds, and other rural public
         transportation needs in the state to determine recommendations for future use of these
         funds and the “governor’s certification” process;
     ♦   Prepare recommendations for INDOT’s intercity bus program and specifically the
         Section 5311(f) program and project funding process; and
     ♦   Evaluate Amtrak operating statistics and service utilization in Indiana and provide
         recommendations regarding the use of state funds to support the service.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                  1
    Note that federal regulations require states to expend 15 percent of their Section 5311
    Nonurbanized Area Formula Program apportionment “to carry out a program to develop and
    support intercity bus transportation,” unless the governor certifies that “the intercity bus
    service needs of the state are being met adequately.”


    The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) has defined intercity bus service as:

         Regularly scheduled bus service for the general public which operates with limited stops
         over fixed routes connecting two or more urban areas not in close proximity, which has
         the capacity for transporting baggage carried by passengers, and which makes
         meaningful connections with scheduled intercity bus service to more distant points, if
         such service is available. Package express service may also be included, if incidental to
         passenger transportation. Intercity service is not limited by the size of the vehicle used or
         by the identity of the carrier.

    FTA provides the following characteristics of intercity bus service:

     ♦   Regularly scheduled bus service;
     ♦   Available to the general public;
     ♦   Makes limited stops;
     ♦   Operates on fixed routes;
     ♦   Connects two or more urban areas not in close proximity;
     ♦   Makes meaningful connections (if available);
     ♦   Predominantly passenger service (any package /goods service incidental);
     ♦   Not a commuter service; and
     ♦   Not air, water or rail service (bus only)

    Additionally, the U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) has defined intercity bus service as
    regular-route service that meets the following criteria:

     ♦   Operates between two or more cities, towns, or isolated clusters;
     ♦   Operates on a fixed schedule;
     ♦   Carries the general public and is not subject to preconditions for passage; and
     ♦   Does not operate wholly within urbanized areas.

    A recent Washington State Department of Transportation intercity bus study described the
    following population characteristics of individuals more likely to use intercity bus services:

     ♦ Youth (18-24 years old): Often these are enlisted military personnel or college students
         with limited budgets, no access to an automobile, and living or stationed far from

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                 2
     ♦ Elderly (60 and above): Frequently, the elderly have a diminished ability or desire to
       drive and may be more likely to need to visit distant medical facilities on a regular
     ♦ Persons living below the poverty level: Persons who are less likely to own a car, or if
       they do, the car may not be suitable for long trips;
     ♦ Persons over 16 with a disability: A group that may be reliant on accessible local transit
       services and, therefore, may also consider public transit options to make a long trip;
     ♦ Autoless households: Persons who have to rely on alternative means of transportation.

    Currently, Greyhound Lines Inc. is the only nationwide intercity bus carrier operating in the
    United States. There are numerous smaller carriers that operate on a regional or local basis.
    Greyhound and the other smaller intercity bus carriers that operate in Indiana are addressed
    in detail later in the study.

    Recognizing the role of the intercity bus industry in the nation’s transportation network,
    particularly in the rural areas of the country, since 1992 federal transit legislation has required
    states to allocate 15 percent of their Section 5311 Nonurbanized Area Formula Program
    funds for the support of intercity bus services. States are allowed to waive this requirement if
    the Governor certifies that intercity bus needs are being met adequately.

    This study provides INDOT with an evaluation of the intercity bus industry in Indiana and
    recommendations regarding the “Governor’s certification.” The “Governor’s certification”
    considers unmet intercity bus needs but can also consider other rural transit needs in the
    state that are not being met. This study recommends a strategy and process for using the
    federal Section 5311(f) funds to enhance intercity bus travel across the state. Note that
    Section 5311(f), the rural intercity bus assistance program, is a subsection of the Section
    5311 Program.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                  3


    While federal deregulation has resulted in reduced intercity bus service in rural areas, federal
    policy has recognized that there are benefits to enabling passengers to make connections
    between modes, including intercity bus, rail and local transit services. In addition to
    operating funds, federal funding has also been made available for the construction of
    intermodal passenger facilities, including the intercity bus related portion of the facilities.

    SECTION 5311(F)

    In an effort to meet the needs for rural intercity bus service resulting from the years of route
    termination, federal transportation legislation enacted in 1991 (Intermodal Surface
    Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA)), included a requirement that each state spend a
    specified percentage of its annual apportionment of federal Nonurbanized Area Formula
    funds to support rural intercity bus service unless the state’s governor certifies that the
    state’s intercity bus needs are adequately met. The percentage was initially set at 5 percent,
    increased to 10 percent in year two, and 15 percent in the third year of the program. Since
    that time, 15 percent continues to be the requirement, now codified as Section 5311(f) with
    the reauthorization of ISTEA, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21).

    The federal program remained unchanged until 2005 with the passage of the most recent
    federal transit authorization bill, the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation
    Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). This Act added constraints to the use of
    federal transit funds for the provision of intercity bus services. SAFETEA-LU excluded
    intercity bus transportation from the definition of federally supported public transportation,
    with the exception of Section 5311(f), intermodal facilities, and the Over-the-Road Bus
    Accessibility Program. Therefore, public recipients of FTA funds cannot operate intercity bus
    service between urbanized areas, which is an area reserved for private for-profit providers.

    SAFETEA-LU also changed the governor’s certification process. Those states intending to
    submit a complete or partial governor’s certification must undertake a consultation process
    with the state’s intercity bus providers prior to issuing the certification. FTA has adopted the
    definition of “consultation” as “one party confers with another identified party in accordance
    with an established process and, before taking action(s), considers that party’s views and
    periodically informs that party about action(s) taken.” While FTA provides discretion to the
    states to determine the process for meeting this consultation requirement, the state’s intercity
    consultation process must include the following elements:

     ♦ Identification of intercity bus providers in the state;
     ♦ Activities the state will perform as part of consultation with identified providers and the
         intercity bus industry;

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                4
      ♦ An opportunity for intercity bus providers to submit proposals for funding as part of the
        state’s distribution of its annual Section 5311(f) apportionment; and
      ♦ A direct correlation between the results of the consultation process and a determination
        that the state’s intercity service needs are adequately being met.

    To carry out the consultation process, FTA recommends the following activities:

      ♦ Inform intercity bus carriers of the state’s rural planning process and encourage their
          participation in that process, and where a state is considering possible certification,
          provide an opportunity to submit comments and/or request a public meeting to identify
          unmet needs and discuss proposals for meeting those needs;
      ♦   Include intercity providers’ participation in scheduled meetings, such as state agency
          transit meetings and public transit conferences;
      ♦   Meet with individual intercity providers periodically;
      ♦   Notify providers either through direct mail or advertise in various locations around the
          state of availability of funds for the current year’s intercity bus program;
      ♦   Inform intercity bus providers about the development of the locally developed,
          coordinated public transit-human services transportation plans and encourage their
          participation; and
      ♦   Solicit comments through direct mail and advertise in newspapers in various locations
          around the state of the state’s intent to submit a “Governor’s certification” to FTA
          unless intercity bus needs are identified.

    FTA guidance further indicates that there should be a direct correlation between the results of
    the consultation process and the state’s determination of intercity bus needs. In other words,
    a state cannot ignore the needs and service requests submitted by the intercity carriers and
    subsequently submit to FTA a certification that all the state’s intercity bus needs are met.

    Section 5311(f) of the Nonurbanized Area Formula Program has the following objectives:

      ♦ Support the connection between nonurbanized areas and the larger regional or
        national system of intercity bus service;
      ♦ Support services to meet the intercity travel needs of residents in nonurbanized areas;
      ♦ Support the infrastructure of the intercity bus network through planning and marketing
        assistance and capital investment in facilities.

    Eligible intercity bus activities utilizing Section 5311(f) funding include:

      ♦ Project administration including such expenses as planning, marketing, management,
        and insurance for intercity bus transportation;
      ♦ Capital grants for intercity bus shelters;
      ♦ Joint-use stops and depots;

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              5
     ♦ Operating grants through purchase-of-service agreements;
     ♦ User-side subsidies and demonstration projects;
     ♦ Coordination of rural connections between small transit operations and intercity bus
       carriers; and
     ♦ Capital assistance to purchase vehicles or lease if cost effective, and vehicle related
       equipment for use in intercity service;

    The maximum federal share for operating assistance related projects is 50 percent of the net
    cost of service, while capital projects may be funded up to 80 percent with federal funds.

    It should be noted that on October 20, 2006, FTA approved a two-year pilot project allowing
    states to use the capital costs of unsubsidized intercity bus service provided by private
    operators as in-kind match for the operating costs associated with connecting rural intercity
    bus feeder service. The private bus operator must agree to the use of its capital funds for
    this in-kind match. The value of the eligible capital expenses is generally calculated as one-
    half the annual operating expenses of the unsubsidized route. This policy encourages states
    to follow the FTA guidance of supporting the operation of intercity bus services that connect
    with scheduled intercity service to distant points across the country. FTA has recently
    announced that this pilot project has been extended through FY 2009.

    As an example of how this pilot project works, assume that an intercity carrier is serving a
    route at a total of cost of $400,000. INDOT could initiate a route to connect with this route
    and use up to $200,000 in capital costs from the previously mentioned route as state/local in-
    kind match for the new service. In reality, this results in enabling the state to utilize or
    leverage an additional $200,000 in Section 5311(f) funds without needing to use state or local
    cash funds.

    Intercity bus companies are eligible subrecipients of Section 5311(f) funds through a state or
    Indian tribe that is a direct recipient. However, intercity bus operators may not be in the
    position to accept the terms and conditions that the state applies to subrecipients. In such a
    situation, the state may provide funds to the intercity bus operator through a third-party
    contract, thereby isolating the remainder of the company’s operations from federal grant
    requirements. The state may contract with the intercity bus carrier directly or through a local
    public entity or a non-profit organization. In the past INDOT has contracted directly with the
    intercity bus company.

    The Bus and Bus Facility Program (49 U.S.C. 5309) is a discretionary FTA program that
    supports the development of intermodal transportation terminals, i.e., passenger terminals
    that are served by more than one transit mode or service provider. The intercity bus portion
    of an intermodal facility is eligible under this program. Many terminals across the country are
    served by various intercity bus companies as well as the local fixed-route bus service or taxi
    and shuttle services. These projects are also eligible under the Section 5307, 5311 or 5311(f)
    programs. Federal funds may provide up to 80 percent of the cost of these capital projects.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               6
    Section 3038 of SAFETEA-LU, the Over-the-Road Bus (OTRB) Accessibility Program, assists
    operators of over-the-road buses in complying with the capital and training requirements of
    the DOT rule on ADA accessibility for over-the-road buses (U.S. Department of
    Transportation, 49 CFR Part 37). This program is administered directly by FTA rather than by
    state recipients with a national solicitation for applications from operators of over-the-road
    buses. The federal share for this assistance is 90 percent. This program may supplement
    and/or complement assistance the states provide to intercity bus operators through Section
    5311(f). Greyhound has been a recipient of these funds in the past for its national fleet.

    Congestion Mitigation Air Quality (CMAQ) funds are available for capital or operating
    assistance for projects that reduce emissions in air quality non-attainment areas. CMAQ
    funds have been used for projects that support intercity bus service such as intermodal
    facilities and park-and-ride lots, often in conjunction with Bus and Bus Facility Program
    funds. Federal funds through this program are available at the typical federal capital and
    operating participation limits.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              7

    The intercity bus industry has undergone a series of changes over the past twenty-five years,
    resulting in the continuous loss of intercity bus service in Indiana and across the country.
    Intercity bus services, primarily provided by Greyhound and Trailways, flourished through the
    1950’s with most cities having dozens of arrivals and departures daily. At its peak, over
    15,000 communities in America had access to at least one scheduled carrier and intercity
    bus was a primary travel mode across the country. However, this began to change
    drastically in the 1960’s as household incomes rose, central cities declined, and Americans
    began their addiction to the personal automobile. Indiana was no exception to this national
    travel evolution. Figure 1 illustrates the volume of intercity bus routes and stations in Indiana
    in 1976.

    The 1970’s brought further pressure on the industry as automobile ownership continued to
    rise and airlines began to experiment with discounted fares. Historically, the nation’s intercity
    bus system had operated under federal regulation that controlled how carriers entered and
    exited interstate routes, which cities would be served, and the fares they could charge.
    States imposed similar regulatory oversight of intrastate carriers. As ridership decreased, the
    industry desired more freedom in the operation of their services, resulting in the deregulation
    of the intercity bus industry in 1982 (Bus Regulatory Reform Act of 1982, (Pub. L. 97 ‐ 261, 
    September 20, 1982.

    No change has affected the country’s intercity bus services as much as deregulation. With
    carriers having greater flexibility in establishing fares, routes, and service frequency, those
    unprofitable routes – typically serving rural areas – were abandoned. Deregulation also gave
    carriers a mechanism to appeal regulations imposed upon them by state governments on
    intrastate routes. Today, the role of federal oversight is primarily limited to ensuring that
    carriers are registered, maintain adequate financial responsibility (insurance), and meet
    Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs).

    The General Accountability Office estimated that 7,000 communities across the country lost
    intercity bus service during the first ten years of deregulation. Instead of resurrecting intercity
    bus traffic, deregulation resulted in significant service losses and continued financial
    problems for the carriers. Rising labor and fuel costs, along with Amtrak service expansion,
    continued to challenge the industry. Research has indicated that from a service, consumer,
    and operator financial perspective, intercity bus deregulation was a failure.

    Due to its size and prominence in the industry, Greyhound found itself in the center of this
    changing intercity bus environment. Greyhound began to face major labor-related issues
    and acquired Continental Trailways in 1987 in an effort to improve its public image. By
    acquiring Continental Trailways, the largest member of the rival National Trailways Bus
    System (a collection of smaller, independent intercity bus operators), Greyhound effectively
    eliminated a large portion of its bus competition. Many smaller carriers were forced out of

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                  8
                                      Figure 1: 1976 Intercity Bus Routes

    1976 MAP
    This color-coded map shows intercity bus routes in existence in 1976. Blue indicates Greyhound; red indicates
    Trailways. Additional colors indicate significant independent bus companies, and are identified with labels. Black
    indicates smaller independent companies.

    Thin blue or red lines indicate routes which were once part of Greyhound or Trailways, but later transferred to
    independent bus companies.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                                       9
    business as a result of these changes. Today, the few remaining Trailways franchises are
    spread across the country, including two companies operating in Indiana – Burlington
    Trailways and Lakefront Trailways.

    However, this effort by Greyhound to absorb its competition was unsuccessful, resulting in
    Greyhound filing for bankruptcy in 2000. With ridership continuing to decline, Greyhound cut
    its route structure further in 2004 - 2005, resulting in the lose of service to nearly 1,000
    additional communities across the country. This system restructuring resulted in several
    route abandonments in Indiana, including service from Indianapolis to South Bend and
    Louisville and a route between Fort Wayne and Chicago.

    While the intercity bus industry has struggled for years, more recent news from the industry is
    encouraging. Based on a recent study by the School of Public Service Policy Study at
    DePaul University, ridership began to improve for the nation’s carriers in 2006. This is
    attributed to rising highway congestion, increased fuel costs, and consumer disenchantment
    with air travel. While it may be too early to know if the industry has really rebounded, signs at
    this time are very positive. In 2007, for the first time in more than 40 years, the level of
    service throughout the country grew significantly, largely due to the emergence and
    expansion of low-cost operators providing express service between major cities.

    The largest and best known of these operators, Megabus, a subsidiary of Coach USA,
    opened a Chicago hub in April 2006 providing service between the Midwestern cities of
    Chicago, Cincinnati, Columbus, Detroit, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, and St. Louis.
    As a result, national intercity bus ridership statistics indicated a substantial ridership growth
    rate of nearly 7 percent in the 2006-2007 period as compared to an 8 percent annual rate of
    decline during the previous period. This ridership increase for the nation’s intercity bus
    providers is viewed by some in the intercity bus industry as being misleading because
    Megabus operates express bus service with limited stops and without conventional
    terminals, generally leaving from curbside locations or public transit facilities.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               10
         Existing Service

    Intercity bus operations in Indiana are a skeleton of services provided in the mid 1970’s.
    Today, the state’s bus industry is reduced to the following five carriers.

     ♦   Burlington Trailways;
     ♦   Greyhound Lines;
     ♦   Indian Trails;
     ♦   Lakefront Lines; and
     ♦   Megabus (Coach USA).

    Of these five carriers, Greyhound is by far the major provider of services with six routes
    operating in the state, primarily into and north of Indianapolis. Burlington Trailways operates
    two routes, Indian Trails and Lakefront Lines each operate a single route, while Megabus
    provides express bus service from Chicago to Indianapolis with connecting service to
    Columbus and Cincinnati. Figure 2 illustrates current intercity bus routes in Indiana and
    cities served. A description of these services is provided below.


    Burlington Trailways is a family owned and operated corporation that provides transportation
    services to individuals and business entities in their service area. The company’s
    headquarters are in West Burlington, Iowa. Burlington Trailways currently has two lines in
    Indiana, with a single bus on each line, operating in the following corridor:

     ♦ I-74 – between Cedar Rapids and Indianapolis. There are two daily trips in each
         direction, with two routes being utilized. One route operates between Cedar Rapids
         and Indianapolis while the other runs from Davenport to Indianapolis. Crawfordsville
         has one stop in each direction on the Davenport – Indianapolis route while Indianapolis
         has four stops; one in each direction on each of the two routes.

    Burlington Trailways has a limited-service station in Crawfordsville and a terminal in
    Indianapolis (the firm uses the Greyhound station). Burlington Trailways has been operating
    at this level of service in Indiana for several years and has no plans to make any service
    changes in the near future. The company has been continually adding more lines to their
    system within other states.

    The Crawfordsville stop has very low ridership. Crawfordsville is a limited-service station,
    therefore, there is no handling of tickets, baggage, or express packages. The Indianapolis
    stops serve approximately thirty (30) people per day or nearly 11,000 individuals per year.
    Passengers traveling on Burlington Trailways are riders who originate from Indiana or are
    traveling west to Illinois or Iowa.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              11
                                                                                 Figure 2:
                                                                           Intercity Bus Routes

                                                                           St. Joseph
                                                                                               [     Elkhart




                                  Jasper                Pulaski                  Fulton                                                    _
                                                                                                                                           [   Allen


                                                                                                        Wabash      Huntington
                                                                           Cass            Miami                                                       Adams
                                               White                                                                                   Wells


                                                                                      Howard                                   Blackford

                                                                                                           Madison                              Randolph
           [               Fountain
                                                                                          Hamilton             _
                                          Montgomery                 Boone


                               Parke                           Hendricks             Marion

                                               Putnam                                                                                   Fayette
                                                                                                                           Rush                          Union


                                                                     Morgan           Johnson

                                 Clay          Owen
                                                                                 Brown         Bartholomew
                                                                  Monroe                                                                               Dearborn
                                                                                                                   Jennings                              Ohio
                                                                   Lawrence                                                                     Switzerland

                    Knox         Daviess           Martin

                               Pike                                                                                                                                   Burlington Trailways
           Gibson                                                                                     Floyd                                                           Greyhound Lines

                                                                                                               [                                                      Indian Trails
                                                                                                                                                                      Lakefront Trailways
                       Warrick                              Perry                                                                                                     Megabus
                                                                                                                                                                      Amtrak Thruways Bus
                                                                                                                                                                  [   Bus Stations

    Fares for the system are based on mileage. For example, a one-way fare from Crawfordsville
    to Indianapolis is $17.00. Purchasing a ticket through the Internet adds a $4.00 processing
    fee in addition to the base fare.


    Greyhound Lines, Inc. is by far the country’s largest provider of intercity bus transportation,
    serving more than 2,300 destinations with 13,000 daily departures across North America.
    Last year, Greyhound operated nearly 5.8 billion passenger-miles while serving nearly
    25 million passengers. Greyhound has evolved over the years and has continued to
    restructure its services in an effort to most efficiently and effectively meet the 21st century
    intercity bus needs. The company’s home office is in Dallas.

    Greyhound’s Indiana bus service currently exists of six lines operating primarily along
    interstate highway corridors in Indiana. Major bus routes operate in the following corridors:

     ♦ I-80/I-90 – between Chicago and Washington, DC., including three daily trips in each
         direction with stops in Elkhart, South Bend, Gary, and Hammond.
     ♦   I-90/I-94 – between Chicago and Detroit, including three stops in Gary and one stop in
         Hammond eastbound along with two stops in Gary and one stop in Hammond
     ♦   I-65 – between Chicago and Louisville/Cincinnati, including nine daily trips southbound
         and one trip operating Monday, Wednesday, Friday, and Sunday only, stopping in
         Indianapolis on each schedule and Hammond, Gary and Lafayette on intermittent
         schedules. There are ten daily trips northbound and one trip operating Tuesday,
         Wednesday, Friday and Sunday only, stopping in Indianapolis on each schedule and
         Lafayette, Gary and Hammond on intermittent schedules;
     ♦   I-69 – between Detroit and Indianapolis including one stop in each direction at Fort
         Wayne, Marion, Anderson, and Indianapolis;
     ♦   I-70 – between New York City and St. Louis, including five daily trips in each direction,
         stopping in Indianapolis on each trip and Terre Haute two times eastbound and four
         times westbound; and
     ♦   I-64/I-164 – between St. Louis and Nashville, including two daily trips in each direction
         with stops in Evansville on each trip.

    Greyhound currently serves the following cities in Indiana: Anderson, Elkhart, Evansville, Fort
    Wayne, Gary, Hammond, Indianapolis, Lafayette, Marion, South Bend and Terre Haute.
    Table 3 indicates the number of boardings and alightings at these stations for Greyhound
    service during 2006 and 2007.

    After undergoing a series of bankruptcies and acquisitions, Greyhound has been owned by
    FirstGroup of Scotland since September 2007. The Greyhound name has been retained by
    FirstGroup; the brands of its subsidiaries, however, are not being retained and will disappear

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                13
                                  Table 3:
                      Greyhound Boardings and Alightings

Station                   Boardings                    Alightings

                      2006         2007             2006         2007
Anderson             2,007        1,879            1,900        1,776
Elkhart              4,231        4,225            6,711        7,697
Evansville           8,718        7,848            8,313        7,582
Fort Wayne           7,243        6,978            6,322        6,095
Gary                17,780       13,964           13,383       11,595
Hammond              7,009        6,437            6,397        6,088
Indianapolis       143,678      134,401          132,870      121,313
Lafayette            7,230        7,038            6,782        6,212
Marion                 403          408            1,301        1,129
Michigan City*         941          714              913          702
South Bend           6,303        6,060            6,048        5,732
Terre Haute          4,649        4,279            4,383        4,024
TOTAL              210,192      194,231          195,323      179,945

*Service terminated in 2007

Source: Greyhound Lines, Inc.

    as buses are retired. On its website, Greyhound provides the following summary of its
    customers and their travel trends:
      ♦ One-third of Greyhound passengers make more than $35,000 per year;
      ♦ More than half of Greyhound riders have received higher education beyond high
      ♦ Forty-two percent of Greyhound passengers are between the ages of 18 and 34;
      ♦ Nearly 60 percent of Greyhound passengers travel less than 450 miles;
      ♦ Many Greyhound passengers report they own automobiles considered sufficiently
         reliable for a trip of a similar distance, but travel by bus because it is safe and more
      ♦ The majority of Greyhound passengers travel to visit family and friends, but more than
         21 percent travel for business reasons; and
      ♦ The average ticket price is $45.00.

    Since the FirstGroup acquisition, Greyhound has been taking steps to improve its image by
    spending $60 million to refurbish terminals, add new buses, and staff terminals with
    personnel that are capable of helping customers who have questions regarding the bus
    system. Greyhound is also initiating an advertising campaign aimed at attracting the 18 to
    24 year old demographic as well as Spanish speaking customers. The company has begun
    to advertise itself as “The New Greyhound.”

    In addition, Greyhound has teamed up with Amtrak to combine train and bus stations where
    practical. These intermodal terminals have been initiated in several locations across the
    country. Also since the FirstGroup acquisition, Greyhound has initiated two discount bus
    services to compete with Megabus. One is called “NeOn” and the other “BoltBus.” Both are
    operating out of New York City and service major cities in the Northeast, and as indicated
    through discussions with Greyhound representatives, it is likely this service will be extended
    to the Midwest, if successful. The service is based on the Megabus model, offering fares as
    low as $1.00, with lowest fares depending on how far in advance a trip is booked and
    passenger demand for the trip. Fares increase for trips booked closer to date of departure.


    Indian Trails is a family owned and operated intercity bus provider that has been providing
    service since 1910. Headquartered in Owosso, Michigan, the company operates primarily in
    Michigan with limited Indiana service. The service through Indiana is part of the company’s
    four Chicago to Michigan schedules. Indian Trails currently has two lines in Indiana
    operating along the following corridor:

     ♦ I-90/I-94 – between Chicago, IL and St. Ignace, MI, including three stops in each
         direction at both Hammond and Gary.

    Indian Trails recently discontinued a line to Michigan City due to a lack of ridership and
    additional cost of mileage off the freeway necessitated by the need to lease a new bus

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                  15
    station facility off of the freeway route. The company does not currently have plans to add
    additional lines within Indiana.

    Indian Trails offers four schedules operating to and from Chicago and Michigan. Over the
    years, the system has made various system changes within these four schedules on the
    main route, with no additional services being added to Indiana. The system does plan to
    make minor quarterly schedule adjustments to reflect time of year and traffic and passenger

    Fares for the system are based on mileage. Indian Trails does not currently have authority to
    sell tickets in Indiana intrastate, so the system does not have a fare between Hammond and
    Gary. Indian Trails offers student, senior, children’s, and military discounts. Currently tickets
    can be purchased via the telephone. The company is in the process of creating a new
    webpage, which will eventually offer on-line ticketing.

    The ridership in Hammond for 2007 was 1,937 passenger boardings and 2,582 passenger
    alightings. In Gary, the ridership for the same period was 3,371 passenger boardings and
    4,079 passengers getting off at this station.


    Lakefront Trailways was established in 1964 and has grown to be the largest motorcoach
    company in the State of Ohio. Headquartered in Cleveland, Lakefront provides service to
    several locations within Indiana along the following corridor:

     ♦ I-90/U.S. 33 – between Chicago, IL and Akron, OH, including one stop in each direction
         in Gary, South Bend, Elkhart, and Fort Wayne.

    On-call service is also available in Angola, which requires a customer to call 48 hours ahead
    of schedule to divert the bus to Angola on its route between Fort Wayne and Elkhart. Fort
    Wayne, South Bend, Elkhart, and Gary stops all operate out of Greyhound stations. Fares for
    the system are based on mileage. For example, the fare from Fort Wayne to Elkhart, a
    distance of 58 miles, is $34.00 one-way.

    The annual total passengers from July 2007 through June 2008 were 18,317. The average
    on and off counts for this period for each of the five stops indicate that much of the ridership
    is originating and stopping in Fort Wayne with less ridership from the other locations. Angola
    averages less than one rider per day departure with an average of just over one passenger
    arriving per day.


    Megabus, a subsidiary of Coach USA, offers no-frills intercity bus service primarily in the
    midwest and northeast sections of the country. Megabus began as an operating concept in

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               16
    the United Kingdom in 2003 and was introduced to the United States in the spring of 2006.
    West coast service was initiated in 2007, although later discontinued less than a year later
    due to low ridership. The northeastern service has only operated since May of 2008.

    The company’s services are based in Chicago with daily routes to Milwaukee, Indianapolis,
    Cincinnati, Cleveland, St. Louis, Ann Arbor, Columbus, Louisville, Toledo, Detroit, Kansas
    City and Minneapolis. Service through Indiana is operated along the following corridor:

     ♦ I-65/I-74 - between Chicago and Cincinnati/Columbus, OH, including five schedules
         operating in each direction stopping only in Indianapolis.

    Service between Chicago and Louisville via Indianapolis was also initiated but since
    withdrawn due to low ridership. With the exception of the limited $1.00 fares, the one-way
    fares for these routes range from $10 to $30, depending on the chosen schedule and length
    of advance ticket purchase. Megabus also provides service from Chicago to Ann Arbor and
    Cleveland via northern Indiana, however there are no stops along these routes in the state.

    The company offers non-stop intercity express bus service with fares as low as $1.00 via the
    Internet, along with a $0.50 booking fee. Tickets are not normally available from the bus
    operator. The $1.00 fares are only available for those customers that purchase their tickets
    early. This is the yield management model that is typically used by airlines where the lowest
    fares are offered to those who book early or on less popular schedules. Normally only two
    seats are sold for $1.00 per schedule.

    Also consistent with the low cost airline model, Megabus stop locations are on public streets
    or at park-and-ride lots, usually outside railroad stations, located at transportation centers in
    major cities, at park-and-rides lots, or on college campuses.

    The company’s web site provides information on arrival and departure times and allows
    passengers to quickly book their travel and purchase tickets from their computer or wireless
    handheld device.

    No ridership information was available from the carrier.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                17


    INDOT began to offer intercity bus grants to carriers in the state with the availability of federal
    Section 5311(f) funding in the mid-1990s. These grants were designed to offset the declines
    in service experienced in the state. Greyhound received Section 5311(f) funds for three
    routes over an eight year period until they were discontinued by the carrier in 2004 due to low
    ridership and revenue levels. These routes were:

      ♦ Indianapolis – Louisville along Highway 37;
      ♦ Indianapolis – South Bend along Highway 31; and
      ♦ Fort Wayne – Chicago along Highway 30.

    Interestingly, INDOT has noted that no complaints or concerns were received from the areas
    affected by this service termination. INDOT followed-up the service terminations by asking
    the Section 5311 supported systems in the affected areas if there were any local concerns
    about the service being discontinued. The systems indicated a lack of concern at the local
    level regarding these service cuts.


    INDOT currently supports two intercity bus projects with Section 5311(f) funds. The City of
    Marion is the recipient of a grant that reimburses passengers who are residents of Grant
    County for 50 percent of the cost of a ticket on Greyhound. Eligible riders must submit a
    claim form along with their Greyhound ticket for reimbursement. Residents can use the local
    transit system for travel to the Greyhound pick-up point just off I-69. The City also receives
    administrative funds to manage this grant. Marion receives a total of $15,600 of Section
    5311(f) assistance for this service, which has been in place since 1995. It is estimated that
    approximately 200 passengers use this service annually, with the elderly being the primary

    Johnson County receives a Section 5311(f) grant totaling $214,600 for the operation of a
    fixed route bus through Johnson County Access to link-up with IndyGo at the Greenwood
    Park Mall in Indianapolis. INDOT has been supporting this service with Section 5311(f) funds
    since 1999. In FY 2007 nearly 24,000 passengers used the service to connect with IndyGo;
    however, evaluation of this service raises questions as to its eligibility for funding support
    through the Section 5311(f) program. While it meets several of the intercity service
    requirements, the fixed route service does not provide direct connections to intercity bus

    Note that for rural transit operators of intercity bus service such as those noted above, it may
    be easier now than in the past to obtain proper operating authority and maintain a

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                 18
    reasonable level of insurance based on state, rather than federal requirements. Greyhound
    has worked closely with the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) to simplify
    this process.

    Also, the intercity bus industry has created a new membership category in the National Bus
    Traffic Association (NBTA), the industry’s financial clearinghouse for interline ticketing, to
    allow rural transit agencies to more easily establish formal interline relationships with
    Greyhound and other interline carriers. This concept of interlining means that the rural
    systems that operate feeder services into intercity bus stations, along with smaller intercity
    bus carriers, can have cooperative agreements among each other and Greyhound. It allows
    them to sell tickets to consumers whose trip may utilize two or more carriers and the carriers
    receive the share of the ticket revenue that is generated on their portion of the route. Further,
    it means that rural feeder service operators can now easily interline with Greyhound for
    nationwide fare and schedule quotations, integrated telephone and Internet ticketing,
    revenue sharing, marketing and terminal access. This practice greatly expands service
    opportunities and revenue for the carriers.


    INDOT has undertaken extensive efforts to promote the availability of funding offered through
    the Section 5311(f) program. Annually, an opportunity is provided for public comment
    regarding how the state should utilize its Section 5311(f) funds through:

      (1) publishing a public notice in all major newspapers in Indiana; and

      (2) notifying, via mail, private intercity carriers providing service in Indiana.

    No verbal or written comments have been received in recent years in response to these
    notices. In 2004, INDOT was contacted by Burlington Trailways regarding the possibility of
    providing some expanded intercity bus service in Indiana. However, following further study
    of the issue, the company’s representative notified INDOT that for economical reasons the
    company had decided not to pursue this funding.

    In addition, INDOT meets with its Section 5311 grantees periodically to discuss potential
    Section 5311(f) projects, but none of the rural systems have shown any interest in providing
    intercity service or connector services to intercity bus stations. With the exception of the two
    currently funded intercity bus projects, year after year no funding requests are received,
    resulting in the Governor signing a partial certification that the state’s intercity bus needs are
    being met. This allows the remaining Section 5311(f) funds, representing nearly 15% of the
    state’s Section 5311 apportionment, to be used to meet other rural transportation needs
    across the state. Indiana’s FY 2008 Section 5311 apportionment is $12,866,972, resulting in
    the availability of $1,930,045 in Section 5311(f) funds. INDOT is currently utilizing about 12
    percent of its total Section 5311(f) apportionment for intercity bus services.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                 19
    Despite the efforts of INDOT to promote the availability of the Section 5311(f) funds, there
    has been little interest among the private intercity carriers and the state’s rural transit systems
    to provide additional intercity bus service. Unfortunately, across the country, this is normally
    the case. The reluctance of intercity carriers and rural systems to initiate intercity bus service
    is often due to the 50 percent match requirement for operating assistance. To explain this
    further, for each $1.00 in operating loss experienced by the carrier, they must generate $0.50
    in local match. In most situations incidental revenue, such as package delivery, will not meet
    the matching requirement and local governments typically do not participate financially
    unless they consider the service to be a need and priority of its citizens. Therefore, intercity
    bus companies often view providing such service to be a money-losing endeavor.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                 20

    The comparison of intercity bus service available today versus the pre-deregulation period of
    the 1970s is extraordinary. In 1976 there were about ten intercity bus companies serving
    Indiana with Greyhound and Trailways dominating the market. Companies including ABC
    Coach Lines, Fuqua Bus Lines, Illini Swallow Lines, Indiana Motor Bus Co. and I-V Coaches
    also provided significant levels of service across the state. There were also numerous
    Greyhound and Trailways affiliates operating during this time. Over the years, some
    Greyhound, Trailways, or other routes were sold to the independent bus companies, primarily
    Burlington Trailways and Indiana Motor Bus Co., but most of these routes are not in service
    today. Figure 1 on page 9 includes a color coded map that shows intercity bus routes in
    existence in 1976.

    At the time documented in Figure 1, there were nearly fifty intercity bus routes serving the
    State of Indiana, stopping at approximately sixty-five municipalities and many more
    communities and crossroads across the state. Today, there are twelve intercity bus routes
    with six of the routes in Indiana operated by Greyhound, primarily operating along the state’s
    interstate highway network. The existing intercity bus routes stop in only thirteen Indiana

     ♦   Anderson;
     ♦   Angola (on-call);
     ♦   Crawfordsville (limited service);
     ♦   Elkhart;
     ♦   Evansville;
     ♦   Ft Wayne;
     ♦   Gary;
     ♦   Hammond;
     ♦   Indianapolis;
     ♦   Lafayette;
     ♦   Marion;
     ♦   South Bend; and
     ♦   Terre Haute.

    Angola is an “on-call” stop, requiring passengers to call 48 hours ahead of schedule for
    service on Lakefront Trailways’ Chicago to Akron route. Crawfordsville is a limited service
    bus stop meaning that it does not handle tickets, baggage, or express. The other stations
    offer full service for customers including handling tickets, baggage and express, including
    C.O.D. express

    It should be noted that most communities located along an intercity bus route do not have a
    stop. In most situations only the larger cities are used as stops; these communities have

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                             21
    sufficient population to generate adequate ridership out of the station. Years ago intercity
    carriers stopped at nearly every community along the routes and at designated highway
    stops between communities, but now bus companies are primarily concerned about
    operating profitably. Service is provided along major U.S. and state highways, enabling the
    carriers to provide more timely service between stops and make the service as competitive
    as possible to the automobile. Figure 2 on page 12 illustrates the cities served by intercity
    bus companies in Indiana.

    Indiana has fourteen Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) across the state. Of these
    fourteen MSAs, five do not have intercity bus service:

      ♦   Bloomington;
      ♦   Columbus;
      ♦   Kokomo;
      ♦   Michigan City; and
      ♦   Muncie.

    Of these five, Michigan City is the only one that has some intercity service available through

    The volume of intercity bus service available in Indiana today is very modest as compared to
    the past. With five intercity carriers serving thirteen stations, much of the state (from a
    geographical perspective) is not served by intercity bus (see Figure 4). With four scheduled
    routes, Indianapolis is by far the best-served city in the state. There are 34 buses arriving
    and departing in Indianapolis daily along with 2 buses on the Chicago – Cincinnati route that
    stop in Indianapolis only four days per week. These are all Greyhound routes with the
    exception of a Burlington Trailways’ Cedar Rapids - Indianapolis route. Included in this
    number is the Megabus schedule that stops once daily in each direction through
    Indianapolis. Most of the other service in the state is along the northern border. Note that
    Amtrak Thruway Bus Service is not considered additional bus service. It is part of a
    cooperative agreement between Amtrak and Greyhound to provide Amtrak passengers with
    published intercity bus options for travel from Amtrak stations to locations Amtrak does not

    One of the dilemmas that intercity carriers face in determining the routes to serve is the
    potential service demand along a route. There are many variables affecting demand such as
    the type of provider (rural transit operator or intercity bus carrier); frequency; time of day,
    length of trip; population characteristics; physical and service characteristics of connections;
    fare levels; availability of interline tickets; and publication of routes and schedules in national
    intercity bus schedule guides, such as Russell’s Official National Motor Coach Guide.

    There are 104 incorporated Indiana cities with over 1,000 population that do not have intercity
    bus service (see Figure 4). These cities represent a total population of nearly 1.5 million
    persons. Of these cities, 48 exceed the 10,000 population level.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                 22
                                         Figure 4:
                 Incorporated Indiana Cities Lacking Intercity Bus Service

                                                                          Approx. Miles
          City              2005 Population (est.) Nearest Bus Station      to Station
Alexandria                  5,868                 Anderson               10
Attica                      3,385                 Lafayette              21
Auburn                      12,687                Fort Wayne             16
Aurora                      4,064                 Louisville             71
Batesville                  6,407                 Indianapolis           62
Bedford                     13,551                Indianapolis           70
Beech Grove                 14,069                Indianapolis           6
Berne                       4,157                 Fort Wayne             33
Bicknell                    3,284                 Terre Haute            48
Bloomington                 69,017                Indianapolis           51
Bluffton                    9,460                 Fort Wayne             27
Boonville                   6,782                 Evansville             17
Brazil                      8,214                 Terre Haute            13
Butler                      2,714                 Fort Wayne             25
Cannelton                   1,168                 Evansville             58
Carmel                      58,198                Indianapolis           7
Charlestown                 8,052                 Louisville             16
Clinton                     4,906                 Terre Haute            13
Columbia City               8,024                 Fort Wayne             18
Columbus                    39,380                Indianapolis           43
Connersville                14,368                Indianapolis           57
Covington                   2,465                 Crawfordsville         23
Crown Point                 22,697                Gary                   11
Decatur                     9,547                 Fort Wayne             21
Delphi                      2,980                 Lafayette              14
Dunkirk                     2,639                 Anderson               31
East Chicago                30,946                Hammond                3
Elwood                      9,167                 Anderson               16
Frankfort                   16,432                Lafayette              24
Franklin                    21,747                Indianapolis           26
Garrett                     5,760                 Fort Wayne             14
Gas City                    5,819                 Marion                 5
Goshen                      31,269                Elkhart                9
Greencastle                 10,065                Terre Haute            38
Greendale                   4,357                 Indianapolis           90
Greenfield                  16,654                Indianapolis           18
Greensburg                  10,536                Indianapolis           51
Greenwood                   42,236                Indianapolis           18
Hartford City               6,684                 Marion                 17
Hobart                      27,768                Gary                   6
Huntingburg                 5,929                 Evansville             39
Huntington                  17,011                Fort Wayne             25
Jasonville                  2,508                 Terre Haute            20
Jasper                      13,767                Evansville             56
Jeffersonville              28,621                Louisville             6
Jonesboro                   1,759                 Marion                 7
Kendallville                10,018                Fort Wayne             24

                                        Figure 4:
                Incorporated Indiana Cities Lacking Intercity Bus Service

                                                                         Approx. Miles
         City              2005 Population (est.) Nearest Bus Station      to Station
Knox                       3,667                 South Bend             31
Kokomo                     46,178                Marion                 30
La Porte                   21,092                South Bend             26
Lake Station               13,565                Gary                   4
Lawrence                   40,959                Indianapolis           12
Lawrenceburg               4,750                 Indianapolis           95
Lebanon                    14,633                Indianapolis           20
Ligonier                   4,423                 Elkhart                23
Linton                     5,808                 Terre Haute            29
Logansport                 19,211                Lafayette              39
Loogootee                  2,680                 Evansville             55
Madison                    12,443                Louisville             42
Martinsville               11,657                Indianapolis           29
Michigan City              32,205                Gary                   25
Mishawaka                  48,497                South Bend             5
Mitchell                   4,626                 Louisville             53
Monticello                 5,462                 Lafayette              28
Montpelier                 1,857                 Marion                 20
Mount Vernon               7,238                 Evansville             18
Muncie                     66,164                Anderson               19
Nappanee                   6,955                 Elkhart                16
New Albany                 36,772                Louisville             7
New Castle                 18,718                Anderson               28
New Haven                  13,676                Indianapolis           105
Noblesville                38,825                Indianapolis           15
North Vernon               6,433                 Indianapolis           67
Oakland City               3,196                 Evansville             26
Peru                       12,732                Marion                 22
Petersburg                 2,501                 Evansville             36
Plymouth                   10,876                South Bend             23
Portage                    35,687                Gary                   9
Portland                   6,191                 Anderson               49
Princeton                  10,152                Evansville             28
Rensselaer                 6,234                 Indianapolis           90
Richmond                   37,560                Indianapolis           68
Rising Sun                 2,405                 Indianapolis           91
Rochester                  6,451                 South Bend             42
Rockport                   2,091                 Indianapolis           146
Rushville                  5,679                 Indianapolis           40
Salem                      6,453                 Louisville             31
Scottsburg                 6,060                 Louisville             33
Seymour                    18,890                Louisville             49
Shelbyville                18,063                Indianapolis           30
Southport                  1,729                 Indianapolis           8
Sullivan                   4,537                 Terre Haute            25
Tell City                  7,690                 Evansville             51
Tipton                     5,254                 Anderson               22

                                     Figure 4:
             Incorporated Indiana Cities Lacking Intercity Bus Service

                                                                      Approx. Miles
         City           2005 Population (est.) Nearest Bus Station      to Station
Union City              3,471                 Anderson               44
Valparaiso              29,102                Gary                   13
Vincennes               18,077                Evansville             51
Wabash                  11,209                Marion                 18
Warsaw                  12,735                Fort Wayne             39
Washington              11,357                Evansville             55
West Lafayette          28,599                Lafayette              4
Whiting                 4,893                 Hammond                5
Winchester              4,845                 Anderson               33
Woodburn                1,635                 Fort Wayne             14
Total Unserved Pop.:    1,481,984


    The primary problem with intercity service within the state of Indiana is that while most of the
    state has access to intercity bus service, individuals are limited to where they can travel. The
    central portion of the state (north of Indianapolis) along with the southwest section, are
    basically void of intercity bus service. It is not possible to travel by intercity bus in Bedford,
    Bloomington, Columbia City, Crown Point, Huntington, Jasper, Remington, Rensselaer,
    Rochester, Valparaiso, Vincennes, and Warsaw, to name a few cities without service.
    Service terminations have even resulted in cities lacking service along lengthy portions of the
    state’s interstate highway network, once the foundation of intercity travel and stations.

    The lack of service into Bloomington, with its large student population, is quite puzzling.
    Greyhound once served the city, but the service was terminated due to low ridership. It
    should be noted that intercity bus service in cities in other areas of the country with a
    significant college student presence have witnessed substantial ridership increases as fuel
    costs have escalated. A private provider, the Bloomington Shuttle Service, operates nine
    scheduled trips each way daily between Bloomington and the Indianapolis airport. The
    service stops at three locations on the Indiana University campus and at two major hotels in
    Bloomington. The cost is $25 each way between Bloomington and Indianapolis.

    In an effort to obtain a better understanding of the adequacy of Indiana’s existing intercity
    bus and passenger rail service and the need for additional service, the consultant conducted
    a Needs Assessment Survey (see Appendix A). The survey was sent electronically to over
    1,000 individuals across the state including representatives of public transportation
    providers, transportation planning organizations, economic development agencies,
    Chambers of Commerce, and city/county executives. A total of 96 completed surveys were
    returned, with some response from each survey group. It should be noted that while only
    about 10 percent of those receiving surveys responded, the state was well represented
    geographically. There was no portion of the state that was not represented by the returned

    Of those individuals that returned the survey, 52 percent are affiliated with an organization
    that provides passenger transportation services. This does not mean that they necessarily
    work for a provider of transportation services, but may be a local official in a city or town that
    has a public transportation system. While 54 percent of the responders are associated with
    a public transportation system that serves the general public, only eight community
    transportation systems or just 11 percent that responded to a question whether the local
    public transit system provides service to an intercity bus or Amtrak station. Most reported
    minimal ridership to these stations.

    A total of 66 percent of those responding believed that there are currently intercity bus needs
    in their area of the state that are not being met. However, there were a limited number of
    routes identified that could benefit from the provision of intercity bus services. In several
    instances, it appeared that the response was more associated with the public transportation
    needs within a specific city or county as opposed to regional intercity bus routes or

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                 26
    connector services to existing bus routes. There were regional needs cited but not from the
    perspective of connection to intercity bus, but concerning regional travel within an area.
    Several interests appear more commuter related than concerned with intercity bus services.
    The following are those potential intercity routes or service corridors identified by the survey

     ♦   North – South along SR 3 between Kendallville and Charlestown;
     ♦   From Berne to Decatur and Fort Wayne and Berne to Bluffton;
     ♦   Connections to Amtrak stations in Crawfordsville and Lafayette;
     ♦   Michigan City to La Porte and West Lafayette;
     ♦   Multiple connections from Columbus, IN to Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Seymour, Madison,
         French Lick, Lawrenceburg, and Madison;
     ♦   Bloomington to Martinsville - Mooresville – Indianapolis;
     ♦   Hendricks County to Indianapolis;
     ♦   Elkhart - Fort Wayne – Huntington;
     ♦   Harrison, Floyd and Scott counties to downtown Louisville;
     ♦   South Bend/Elkhart area to Indianapolis;
     ♦   Multiple connections from Greenfield, IN to Indianapolis, Carmel/Fishers, and
     ♦   Warsaw/Winona Lake or Syracuse or Milford or Pierceton to Ft. Wayne and South
         Bend, Indianapolis and Chicago airports.
     ♦   Multiple connections from Richmond to Cincinnati, Indianapolis, and Dayton;
     ♦   South Bend to Grand Rapids MI;
     ♦   North Judson to Chicago or Indianapolis; Knox to Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, South
         Bend or Chicago;
     ♦   Indianapolis to other major metropolitan areas in the state;
     ♦   Multiple connections from Bloomington, IN to Bedford, Columbus, and Terre Haute;
     ♦   Service frequency and reliability for Lafayette - Indianapolis and Lafayette – Chicago
     ♦   Steuben County to Bloomington, Muncie, and West Lafayette;
     ♦   Shelbyville - Indianapolis; Shelbyville - Greenwood; Fairland - Indianapolis; Fairland -
         Greenwood; Flat Rock – Columbus; and
     ♦   Noblesville/Indianapolis, Carmel/Indianapolis, and Fishers/Indianapolis.

    Requests for information and interviews with the state’s intercity bus providers resulted in
    limited recommendations for future supported service. Table 5 presents the proposed routes
    and operating expenses/deficit associated with each route, along with projected annual
    ridership and revenue per passenger as provided by Lakefront Trailways.

    Greyhound provided recommendations for three routes, two of which were also noted above
    by Lakefront Trailways. Greyhound also provided the following recommendation, but without
    expense, deficit, ridership, and revenue data, for this route:

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                27
                                                  Table 5:
                                    Lakefront Trailways Proposed Routes

                                                                               Annual      Revenue/
Route/Cities Served                                      Cost       Deficit    Ridership   Passenger

Chicago - Fort Wayne via U.S. 30/                        $445,861   $295,335   6,220       $24.20
 Hammond, Gary, Valparaiso, Plymouth, Warsaw,
 Columbia City

Cincinnati - Paducah, KY via U.S. 50/U.S. 41/            $476,741   $336,480   5,891       $19.37
  Aurora, Versailles, Seymour, Bedford, Washington,
 Vincennes, Princeton, Evansville, Henderson, KY,
 Morganfield, KY, Marion, KY

Indianapolis - Louisville via I-69/SR37/U.S. 150         $714,550   $419,602   7,396       $39.88
  Martinsville, Bloomington, Bedford, Paoli

Elkhart - Indianapolis via U.S. 20/U.S. 31               $429,479   $336,527   3,276       $26.37
  South Bend, Plymouth, Rochester, Peru, Kokomo


       ♦ Indianapolis to Louisville along I-65, stopping in Seymour and Scottsburg.

    Greyhound provided information to verify that their current approximate operating cost is
    $3.25 per vehicle mile.

    It was very important to obtain from the survey the level of importance or value that the public
    placed on intercity bus and passenger rail service. In rating the importance of intercity bus
    and rail, with “1” representing no importance and “4” representing high importance, the
    average response was 2.6, somewhere between somewhat important and important. Only
    nine responders indicated that the service was not important to them.

    It was also very significant to measure the survey responses from the perspective of support
    for the use of federal and state funds for the operation of intercity bus services in their
    respective areas of the state. Survey results indicated that 83 percent of the responses
    favored the use of federal and state funds to support the operation of intercity bus services in
    their area with only 17 percent not supporting such service.

    The same question was posed regarding the use of state funds to support the operation of
    Amtrak service in some areas of the state. Similar to the earlier response, 82 percent of
    those responding favored the use of state funds for this purpose.

    These positive responses were observed across all respondent groups for both questions.
    This will be very important as the state determines how it wants to proceed with the intercity
    bus and passenger rail programs. It will be incumbent on INDOT to determine if state funds
    should be obtained to match federal funds to support intercity bus services in particular
    areas of the state. The same determination must be made regarding the use of state funds
    to support expanded Amtrak service in the state.

    The document: Scheduled Intercity Transportation: Rural Service Areas in the United States:
    June 2005, (U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology
    Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics), addresses the reduction of rural intercity
    transportation services across the country with specific information provided for each state.
    The study takes into account the significant Greyhound restructuring in 2004 and 2005. This
    is an update of a 2003 study that undertook a geospatial analysis using GIS tools to plot
    intercity facilities across the country, including intercity bus. A reasonable coverage radius
    around each station was defined as 25 miles, which is based on the commonly used
    standard within the intercity transportation industry and previous work done by the Bureau of
    Transportation Statistics and the Office of U.S. Secretary of Transportation. Figure 6 includes
    a map of transit propensity for the state of Indiana, indicating the 25 mile radius around
    existing intercity bus stations.

    The study found that intercity bus continues to have the deepest service penetration of all the
    modes reviewed, even after the aforementioned service cuts. Indiana is no exception to this

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              29
                             Figure 6: Indiana Transit Propensity by
                             Census Tract With Intercity Bus Stations

                                                                          St. Joseph
                                                                                            [     Elkhart




                                    Jasper             Pulaski                Fulton                                                      _
                                                                                                                                          [ Allen


                                                                                                    Wabash          Huntington
                                                                          Cass           Miami                                                      Adams
                                              White                                                                                 Wells


                                                                                    Howard                                    Blackford

                                                                                                        Madison                              Randolph
           [             Fountain
                                                                                        Hamilton              _
                                           Montgomery              Boone


                               Parke                         Hendricks             Marion

                                              Putnam                                                                                  Fayette
                                                                                                                        Rush                         Union


                                                                   Morgan           Johnson

                                              Owen                                                                    Decatur

                                                                                 Brown      Bartholomew
                                                                 Monroe                                                                         Dearborn

                                                                                                                                  Ripley                         Indiana Transit Propensity
                                                                                                                                                                 By Census Tract
                                                                                                                                                                      Very Low
                                                                 Lawrence                                                                    Switzerland
                    Knox          Daviess        Martin                                                     Scott

                                                                                                                                                                      Very High
           Gibson                                                                                  Floyd
                                                                                    Harrison                _
                                                                                                                                                             [     Intercity Bus Stations
                                                                                                                                                                   25-mile Radius Around Each
                                                                                                                                                                   Bus Station

    Nationally, the study found that 89 percent of the country’s rural residents live within the
    coverage area of an intercity bus provider. For Indiana, it was determined that of the
    2,367,966 total rural residents, 95.6 percent live within reasonable distance of intercity bus
    service. Only 213,175 person, or about 9 percent of the rural residents of Indiana, have
    access solely to intercity bus service and not to the other modes including rail or air.
    Considering intercity bus, air, and rail service, 99.8 percent of Indiana residents live within
    reasonable access of commercial intercity transportation.

    INDOT must decide whether to use all of the funds authorized for intercity use, totaling over
    $1.9 million, for intercity bus needs or to use a portion of the funds to provide other unmet
    rural public transportation needs across the state. FTA guidance allows states to weigh the
    level of unmet rural public transportation needs against the intercity bus needs in making its
    “Governor’s certification” decision.

    While there are definitely areas of the state that lack intercity bus service, and this study
    provides some recommendations for routes to be considered for Section 5311(f) support,
    there continue to be areas of Indiana that lack any type of general public transportation
    service. As illustrated by Table 7, while most of the state’s counties are served by county-
    wide community transportation systems, there are twenty-eight counties that lack such
    service. These counties, with an unserved population totaling over 1.5 million people,
    represent about 25 percent of the state’s estimated 2007 population of nearly 6.5 million
    residents. Figure 8 is a map that indicates the current public transit systems in Indiana.

    While federal deregulation has resulted in reduced intercity bus service in rural areas, federal
    policy has recognized that there are benefits to enabling passengers to make connections
    between modes, including intercity bus, rail and local transit services. In addition to
    operating funds, federal funding has also been made available for the construction of
    intermodal passenger facilities, including the intercity bus related portion of the facilities.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                31

                                              Table 7

                              Counties Without County-Wide
                            General Public Transportation Service
               County                                   Unserved Population
               Adams                                                33,644
               Allen                                                98,241
               Bartholomew                                          34,933
               Benton                                                8,050
               Carroll                                              19,987
               Clark                                                39,585
               Clay                                                 26,648
               Elkhart                                             113,402
               Floyd                                                33,581
               Fountain                                             17,143
               Howard                                               37,874
               Jackson                                              23,038
               Lake                                                288,349
               La Porte                                             56,843
               Marion                                               81,346
               Montgomery                                           37,477
               Parke                                                17,169
               Perry                                                18,916
               Porter                                              160,578
               Posey                                                26,262
               Putnam                                               37,014
               Spencer                                              20,334
               St. Joseph                                          162,019
               Tippecanoe                                           77,971
               Tipton                                               16,069
               Vanderburgh                                          58,172
               Vermillion                                           16,417
               Warren                                                8,482
               TOTAL                                             1,569,544

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                               32
                                Figure 8: Indiana Public Transit Systems
                                     East Chicago       Michigan City South Bend
                                                                                                Elkhart         LaGrange
                                                                                                Elkhart                       Steuben
                               Hammond          NICTD            LaPorte
                                                                              St. Joseph        Goshen
                                     Lake      Porter         LaPorte
                                                                                                                  Noble           DeKalb

                                                                                Marshall        Kosciusko
                                                                e                                                             Allen
                                              Jasper                                                           Whitley
                                                              Pulaski                                                        . Wayne
                                                                                                                           Ft. Way e
   Kankakee-Iroquois Regional
                  i     i
   Planning Commission (KIRPC)       Newton                                                      Wabash
                                                             White                                             Huntington
                                                                                                                           Wells Adams
                                                                 Carroll                 Miami         Marion
                                     Boswell                                     Kokomo
                                                     Tippecanoe                                        Grant         Blackford
                                                                                     Howard                                          Jay
                                                      a aye e    Rossville
                                                     Clarks Hill Clinton              Tipton                      Muncie
                                                                                                   Anderson                   Randolph
                                       Fountain Montgomery                            Hamilton
                                                                                                                 New Castle
                          Vermillion                                                                              Henry
                                                                                                 Hancock                          Wayne
                                                                      e d c s        Indpls
                                                                                       dp s
                                                       Putnam                                                              Fayette
                                                                                                                Rush                  Union
                                  Terre                                                          Shelby
                                  Haute                                 Morgan
                                               Clay                                                                           Franklin
                                                       Owen                                                    Decatur
                                                                                Brown       Columbus
                               Sullivan                                                    Bartholomew                               Dearborn
                                                                   oo   go
                                                                 Bloomington                                             Ripley
Southern Indiana Development
S           i                                       G
Commission (SIDC)                                                                                         Jennings
                                                        Bedford                       Seymour
                                                       Lawrence                                                               Switzerland
                                        Daviess Martin                                                         Jefferson
                                 Knox Washington                                                   Scott
                                                                                                                           Southeastern Indiana Regional
                                                                                 Washington                                Planning Commission (SIRPC)
                                       Pike          DuBois                                            TARC
                        Gibson                                 Crawford                       Floyd

                                 Warrick                                             Harrison
                        Vanderburgh                             Perry
                        Evansville               Spencer

                                                                                                                  County Systems
                                                                                                                  Rural City Systems

                                                                                                                  Urban Systems
                    The counties with a thicker outline are part of a regional transit system


    The structure of Section 5311(f) programs across the country vary from state-to-state due to
    the State Departments of Transportation utilizing various policies and procedures to
    administer the intercity bus program. For example, many states limit the size of the project
    award amount and the number of years that the same project can be funded. States may
    elect to prioritize particular types of projects, such as capital versus operating projects. FTA
    provides the states with the discretion to institute such program restrictions.

    Research also found that states vary greatly across the country regarding their percentage
    use of Section 5311(f) funds. Some states utilize all of the available funds while many states
    utilize less than the total apportionment and submit a governor’s waiver for some portion of
    the funds. It was found that those States not utilizing Section 5311(f) funds was not due to a
    lack of effort on the part of the state, but often as a lack of interest from the state’s intercity
    bus providers.

    For the purpose of this task, the consultant researched and reviewed documentation from
    several state DOT’s across the country to determine how they use their Section 5311(f)
    funds. Information was also sought on how the states structured their intercity bus
    programs. A variety of states were selected, based on recognition of the strengths of the
    programs and/or the level of fund usage for intercity programs. Most states that subsidize
    service provide operating support, often as a pilot project. Other states take a more capital
    focused approach, while others have a more balanced approach. Some states focused
    exclusively on intercity bus while others focused on the role of the intercity bus system in the
    statewide transportation network. Marketing and support projects were also emphasized to
    varying degrees.


    The Oregon Intercity Bus Program has been in effect since 1998. The primary goal of the
    program is to support a reliable and safe network of interconnected, accessible passenger
    services along major transportation corridors and between Oregon cities with populations of
    2,500 people or more. The Oregon Department of Transportation provides financial support
    for rural intercity connections to passenger rail and bus services. Intercity funding can also
    be used as match toward the federal Section 5311(f) intercity bus program. Historically,
    Oregon has approached the intercity bus program from the perspective that the state
    continues to have intercity bus needs and has never submitted a Governor’s Certification to
    FTA stating that the intercity bus needs of the state are being adequately met.

    Oregon uses a very comprehensive approach to their program. First, the state defines an
    acceptable level of basic intercity bus service, essentially a network of service that is
    perceived to be fundamental to meeting the travel needs of the state’s citizens. Then,

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                  34
    missing pieces of the network are identified, and the state provides financial support to fill
    these service gaps.

    Intercity bus grants are available to private providers and public entities providing service that
    supports and develops intercity service, information, or coordination. To be eligible for
    financial support, services must have limited stops over longer distances and are part of the
    national intercity bus or rail network. Projects must connect rural communities with larger
    urban areas and may benefit any geographic area of the state, which has a gap in intercity
    service. Grants are provided on a biennial basis for planning, capital and operating projects.

    If a project meets threshold criteria (applicant eligibility, project type), it is evaluated in a
    public process and ranked according to value-based selection criteria. The criteria include
    project justification and need, project planning, local coordination efforts, project efficiency
    and effectiveness, and how the project fits into overall statewide network priorities. Project
    selection is based on the ranking of each project proposal. Project year and any limitation of
    available funding are used to determine the number of projects that can be funded in a given
    cycle, and all proposals may not be funded. The state may fund intercity projects of
    statewide importance outside the discretionary grant process. The division has the option of
    developing either a grant agreement or a contract with private for profit operators. This
    decision is made in consultation with the operator.

    Operating funds in most cases are awarded through an intercity discretionary grant
    application process, and normally awarded for two years. All agencies must submit a
    quarterly status report in order to receive reimbursement. Capital and planning grant
    agreements generally will be awarded for a two-year period, with an option to extend the
    agreement for a third year if approved by the division administrator. If a project is not, or
    cannot, be completed within the two or three-year time frame, the division may re-negotiate a
    completion date with the subrecipient.


    The Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) supports intercity bus
    transportation through two major programs; one provides operating assistance and the other
    is a capital assistance program. Under the Pennsylvania Intercity Bus Operating Assistance
    Program, PennDOT contracts with municipalities and private intercity bus companies to
    provide scheduled, fixed route service along routes which are considered essential links in
    the regional/statewide network of intercity bus services. These are projects that cannot be
    financially supported solely from user fares. Continuation of existing service threatened with
    abandonment is generally given the highest priority, with proposals for new or expanded
    service usually receiving a lower priority.

    The Intercity Bus Capital Program is designed to assist intercity bus providers with ADA
    related capital projects. There are two types of capital projects. The first is projects for lifts
    or mobile seating devices and the second is for ADA related facility enhancements.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                  35

    The main purpose for the program is to help carriers become ADA eligible, and thus eligible
    for federal funds. In order for the state to provide capital money to a carrier, they need to
    have a public sponsor (county or township/municipality) for a facilities project, but may apply
    directly for lifts and mobile seating devices. This program is entirely discretionary. In recent
    years, there has not been money available for the Intercity Bus Capital Program. When there
    is money available to fund Intercity Bus Capital, a solicitation for application is distributed to
    eligible grantees.

    Funding for these programs is provided by the following two sources:

      ♦ State Act 10 – State general funds appropriated annually by the General Assembly; and
      ♦ Federal Section 5311 funds.

    PennDOT utilizes the following criteria in making funding decisions for the Intercity Bus

      ♦ Adherence to prescribed grant application procedures and deadlines;
      ♦ Average cost recovery of proposed service (revenue/expense);
      ♦ Average trip lengths per passenger, total boardings, average load factors, and nature
        of travel;
      ♦ Availability of alternative services; and
      ♦ Have all potential avenues for improving the financial performance of the service
        through scheduling, pricing or marketing efforts been exhausted?

    The amount of funding will depend on the current level of Section 5311 funds available, with
    up to a maximum level of 50 percent of the project deficit available for operating assistance
    and 80 percent for capital assistance. All grantees are required to submit a monthly report of
    operations along with the invoice for reimbursement.


    The Iowa Intercity Bus Assistance Program is a multifaceted program predicated upon the
    Iowa Department of Transportation’s Transit System Plan. It is the intention of the Intercity
    Bus Assistance Program to: (1) provide support for the existing intercity bus routes that tie
    Iowa to the rest of the country; (2) provide assistance for new feeder routes which will give
    smaller communities not served by the existing routes access to stops along those routes;
    (3) increase public awareness of the intercity connections which are available through a
    targeted intercity bus marketing program; and (4) help providers to upgrade equipment and
    facilities, including adding accessibility features required by the Americans with Disabilities
    Act of 1990.

    The program is designed to meet federal program guidance. Charter and tour bus services
    are excluded from assistance through the program, and commuter services are included

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                 36
    only if they make meaningful connections to the intercity bus network. Connections to
    scheduled intercity rail or air passenger services, where available, are strongly encouraged
    as a supplement to intercity bus connections, but cannot be substituted for them. Each
    route must include service to population centers outside of urbanized areas with populations
    over 50,000. Proposed projects must directly support the provision of intercity bus services
    in Iowa. Eligible routes must serve Iowa intercity bus terminals connected to the nationwide
    intercity bus network and include stops in non-urbanized areas.

    It is the intention of Iowa DOT to expend all of their approximately $1.4 million Section 5311(f)
    apportionment for intercity bus needs. A discussion with staff indicated that for FY 2009,
    Iowa intends to utilize about 40 percent of its apportionment on capital with the remainder
    used for operating and marketing needs.

    Intercity bus companies, aspiring bus companies, public transit agencies, and local
    governments wanting to support intercity bus connections in their community are eligible to
    apply for the program. Joint public/private applications are encouraged, but if identical
    proposals are received from public and private providers, the private sector proposals are
    generally considered more favorably. A solicitation for project applications is conducted
    annually. Operating assistance projects generally cover a one-year period, while capital
    improvement projects are allowed a reasonable period for project implementation based on
    the nature of the project. In an effort to more effectively administer the program, Iowa DOT’s
    Office of Public Transit has established the following prioritized categories for intercity bus

    1. Provide a base level of funding support to preserve the existing intrastate system.
       • Funding will be approximately $0.10 per revenue mile based primarily on preventive
          maintenance and insurance costs;
       • Funding will be allocated based on existing miles of Iowa intercity service;
       • To qualify for these funds, carriers must provide quarterly reports noting the number of
          Iowa passenger trips by route, miles of revenue service, and total cost per revenue
          mile; and
       • Eligible carriers must serve Iowa intercity bus terminals connected to the nationwide
          intercity bus network.

    2. Provide support for the development of new connector/feeder service.
       • Funding assistance shall be up to $0.50 per mile based primarily on preventive
         maintenance and insurance costs. Funding for new routes that duplicate existing
         routes shall be limited to $0.10 per mile;
       • New service projects are eligible for funding for three years;
       • To qualify for these funds, carriers must provide quarterly reports including the same
         reporting information noted above;
       • Eligible carriers must serve Iowa intercity bus terminals connected to the nationwide
         intercity bus network; and

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               37
      • New intercity bus service must be ADA accessible and each route must include service
        to non-urban population centers.

    3. Provide funding assistance for route specific marketing projects.
       • Marketing of new services will have the highest priority for this category of funding;
       • Marketing of new routes will be funded at 80 percent federal – 20 percent non-federal,
         with a federal cap of $12,000 per route;
       • New marketing of existing service will be funded at 80% federal - 20% non-federal, with
         a federal cap of $7,500 per carrier;
       • Joint project development between cities, intercity carrier terminal managers, and
         operators is encouraged;
       • Funding will be limited to external non-labor costs only;
       • Applicants should include a systemwide overview of their current marketing efforts; and
         Applicants with unused marketing funds may have their marketing funding requests
         reduced or eliminated unless proper justification is provided. Justification should
         include reasons why funding is unexpended plus a plan that assures the balance and
         any additional funding will be spent in a timely manner.

    4. Provide support for vehicle and bus terminal improvements.
       • Vehicles required to support new services for Iowa will have the highest priority for
         funding, with terminal improvements having the next highest priority.
         Terminal improvements shall require commitments to continue service for a period of
         years; and
       • All improvements must meet ADA accessibility standards.


    The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) utilizes all of the state’s Section 5311 (f)
    allocation for the provision of intercity bus service. Only private intercity bus carriers that
    provide service that meets the federal intercity bus guidelines are eligible for funding through
    the Georgia Intercity Bus Program. The Georgia program is rather unique in that it consists
    of three capital-only elements: vehicle purchase, signage, and marketing. None of the funds
    are used for intercity bus operating assistance. Under the vehicle purchase portion of the
    program, GDOT purchases intercity coaches and subsequently leases them to eligible
    intercity bus operators. Of the total project cost, 80 percent represent grant funding with the
    remaining 20 percent provided by the operator.

    Intercity operators are required to submit quarterly vehicle utilization reports to GDOT, and
    GDOT periodically inspects the vehicles to ensure that they are being properly maintained.
    Additional projects have been the purchase and installation of trailblazer directional signs to
    intercity bus stations and a marketing campaign to inform the public of the relocation of the
    Atlanta Greyhound station.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               38

    The primary focus of North Carolina’s Intercity Bus Program is to provide operating
    assistance to enable rural transit systems and intercity bus operators to provide feeder
    connections to intercity services, to reinstate or initiate intercity bus services in areas lacking
    current services, and to allow coordination of long-distance medical trips as part of regional
    or intercity services. Accordingly, the program provides operating assistance, including
    funds to adequately market the service to the public. NCDOT has determined that capital
    funding for vehicles or facilities would only have an indirect impact on the goal of serving
    areas or markets that are currently unserved due to the limited amount of funding available,
    so the focus is on providing operating support. Based on the operational structure of the
    proposed service, a limited amount of administrative funding may also be available.

    Fifteen percent of North Carolina’s Section 5311 apportionment represents over $3.1 million
    for the Section 5311 (f) program. There is an additional $400,000 in state funds available to
    match intercity bus projects. Operating assistance is provided with 100 percent federal/state
    funds; no local match is required. NCDOT utilizes this funding structure due to the difficulty
    private operators and/or the sponsoring local governments encounter providing the required
    50 percent non-federal match.

    The NCDOT Intercity Bus Program also supports Travelers’ Aid programs that assist
    homeless, stranded or indigent travelers with their intercity transportation needs through the
    purchase of bus tickets. Funds are provided to a few regional agencies across the state,
    supporting up to 50 percent of the cost of purchased tickets. NCDOT requires participating
    Travelers’ Aid agencies to confirm that an individual has a place to live in the area the client
    is traveling to prior to the purchase of the intercity bus ticket.

    Eligible recipients of these Intercity Bus Program funds are community transportation
    systems; other public, private nonprofit, and private for-profit transportation providers; public
    transportation authorities; intercity bus providers; local public bodies including counties and
    municipalities; Indian tribes; and regional or local planning organizations.

    NCDOT passes through funds to a local agency that subcontracts with a third party,
    including a private intercity bus provider, in order to provide the service. Alternatively,
    NCDOT may contract directly with an intercity bus provider. Performance criteria are
    specified in the grant agreement between NCDOT and the recipient.

    The intercity carrier must provide a contingency plan for service interrupted due to vehicle
    breakdown or severe weather conditions, which shall include, but is not limited to, provision
    of food and/or hotel accommodations for affected passengers. Grantees must report
    information on provided services and marketing to NCDOT with the invoice of expenditures
    on a monthly basis. The following data are to be recorded and reported each month for
    each route operated along with the invoice:

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                   39
     ♦   Total miles operated;
     ♦   Total passengers carried, including ridership generated from each ticketing
     ♦   station;
     ♦   If vehicle is accessible, number of passengers using the wheelchair lift;
     ♦   Passenger miles;
     ♦   Passenger revenue;
     ♦   Freight/package delivery revenue;
     ♦   Total operating cost to provide the service;
     ♦   Cost per mile operated;
     ♦   Cost per passenger mile; and
     ♦   Marketing activities and expenses, with appropriate back-up documentation.

    NCDOT has recently conducted a study, Assessing Potential Intercity Bus Services
    for FTA Section 5311(f) Funding (Final Report, June 2008, Institute for Transportation
    Research and Education, North Carolina State University), that proposes a new process for
    soliciting and funding intercity bus projects. The proposed process includes the following

     ♦ Conduct an evaluation of the statewide intercity bus network, and develop/revise the
         map of that network. This step would be conducted only at regular intervals;
     ♦   Conduct a needs assessment to gather input from local transportation providers,
         planners, business representatives, etc;
     ♦   Conduct a consultative process with potential intercity bus operators. That would lead
         to a determination of intercity bus services for which proposals would be requested;
     ♦   Select services to receive funding assistance. Request applications to operate
         selected services, and conduct a two-step application process;
         o Request and review Letters of Interest from potential applicants. NCDOT staff
             would review the Letters of Interest to determine each applicant’s ability to meet
             required federal and state qualifications such as possessing and being in
             compliance with, or agreeing to obtain Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration
             (FMCSA) authority; possessing or agreeing to obtain insurance at required levels;
             and stating an intent to become an interline partner with Greyhound; and
         o Request detailed applications to operate service(s) from operators who were
             deemed to be qualified to operate intercity bus services based on the information
             submitted in their Letters of Interest. The detailed applications from qualified
             operators would be reviewed and evaluated by NCDOT staff. Service(s) and
             operators would be selected to receive funding assistance. If no satisfactory
             applications were received for a particular service, NCDOT could elect to negotiate
             an agreement for service with a qualified operator.
     ♦   Execute funding agreements for service(s); and
     ♦   NCDOT would monitor the performance of services receiving funding assistance.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                           40

    The Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) completed an intercity bus study in 2007
    that was very similar to the current effort in Indiana. The scope of the study was primarily
    concerned with assessing intercity bus needs based on existing conditions, demographic
    indicators, and solicited input from communities, rural transit providers, and intercity bus

    The study found that Greyhound’s 2005 route restructuring resulted in considerable loss of
    service across the State of Ohio, with 12 percent of the state’s residents living outside of
    reasonable access to an intercity bus stop or terminal. Also, there is very limited feeder
    service into the existing intercity bus routes.

    The study results do suggest, however, the need for state level policy decisions regarding
    the role of intercity bus service in meeting ODOT’s mission and state goals for public
    transportation. It was also found that incentives are needed to encourage coordination
    between intercity bus and rural transit operations and operating assistance for certain
    services that have been discontinued due to Greyhound’s restructuring.

    ODOT is limited in its grant making ability with intercity carriers due to the state’s lack of
    authority to contract directly with the intercity carriers. As a result, intercity bus grants must
    be provided indirectly through an existing ODOT grantee that subsequently enters into a
    third-party agreement with the intercity carrier to enable the funds to flow.

    ODOT originally utilized Section 5311(f) funds for purchase/construction of intermodal
    facilities, administrative cost of ticketing agents, and marketing expenses. In 2003, the state
    began to use these funds for route-specific operating assistance. Note that Ohio has no
    state funds that can be used toward the non-federal matching requirements.

    The study recommendations include capital assistance for the improvement of intercity
    facilities, support of fixed route/schedule feeder service into the Greyhound interline service
    by the rural transit network, and support of some routes recommended by Lakefront

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                  41

    The review of several state intercity bus programs across the country indicates that there are
    characteristics of the more successful programs that transcend from one program to
    another. The more notable characteristics are:

     ♦ A vision for a statewide transportation network and the role of intercity bus in this
     ♦   Diverse use of intercity bus funds for capital and operating based on local needs;
     ♦   Objective project selection criteria;
     ♦   Strong marketing component of each supported route, providing important consumer-
         related information.
     ♦   A system of project reporting that facilitates project monitoring;
     ♦   Established project evaluation criteria to measure success of projects;
     ♦   Strict project oversight by state DOT; and
     ♦   State funds to support intercity bus services.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                42

    The primary purpose of the Indiana Intercity Bus Study was to provide the Indiana
    Department of Transportation with: (1) an assessment of the intercity bus needs across the
    state; (2) recommendations for addressing the unmet needs, particularly from the
    perspective of potential utilization of federal Section 5311(f) funds; and (3) recommendations
    for the overall structure of the state’s intercity bus program. An evaluation of Amtrak service
    in the state was also to be conducted along with providing recommendations for the use of
    state funds to support the service.

    The consultant made the following observations concerning the status and needs of
    Indiana’s intercity bus industry:

     ♦ Indiana has lost most of its intercity bus service due to deregulation and lack of
     ♦   Five intercity bus carriers are providing limited service primarily along the state’s
         interstate highway network;
     ♦   Intercity bus schedules provide stops in the late evening or very early morning, but
         often with lengthy travel times;
     ♦   There are 104 municipalities in Indiana that are not served by intercity bus, including
         several sizeable cities such as Carmel, Columbus, and Muncie and most notably
         Bloomington, with its large student population;
     ♦   There are only 13 communities in Indiana that have an intercity bus stop, with one of
         those having limited service (Crawfordsville) and another having on-call service only
     ♦   There is a lack of multi-modal public transportation facilities that enhance mobility
     ♦   Intercity bus stops are currently within 25 miles of nearly 96 percent of Indiana’s rural
     ♦   Much of the state, from a geographical perspective, has no access to intercity bus
         service, particularly the north-central area and all areas south of Indianapolis with the
         exception of Evansville and the portion of the state in the Louisville service area;
     ♦   While county-wide general public transportation service is lacking in 28 Indiana
         counties, intercity bus service is within reasonable distance of most of the unserved
     ♦   Over 1.5 million, or nearly 25 percent, of Indiana residents reside in areas that lack
         general public transportation service;
     ♦   Little interest from intercity bus carriers to increase service in the state;
     ♦   Structure of intercity bus programs and their use of Section 5311(f) funds varies greatly
         among the states, with some being more operating or capital oriented while other
         states have a more diverse approach;

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              43
     ♦ Measureable project selection criteria is an important element of a successful intercity
         bus program;
     ♦   Most successful state intercity bus programs include a strong marketing component of
         each supported route, providing important consumer-related information;
     ♦   Existing intercity bus routes, while decreased dramatically in numbers, continue to
         provide valuable opportunities for travel across state lines;
     ♦   Currently 2 routes supported by Section 5311(f) funds operate in the state;
     ♦   In the past the state’s intercity bus carriers and rural transit systems have shown little
         interest in utilizing Section 5311(f) funds;
     ♦   Limited feeder connections exist between the state's rural transit systems and intercity
         bus carriers;
     ♦   Current intercity bus service is often infrequent and slow with stations difficult to find;
     ♦   Survey responses indicated a lukewarm opinion of the importance of intercity bus
     ♦   Responses supported using state funds to support intercity bus services but provided
         few recommendations on how the funds should be utilized; and
     ♦   Several survey respondents called for regional service from counties lacking general
         public service.

    Overall recommendations for the state’s intercity bus program include:

     ♦ Develop an intercity bus service section within INDOT’s Transit website, including
         information regarding intercity bus service available in the state and links to websites of
         all intercity bus companies operating in Indiana;
     ♦   Place intercity bus directional signs along intercity bus routes to direct citizens to bus
     ♦   Work closely with the state’s Section 5311 supported systems to develop intercity bus
         feeder services to connect people from the rural areas to intercity bus and rail stations;
     ♦   Initiate the recommended project funding process (see below) to further determine
         intercity carriers’ interest in providing additional services, with intercity service
         implementation along the routes noted below; repeat this process on an annual basis;
     ♦   Consider use of the FTA “Pilot Project” funding methodology that allows states to use
         the capital costs of unsubsidized private sector intercity bus service as an in-kind
         match for operating costs of connecting rural intercity bus feeder service;
     ♦   Fund projects for a minimum two-year period with a decision made following the third
         quarter as to whether the service would be supported in the second year;
     ♦   Balance new and old projects, retaining successful projects but leaving funds available
         for new projects to be funded;
     ♦   Add “sustainability of project” as a consideration in funding decisions;
     ♦   Ensure that each project has defined outcome-based performance measures, and
         require close performance monitoring of the project by the provider and INDOT;
     ♦   Require a detailed marketing plan to be submitted for each funded project;

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               44
     ♦ Encourage all FTA supported transit systems to serve their local intercity bus station;
     ♦ Inspect intercity bus stations across the state to determine the potential Section 5311(f)
       applicability to facility improvements; and
     ♦ Consider opinions of intercity bus providers on route structure and schedules for
       selected projects, due to their experience in the industry.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                            45


    A thorough evaluation of INDOT’s current Section 5311(f) program indicated that the
    program meets most of FTA’s minimum requirements for the program, but improvements to
    the required consultative process are necessary. The consultant made the following
    observations regarding INDOT’s 5311(f) program:

     ♦ In 2004, Greyhound discontinued three routes that were supported with Section 5311(f)
     ♦   Route termination resulted in little reaction from local officials and the general public;
     ♦   INDOT is currently supporting two intercity bus projects with Section 5311(f) funds, one
         with the City of Marion and the other with Johnson County, utilizing approximately 12
         percent of its Section 5311(f) funds;
     ♦   The operating nature of the Johnson County project raises concerns regarding its
         eligibility for Section 5311(f) funding;
     ♦   INDOT annually announces the availability of Section 5311(f) funds in the state’s major
         newspapers and corresponds directly with the intercity bus companies operating in
     ♦   INDOT meets periodically with the Section 5311 supported community transportation
         systems to discuss the availability of Section 5311(f) funds and potential intercity bus
     ♦   These efforts have resulted in very little interest in future intercity bus projects; and
     ♦   INDOT has routinely submitted a Governor’s Certification to FTA, indicating that the
         state’s intercity bus needs are met and that the remaining Section 5311(f) funds are to
         be used to provide other rural transportation services.

    This study has evaluated Indiana’s intercity bus needs from various perspectives. First, there
    was a survey of over 1,000 individuals across the state including representatives of public
    transportation providers, transportation planning organizations, economic development
    agencies, Chambers of Commerce and city/county executives. The survey resulted in some
    ideas for intercity bus routes that could potentially benefit the traveling public in Indiana.
    Discussions were held with each intercity bus company operating in the state, along with a
    review of the routes that they have terminated over the years.

    The existing statewide intercity bus network was evaluated, noting those communities lacking
    intercity bus service and the gaps in service. Next, the consultant analyzed the transit
    propensity across the state, particularly in those areas that are void of intercity bus service.
    Then, using an area of 25 miles around an existing intercity bus station, the number of
    residents living outside this reasonable distance was determined and compared to the
    service gaps. An additional consideration was major travel destinations that would more
    likely generate intercity bus ridership.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              46

    This extensive needs assessment is fundamental to this entire study. It is necessary to
    understand the areas of greatest potential demand for intercity bus service and to compare
    those areas to the current service. The higher service demand areas that lack service are
    identified as gaps in service and should be considered a priority for Section 5311(f) funding
    support. Based on this analysis, the following routes should be considered for Section
    5311(f) support in the future:

     ♦ Elkhart/South Bend – Indianapolis along US 31;
     ♦ Indianapolis – Louisville along SR 37/US 150;
     ♦ Evansville – Cincinnati along US 50/US 41;
     ♦ Evansville – Indianapolis along proposed I-69 corridor (upon completion) or along US
     ♦ Evansville – Louisville along I-164 and I-64;
     ♦ Terre Haute – Evansville along US 41; and
     ♦ Feeder routes into the various Indiana intercity bus stations.

    The identification of these routes is not intended to preclude the support of other intercity bus
    routes along different corridors of the state. It is merely for the purpose of providing a basis
    to be used as a guide for determining intercity bus routes that would be supported with
    federal funds. Also, this intercity bus route network of current and proposed routes should
    be reevaluated periodically and updated as needed.

    It is most important that at the time these routes are seriously considered for funding, that the
    schedules for connecting routes be carefully evaluated as well to enable the newly scheduled
    service to maximize passenger transfers. Often, just a minor schedule modification will ease
    the transfer from one route to another. Even if the routes are operated by different carriers,
    each carrier will benefit from schedules that allow route connectivity and passenger transfers.

    While there continue to be rural areas of the state that lack general public transportation
    services, it is the consultant’s conclusion that consistent with FTA’s intention for the Section
    5311(f) program, INDOT should actively and genuinely solicit intercity bus projects on an
    annual basis. And, while entering each fiscal year with the intention of expending the state’s
    entire Section 5311(f) apportionment on intercity bus projects, INDOT should only support
    those projects that have merit and reasonable chance for success.

    In the event a balance of Section 5311(f) funds are left following the project solicitation and
    funding efforts, INDOT should pursue a “partial governor’s certification” to be submitted to
    FTA, allowing the remaining balance of Section 5311(f) funds to be used for the provision of
    other rural transportation needs across the state. With the likelihood that the lack of local
    matching funds may affect INDOT’s ability to expend the Section 5311(f) funds, INDOT
    should utilize FTA’s pilot project that allows states to use the capital costs of unsubsidized
    intercity bus service provided by private operators as in-kind match for the operating costs
    associated with connecting rural intercity bus feeder service.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               47

    Also, it should be noted that Section 5311(f) includes capital needs as an eligible expense.
    INDOT is encouraged to consider capital projects that will enhance the provision and
    utilization of intercity bus services across the state, such as construction of intermodal
    facilities, bus station refurbishment, and directional signs.


    We recommend the following grants solicitation process:

     ♦ Conduct an annual assessment of intercity bus needs via a brief email survey of
         representatives of public and private transportation providers, transportation planning
         organizations, economic development agencies, Chambers of Commerce, and
         city/county executives (see Appendix B);
     ♦   Compile a list of proposed intercity bus services determined from survey responses;
     ♦   Evaluate each proposed service based on FTA’s requirements for the Section 5311(f)
         program and state funding criteria (see below);
     ♦   Develop prioritized list of potential intercity bus projects;
     ♦   Conduct a meaningful consultative process that includes providing the opportunity for
         the state’s intercity bus providers to meet with INDOT officials to discuss the prioritized
         list of potential intercity bus projects, and address any questions or concerns the
         providers may have regarding the list of projects, application process, service
         requirements, etc. (Note that the consultative process should be documented with
         minutes from the meeting);
     ♦   Finalize a list of intercity bus services for which INDOT will solicit service operation
     ♦   Distribute an application package to public and private public transportation providers,
         including intercity bus companies operating in the state, requesting applicants to
         identify those services they are interested in providing, provide an operating plan,
         including route/schedule and anticipated ridership, provide a plan for marketing the
         service, and submit operating budgets for each of the two years of anticipated service;
     ♦   Evaluate applications based on established criteria (see suggestions below) and
         amount of available funds. (Note that the number of projects continued from the
         previous year will impact the funds available for new projects);
     ♦   Select applicants to provide service and receive funding support;
     ♦   Execute a contract with selected providers to operate the intercity bus services,
         developing either a grant agreement through a Section 5311 recipient or a contract with
         an intercity bus provider;
     ♦   Providers submit monthly/quarterly invoices and reports including performance
         information as determined by INDOT;
     ♦   INDOT provides reimbursement of expenses following invoice review;
     ♦   Based on a performance evaluation during the first three quarters of operation, INDOT
         would determine if second year funding will be provided;

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              48
     ♦ INDOT notifies providers of second year funding decisions at least thirty days prior to
       the end of the period of performance of current contract; and
     ♦ Repeat process annually based on a prescribed schedule (see Appendix C for a
       tentative schedule).


    Following receipt of the completed needs assessment survey, it is proposed that INDOT
    utilize the following criteria to screen the proposed intercity bus services:

     ♦ Does the service meet the definition of intercity bus service as required by FTA and,
         therefore, is eligible for Section 5311(f) funding?
     ♦   Is the service duplicative of other intercity routes?
     ♦   Are unserved areas of the state served by theh proposed route?
     ♦   Does the service provide a meaningful connection with other intercity bus routes?
     ♦   Does the service fit into INDOT’s public transportation network?
     ♦   Is the anticipated ridership adequate?
     ♦   Has the service been provided in the past, and if so, what was its level of success?
     ♦   Is proposed service eligible for assistance from other funding sources?


    Once INDOT receives applications for the intercity bus routes for which there is interest to
    support, it is recommended that the following criteria be used for application evaluation.

     ♦ Overall quality and thoroughness of the application, particularly its adherence to
         application instructions and schedule (20 points);
     ♦   Connection of proposed service with existing intercity bus service (15 points);
     ♦   Financial solvency of the intercity bus operator, including adequate insurance coverage
         (15 points);
     ♦   Adequate capital to provide service, including vehicles and boarding locations
         (15 points);
     ♦   Provision of local match (15 points);
     ♦   Intercity bus operator’s capability and history of providing comparable service (10
         points); and
     ♦   Proposed farebox recovery of service (revenue/expense) (10 points).

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              49

    The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak, is a government-
    owned corporation that was organized in 1971 to provide intercity passenger train service in
    the United States. Amtrak operates passenger service on 21,000 miles of track primarily
    owned by freight railroads connecting 500 destinations in 46 states.

    In FY 2007, Amtrak served 25.8 million passengers on its national network, representing five
    straight years of record ridership. Preliminary ridership data for FY 2008 indicates a total of
    well over 28 million passengers, an increase of approximately 11 percent from the previous
    year and an increase of over 43 percent since FY 2001.

    Indiana Amtrak service of varying frequencies includes stops at the following terminals:

     ♦   Connersville;
     ♦   Crawfordsville;
     ♦   Dyer;
     ♦   Elkhart;
     ♦   Hammond-Whiting;
     ♦   Indianapolis;
     ♦   Lafayette;
     ♦   Michigan City;
     ♦   Rensselaer;
     ♦   South Bend; and
     ♦   Waterloo.

    Amtrak has a significant presence in Indiana, operating three long-distance trains through
    the state:

     ♦ The Capitol Limited (daily Chicago-Waterloo-Cleveland-Pittsburgh-Washington, D.C.
       serving South Bend, Elkhart and Waterloo); westbound train travels through Indiana
       during early morning and eastbound during the evening. Ridership increase of 11.7
       percent in FY 2008.
     ♦ The Cardinal (tri-weekly Chicago-Indianapolis-Cincinnati-New York, serving Dyer,
       Rensselaer, Lafayette, Crawfordsville, Indianapolis and Connersville); westbound train
       travels through Indiana during early morning (Sunday, Wednesday, Friday) and
       eastbound during the evening (Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday). Ridership increase of
       12.7 percent in FY 2008; and
     ♦ The Lake Shore Limited (daily Chicago-South Bend-Cleveland-Buffalo-Boston/New
       York, serving South Bend, Elkhart and Waterloo); westbound train travels through
       Indiana during early morning and eastbound during the very early morning. Ridership
       increase of 10.6 percent in FY 2008.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                50

    Amtrak also operates one corridor train, the Hoosier State (four days per week (Indianapolis-
    Lafayette-Chicago), which operates on the days that the Cardinal does not. The
    departure/arrival times for the Hoosier State are the same as for the Cardinal, operating
    westbound Sunday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday, while operating eastbound on
    Sunday, Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Note that the Hoosier State does not stop in
    Connersville. Ridership on the Hoosier State increased 20.6 percent in FY 2008 from the
    previous year.

    Additionally, the Wolverine (Chicago-Pontiac) serves Hammond-Whiting and Michigan City
    with three daily round trips. Ridership on the Wolverine increased by 5.2 percent in FY 2008.

    Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach connections area available for the Cardinal/Hoosier State,
    connecting Crawfordsville, Champaign, Bloomington, Galesburg, and Davenport to the
    Indianapolis Amtrak station. Four daily single-connection train/shuttle schedules provide
    transportation between Chicago and Bloomington. Amtrak’s Thruway Motorcoach, consists
    of Amtrak-owned intercity coaches, locally contracted transit buses, through-ticketed local
    bus routes and taxi services, to connect Amtrak train stations to areas not served by it rail
    system. Passenger rail and Thruway Motorcoach tickets are purchased together from
    Amtrak for the length of a passenger's journey, and the connections are timed as best as
    possible for convenient transfers between the two services. In addition to providing
    connecting service to unserved areas, some Thruway Motorcoaches operate as redundant
    service along well-established and utilized passenger rail corridors to add extra capacity
    (Figure 9).

    While the number of trains is quite impressive, the area served is rather limited. Service is
    only available along the most northern part of the state extending from Hammond to
    Waterloo and along the corridor from Dyer to Connersville via Indianapolis. Therefore, the
    majority of the state is not within reasonable access of Amtrak service.

    In FY 2007, Amtrak expended nearly $10 million for goods and services in Indiana. Most of
    this money, almost $7 million, was spent in Indianapolis. This is largely attributable to the
    location of the major boarding station in Indianapolis and the nearby Beech Grove
    maintenance facility. At the end of FY 2007, Amtrak employed 780 Indiana residents, with
    wages totaling nearly $38 million.

    Also, INDOT has provided over $1 million in financial assistance for capital improvement to
    the Beech Grove maintenance facility. This funding has assisted Amtrak with renovating
    buildings used to expand repair services and securing jobs of Beech Grove and Indianapolis
    area residents.

    Amtrak serves eleven Indiana stations, resulting in nearly 125,000 total boardings and
    alightings in FY 2008, as compared to about 108,000 during the previous year, an increase

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               51
                                 Figure 9:
        Intercity Train, Amtrak, and Amtrak Thruway Bus Route

                                                                                St. Joseph




                                                        Pulaski                  Fulton

                                                                                                        Wabash          Huntington
                                                                           Cass            Miami                                                        Adams
                                               White                                                                                    Wells

                       Benton                                 Carroll
                                                                                      Howard                                      Blackford
                                                                     Clinton               Tipton
                                                                                                           Madison                               Randolph
                                          Montgomery                 Boone

                               Parke                           Hendricks             Marion

                                               Putnam                                                                                     Fayette
                                                                                                                            Rush                          Union

                                                                     Morgan           Johnson
                    Vigo                                                                                                                        Franklin

                                 Clay          Owen                                                                       Decatur

                                                                                  Brown        Bartholomew
                                                                  Monroe                                                                                Dearborn
                                                                   Lawrence                                                                      Switzerland

                    Knox          Daviess          Martin                                                      Scott


           Gibson                                                                                     Floyd

        Vanderburgh                                         Perry
Posey                                   Spencer
                                                                                                                                                                   Amtrak Thruways Bus
                                                                                                                                                                   NICTD - South Shore Line

    of over 15 percent. The stations are noted below with the total boardings and alightings for
    FY 2007 and FY 2008.

    Table 10

    Station                               Total Boardings and Alightings

                                         FY 2007        FY 2008         % Change
    Connersville                         497            647             30%
    Crawfordsville                       4,431          5,040           14%
    Dyer                                 1,723          2,162           25%
    Elkhart                              11,718         14,115          20%
    Hammond-Whiting                      6,457          6,289           (2%)
    Indianapolis                         29,110         34,089          17%
    Lafayette                            18,483         23,083          25%
    Michigan City                        1,941          2,176           1%
    Rensselaer                           1,630          1,830           12%
    South Bend                           15,856         17,576          11%
    Waterloo                             16,217         17,881          10%
    Total Indiana Station Usage          108,066        124,888         16%

    Source: Amtrak


    The largest of Amtrak’s three heavy maintenance facilities is located in Beech Grove,
    southeast of Indianapolis. At this facility, approximately 550 employees rebuild and overhaul
    Amtrak’s Superliner, Viewliner, Surfliner, Hi-Level, Heritage, and Horizon car fleets. The P32,
    P42, and F59 locomotives also are overhauled and rebuilt here for use across the Amtrak

    During FY 2007, 10 passenger car and 15 locomotive wreck repairs were completed at
    Beech Grove and returned to service. Also, 94 Superliners, 23 Horizon cars, 12 Viewliner
    sleepers, and 37 diesel locomotives were overhauled or remanufactured. Five Superliner
    Sightseer lounges were converted to an experimental diner/lounge configuration, allowing
    cost savings in onboard food service. Beech Grove forces also overhauled six coaches for
    commercial customers.

    During FY 2008, Beech Grove is expected to complete overhauls on 81 Superliners, 17
    Surfliners, 13 Viewliner sleepers, 19 Horizon coaches and cafes, five Hi-Level coaches, 13
    Heritage diners and sleepers, and 36 baggage cars inherited from predecessor railroads.
    Four coaches and two locomotives will be overhauled for the State of California’s fleet. Also
    planned are overhauls on 35 diesel locomotives and wreck repairs on nine locomotives and
    11 passenger cars.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              53

    It is anticipated that Beech Grove would likely see considerable growth if it were used to
    service a proposed high-speed rail system linking Indiana with locations from Cleveland to
    St. Louis, including Chicago, Cincinnati and Louisville. Beech Grove would be a logical point
    for cars and locomotives to be serviced which could result in 500 – 600 new workers at the

    Recent station improvements have been modest within the state with the Town of Dyer
    signing an agreement formally “adopting” the station in that community. Town employees
    and volunteers will beautify and maintain station grounds and update train information
    boards at the passenger shelter. The passenger shelter at Crawfordsville and surrounding
    area was cleaned and improved by students from Crawfordsville High School. At the request
    of local government, a new passenger shelter was installed at the Michigan City station.


    The South Shore Line is an electrically powered interurban streetcar line operated by the
    Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD) between the Randolph Street
    Terminal in downtown Chicago and the South Bend Regional Airport. However, the South
    Shore Line has quite a history dating back to the early 1900’s.

    Revenue service was initiated on the line in 1908 from Michigan City east to South Bend, with
    the first through electric train service from Chicago to South Bend initiated in 1926. The line
    was operated as the Chicago South Shore and South Bend Railroad (CSS&SB) and ridership
    flourished until highway competition and suburban growth resulted in significant declines in
    ridership in the 1960’s. In 1971 the CSS&SB was one of only six long-distance passenger
    trains to decline joining the new Amtrak system. In 1976 the CSS&SB asked the Interstate
    Commerce Commission (ICC) to abandon passenger service along the line. The ICC gave
    the State of Indiana the opportunity to respond to this imminent service termination. In 1977
    the Indiana General Assembly passed legislation enabling the four counties served by the
    South Shore Line (St. Joseph, LaPorte, Porter and Lake) to create the NICTD as a means to
    provide the operation with state financial support to maintain and improve the South Shore
    passenger service.

    The CSS&SB continued to operate the South Shore Line until it went bankrupt in 1989, at
    which time the NICTD took over operation. In December 1990 the track was sold to the
    NICTD, and freight service was taken over by the new Chicago South Shore and South Bend
    Railroad, a subsidiary of the short line operator, Anacostia and Pacific. In November 1992 an
    extension was built from the old South Bend terminal at the Amtrak station to the South Bend
    Regional Airport.

    The South Shore Line is one of only a few surviving interurban streetcar lines in the United
    States. The main rail yard, maintenance shops, and dispatching office are in Michigan City,

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                             54
    while the NICTD corporate headquarters are in Chesterton. The line operates along ninety
    miles of track between Chicago and South Bend, stopping in twenty stations. The Indiana
    portion of the service is sixty-nine miles long with twelve passenger stations.

    In 2006, the service resulted in over 11,000 weekday riders at the Indiana stops. South Shore
    Line trains make the following station stops in Indiana:

     ♦   Hammond;
     ♦   East Chicago;
     ♦   Gary Airport/Clark Road;
     ♦   Gary Metro Center;
     ♦   Miller;
     ♦   Ogden Dunes/Portage;
     ♦   Dune Park;
     ♦   Beverly Shores;
     ♦   11th Street (Michigan City);
     ♦   Carroll Avenue (Michigan City);
     ♦   Hudson Lake; and
     ♦   South Bend Airport.

    The South Shore Line route, along with the state’s Amtrak routes, is shown in Figure 11.

    The Indiana Public Mass Transportation Fund (PMTF) provides the NICTD with an annual set-
    aside of 12.34 percent of the total PMTF amount available for operating and capital needs.
    Of the total $42.5 million in FY 2009, $5,244,500 is allocated to the NICTD, an increase of
    1.85 percent from the previous year. PTMF receives 0.635 percent of the state sales and use
    tax. These funds are allocated to public transit agencies on a calendar year basis using a
    performance based formula. Awards are limited to an amount equal to 100 percent of the
    project's locally derived income (system revenues and local taxes) or the system's total
    formula allocation, which ever is less. Service area population, passenger trips, total vehicle
    miles, and locally derived income data are utilized to compute the formula allocations.

    At this time efforts are underway to extend the South Shore Line to Lowell and Valparaiso.
    With it having a lower cost and much higher ridership projections, it appears likely that the
    Lowell portion will receive FTA New Start funds, with the Valparaiso section being delayed at
    this time. The NICTD wants to move forward and study the feasibility of running the
    Valparaiso extension on the former Amtrak corridor from Gary to Valparaiso. The previous
    plan called for the extension to operate on the rights of way of the Canadian National

    Also, there is interest in the development of commuter rail service for central Indiana. In 2007
    the Indiana General Assembly passed an act requiring INDOT to conduct a feasibility study
    for commuter rail service along two central Indiana corridors – Muncie to Indianapolis and

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              55
                                                           Figure 11:
                                               South Shore Line and Amtrak Routes

                                                                                St. Joseph




                                                        Pulaski                  Fulton

                                                                                                        Wabash          Huntington
                                                                           Cass            Miami                                                        Adams
                                               White                                                                                    Wells

                       Benton                                 Carroll
                                                                                      Howard                                      Blackford
                                                                     Clinton               Tipton
                                                                                                           Madison                               Randolph
                                          Montgomery                 Boone

                               Parke                           Hendricks             Marion

                                               Putnam                                                                                     Fayette
                                                                                                                            Rush                          Union

                                                                     Morgan           Johnson
                    Vigo                                                                                                                        Franklin

                                 Clay          Owen                                                                       Decatur

                                                                                  Brown        Bartholomew
                                                                  Monroe                                                                                Dearborn
                                                                   Lawrence                                                                      Switzerland

                    Knox          Daviess          Martin                                                      Scott


           Gibson                                                                                     Floyd

        Vanderburgh                                         Perry
Posey                                   Spencer
                                                                                                                                                                   Amtrak Throughways Bus
                                                                                                                                                                   NICTD - South Shore Line

    Bloomington to Indianapolis. The objective of the Central Indiana Commuter Rail Feasibility
    Study was to determine the benefits, costs, risks, and timing of commuter rail implementation
    in these corridors. The study defined the alternatives that could likely be advanced for further
    study, but found it difficult to determine how competitive the rail projects would be in the FTA
    New Starts funding process.

    It is significant to note that, to this point, the State of Indiana’s interest in funding passenger
    rail service has been limited to commuter service such as the South Shore Line and possibly
    future central Indiana service. The NICTD’s South Shore Line provides a valuable state
    service with its substantial daily ridership of over 11.000 commuters. Research has
    concluded that interest in providing state financial assistance for conventional Amtrak
    passenger rail service has not materialized due to it being primarily non-essential in nature as
    opposed to commuter rail service. Potential state participation in the Midwest Regional Rail
    Initiative (see below) may prove to be an exception to this trend. As previously noted, state-
    supported Amtrak service can not be a commuter train due to Amtrak regulations.

    The Midwest Regional Rail Initiative (MRRI) is a cooperative effort between Amtrak, the
    Federal Railroad Administration, and nine states - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan,
    Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, and Wisconsin - to develop an improved and
    expanded high-speed passenger rail system in the Midwest. Once completed, the system
    would be a 3,000-mile rail network serving nearly 60 million people. (See Figure 12.)

    The passenger rail network would operate as a hub-and-spoke system providing through-
    service in Chicago to locations throughout the Midwest. Trains operating at speeds up to 110
    mph would link Chicago with Milwaukee, Madison and Minneapolis; Des Moines and
    Omaha; St. Louis and Kansas City; Indianapolis and Cincinnati; Grand Rapids and Detroit;
    Toledo and Cleveland; as well as many smaller cities and towns. Routes initiating in Chicago
    and traversing through Indiana would include routes to Detroit, Cleveland and Cincinnati.

    Increased speeds and service efficiencies would reduce travel times dramatically. The
    Chicago-Detroit trip, for example, would drop from the current six hours to less than four,
    while the nearly nine hour Chicago-Cincinnati and Chicago-Cleveland trips would be cut in
    half. These efficiencies would be achieved through state-of-the-art train communication and
    control systems, highway/railroad grade crossing safety enhancements, rehabilitation of
    existing and construction of new track and sidings.

    It is estimated that the infrastructure and rolling stock costs to fully implement the system will
    total $7.7 billion (2002 dollars). Funding would be provided at an 80 percent federal/20
    percent state matching ratio. Indiana has made no decisions as to how to pay for its share
    of these costs. Once completely implemented, the system would operate with over 63 new
    train sets that would provide passengers with modern and spacious facilities and offer on-
    board amenities for business and leisure travelers. It is estimated that ridership on the entire
    system would increase from the current 1.5 million passengers per year to 9.6 million
    passengers per year once fully developed.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                 57
                                                                                        Figure 12
                                                                               Midwest Regional Rail System
                                                                                  EXECUTIVE REPORT

                                                                 Proposed Midwest
                                                                Regional Rail System

                              St. Cloud
                                                                                       Wausau                                                     Michigan
                                    Minneapolis-                 Eau Claire
                                                                                                     Green              Sturgeon
                                      St. Paul                                                        Bay                 Bay            Cadillac

                               Mankato                               Winona                                           Manitowoc                    Mt.
                                                                                             Oshkosh                                            Pleasant Midland
                                                                           La Crosse
                                                                                                                                             Grand                                     Port Huron
                                                                                  Madison                           Milwaukee                Rapids                     Pontiac
                                           Iowa                                                                                                                Howell                 Anchorville
                                                                                                                            Holland                  Lansing
                Sioux City        Ft. Dodge           Cedar Falls
                                                                                                                         St. Joseph          Kalamazoo
                                                                                        Rockford                                                                 Monroe
Nebraska                                                                                                                                                                                    Cleveland
                                     Ames                                                                               Chicago
                                                   Cedar Rapids       Iowa
                                                                       City                                                                         Waterloo
            Blair                                                                 Island                                          South Bend                             Toledo
                                                                                                                         Gary                                                                            Youngstown
                                          Des Moines
                                                                                              Princeton                                     Ft. Wayne               Lima                            Canton
                                                                      Galesburg                                                       Indiana                                        Ohio
 Lincoln                                                                                      Peoria
                                                                                                                      Lafayette            Kokomo
           Nebraska                                                                        Normal
             City                                                                                                     Danville                        Muncie
                                                                                Springfield                   Champaign
                                                                                                                                                Indianapolis            Dayton
                                 St. Joseph                         Quincy                          Decatur                  Terre
                                                                              Jacksonville                                   Haute
                                                                                                   Mattoon                                                         Cincinnati
                                    Kansas City
            Topeka                                              Columbia

                                            Sedalia                                    St. Louis
                                                        Jefferson City
                                                                                                                            Evansville         Louisville
                                                                                                                                                                                 Rail Corridor*
                                           Ft. Leonard Wood
                                                                     Rolla          Carbondale                                                                                             110 mph top speed
                                                                                                                                                                                           90 mph top speed**
                                  Joplin                                   Missouri                                                                                                        79 mph top speed
                                                                                                              Paducah                                                            Feeder Bus Route

                                  *Indiana DOT is evaluating additional passenger rail service to South Bend and to Louisville.
                                               **In Missouri, current restrictions limit train speeds to 79 mph.




    Indiana’s passenger rail service needs have been analyzed utilizing the following

     ♦   Results of Needs Assessment Survey;
     ♦   Existing passenger rail service level;
     ♦   Ridership history of current service; and
     ♦   The document - Scheduled Intercity Transportation: Rural Service Areas in the United
         States: June 2005

    This study’s Needs Assessment Survey resulted in 82 percent of those responding indicating
    their support for the use of state funds to support the operation of Amtrak passenger rail
    service in some areas of the state. However, information provided regarding areas or routes
    that should be served by Amtrak was limited to:

     ♦   Fort Wayne;
     ♦   Large urbanized areas;
     ♦   Indianapolis – Cincinnati corridor through Shelbyville; and
     ♦   South Bend – Indianapolis through Marshall County.

    Fort Wayne, with a population of approximately 250,000, is by far the largest city in Indiana
    without passenger rail service. The closest Amtrak station to Fort Wayne is in Waterloo, a
    distance of about twenty-five miles, a stop for the Lake Shore Limited.

    Regarding the recommendation of Indianapolis – Cincinnati service through Shelbyville, it is
    doubtful that Amtrak would be interested in initiating service along this corridor due to
    already operating the Cardinal just to the north through Indianapolis and Connersville on its
    run between Chicago and Cincinnati/New York.

    A South Bend – Indianapolis route through Marshall County is only possible via existing rail
    lines with a most circuitous route due to there being no rail line that extends from South Bend
    due south to Indianapolis. The most likely route would be along the Norfolk Southern line
    from Elkhart to Anderson and then utilize the CSX line into Indianapolis. Experience has
    shown that while it is certainly possible to operate passenger service along a freight rail line,
    and this is done in many areas across the country, obtaining operation rights on these lines
    is arduous at best. Negotiations among the freight rail company, Amtrak, and the state could
    take months before a compromise could be reached and operation rights secured. See
    Figure 13, a map of Indiana’s current rail system.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                               59
                                                                                                                                                                                                             Figure 13: Indiana Railroads
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CITY M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           T                                CSSB                  HUDSON

 INDIANA RAILROADS AND ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       STEUBEN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         A                                                          LAKE
                                                                                                                         NS                                                                                                                                                                                                      LYDICK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EWR                          NS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ROLLING               NEW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ARDMORE                SOUTH                                                                                                                                   LAGRANGE

                                                                                                                          WHITING                                                                                                              TRAIL                                                                                                           BEND                                 ELKHART

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PRAIRIE                                    NS
                                                                                                                                INDIANA                                                                                                        CREEK         CS
                                                                                                                                 HARBOR                                                               BAILEY                                                       SB

                                                                                                                        EAST                                                                           TOWN                                                                          NS                                                                          MISHAWAKA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NS                                                                                                                                                                              ANGOLA
                                                                                                                                     BUFFINGTON                                              BURNS

        AMTK             AMTRAK                                                                                        CHICAGO
                                                                                                                                                                                           HARBOR                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DUNLAP
                                                                                                                           NS                                   CSSB              NS                               CHESTERTON
                                                                                                                                                              GARY                                       PORTER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NS                 PINOLA                   CS                                       CRUMSTOWN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GOSHEN                                                                                                              PLEASANT
        AWW              ALGERS, WINSLOW, & WESTERN RAILWAY CO.                                                                       HAMMOND                             LAKE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           BURDICK       OTIS                                             SB             CN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LAKE
                                                                                                                                                  IHB                                                        CSX                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NS                                                                                                                                                INE

                                                                                                                                                     R NEW                      CSX                                                                   LA PORTE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       SOUTH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    STILLWELL                                                                                                                 WATERFORD                                                                                                                          HUDSON         STEUBENVILLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    MILFORD          HELMER
                                                                                                                                                   NS CHICAGO                   CF                                                                                                                   DILLON                                                                                                                       MILLS
       BLEX             BEE LINE RAILROAD                                                                                                   GRIFFITH
                                                                                                                                                                                   ER                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     INE           ASHLEY                 HAMILTON

                                                                                                                                                                         HOBART              WHEELER                                          ALIDA                                KINGSBURY
                                                                                                                   EJ&E                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ST. JOSEPH                                                                              NS                                                                                                                                   DEKALB

                                                                                                                                       DYER                         CN                                                      COBURG                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ARTIC
                                                                                                                                                    LOTTAVILLE                                                                           HASKELL                                     TRACY          CSX                                                                                                                                        NEW PARIS
                                                                                                                                ST.JOHN                                                                                                                                 WELLSB

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             UNION                 ORO                                                                                                                                                                                                               WAWAKA
       CAPA             CITY OF AUBURN PORT AUTHORITY                                                                                                               AINSWORTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  VALPARAISO                                  MILLS                                                                      TEEGARDEN                                                                                                                                                                     BRIMFIELD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MILFORD                            LIGONIER                                                                      NS                           BUTLER

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       NAPPANEE GRAVELTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CFER                                                                                                         LA PAZ                                                                                          JUNCTION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               WANATAH                                                                                                                    BREMEN                                                                              SYRACUSE                                                                                                      WATERLOO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           NS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ALBION                KTR

       CERA             CENTRAL RAILROAD CO. OF INDIANAPOLIS                                                                                                                                                                                                          HANNA                                                        TYNER                                                                                       MILFORD          CSX


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MARSHALL                                                                                                           CROMWELL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WANATAH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     KIMMELL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  THOMASTON                              GROVERTOWN                                                                                                                                                                                                                        AVILLA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          HAMLET                   DONALDSON
        CFER            CHICAGO,FT. WAYNE & EASTERN RR                                                                                                                                                      MALDEN                 IN                  IN                                                                                         PLYMOUTH                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CSX
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ALTONA    GARRETT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             LEESBURG                                                                         NOBLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       INWOOD                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SAINT
       CKIN             CHESAPEAKE & INDIANA RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                              LA CROSSE                                                   KNOX
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       KOSCIUSKO                                                                                                                                                 JOE

                                                                                                                     NORTH                        LOWELL                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             GREEN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OBER                                                                                                  ATWOOD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ENGLISH                                                                                                                                                        CFE

       CIND             CENTRAL RAILROAD CO. OF INDIANA                                                                                                                                                                                                        LAKE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   STARKE                                               RUTLAND                                                                                    R          WARSAW

                                                                                                                   BELSHAW                                                                                                                                                                                                  BURR                                 ARGOS


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          NORTH                                                                                                                    TIPPECANOE                                                 WINONA

       CIW              CENTRAL INDIANA & WESTERN RAILROAD CO.                                                    SCHNEIDER                       NS           SHELBY              DEMOTTE
                                                                                                                                                                                                  NS                                                       JUDSON                                                                                                                                                                              LAKE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           PIERCETON               LARWILL          COLUMBIA                                     ALLEN
                                                                                                                                                                                           KERSEY                                                                                                                                                                       WALNUT                        MENTONE                                                                                         CITY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             TIOSA                                        NS             BURKET                                                                              CFE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 R                                                                            WOODBURN
       CMPA             MADISON RAILROAD, DIV. OF CITY OF MADISON                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      COESSE
                                                                                                                                                                         ROSELAWN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CLAYPOOL
                        PORT AUTHORITY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WAYNE                                    NS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ARCOLA                                            GAR


                                                                                                                                                                                                  JASPER                                                                    PULASKI                                                                                                                                                      PACKERTON                                                               NS                                                                                     NS
                                                                                                                                                                             FAIR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       DUNFEE
       CN               CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILROAD                                                                                                                           OAKS                                                                  MEDARYVILLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         SILVER                                SOUTH                PEABODY                                                                      NEW                     EDGERTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LAKE                              WHITLEY                                                                                           HAVEN

                                                                                                                                                                                      PARR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                MAPLES
        CNC              C & NC RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NORTH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MANCHESTER                                                                                                                                   CF

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ABOITE                                                                 ER




       CSSB              CHICAGO, SOUTHSHORE, & SOUTH BEND RR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ROANOKE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         WABASH                                                                                                 YODER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       HOAGLAND                             DIXON
       CSX              CSX TRANSPORTATION INC.                                                                                                                              RENSSELAER
                                                                                                                                                                                                     McCOYSBURG                   LEE                                                                                                                                                                                                       URBANA                                                         NS    MARDENIS                                   OSSIAN                            MONMOUTH

       DCR              DUBOIS COUNTY RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                                                       MONON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  SPEICHERVILLE                                                       HUNTINGTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ANDREWS                                            KINGSLAND                                             DECATUR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WHITE                                                     CASS                                                                                                                          LAGRO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               HUNTINGTON                              WELLS

       EJE              ELGIN, JOLIET, & EASTERN RAILWAY CO.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   HARTMAN
                                                                                                                                        KENTLAND                                                                                                                                                         LAKE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          R                                                                             NS       RICH
                                                                                                                                                                GOODLAND                   REMINGTON         WOLCOTT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 BURNETTSVILLE           CICOTT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LE LOGANSPORT                                   PERU                                    VALLEY
                                                                                                                                                   TPW                                                                                REYNOLDS                                           IDAVILLE        TPW                                                     WAVERLY                                                                                                                                                                                     BLUFFTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MONTICELLO                                                    R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        WS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ADAMS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ANOKA                                                                             TREATY
                                                                                                                                    SHEFF                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CENTER

       EWR              ELKHART & WESTERN RAILROAD                                                                                                EARL               BENTON                                                                                                                                                 CLYMERS
                                                                                                                                                  PARK                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WARREN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 LA FONTAINE







                                                                                                                                        FREE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         LANDESS            VAN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LINCOLN                                                                                                                HANFIELD             BUREN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CAMDEN                                                                                                                AMBOY                                                                                                                 KEYSTONE
       HCR              HONEY CREEK RAILROAD                                                                                                                               SWANINGTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        DELPHI                                                            GALVESTON                                                        CONVERSE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   MIER      SWEETSER                       NS
                                                                                                                                                                                  ATKINSON                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CERA                                MARION                                 MONTPELIER

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIPPECANOE                                                                                   FLORA
       HHPA             HOOSIER HERITAGE PORT AUTHORITY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CERA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 BLACKFORD                                                           JAY
                                                                                                                                        BOSWELL                      OXFORD                                                                                        COLBURN                                     BRINGHURST                                                                                                                      HERBST
                                                                                                                     HANDY                                                            TEMPLETON                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         GAS
                                                                                                                                                               CHASE                                                                         GROUND                                                                                                                                                                      SYCAMORE                    SWAYZEE                            CITY
                                                                                                                                        TALBOT                           KBS                         OTTERBEIN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                SIMS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        BUCK                                                                                                          KOKOMO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   JONESBORO                                           NS
                                                                                                                     AMBIA                                                                                    MONTMERENCI
       HOS              HOOSIER SOUTHERN RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CREEK                                                                                                                                      GREENTOWN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HARTFORD                                             PORTLAND

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WEST                                                                                                                 WEST
                                                                                                                                                                                                         KBS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   LAFAYETTE                                                                                                          MIDDLETON                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        NS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               OAKFORD                                                          FAIRMOUNT                                                                                              BLAINE                          BRICE
        IER             INDIANA EASTERN RAILROAD                                                                                     TAB                                                                                                             LAFAYETTE                                                                                                RUSSIAVILLE

                                                                                                                                                               WARREN                                                           ELSTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             NS       DAYTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SHARPSVILLE                                                                                                                                        DUNKIRK               COMO

       IHBR             INDIANA HARBOR BELT RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                     GLENHALL                                                                                                                                 FOREST                                                                                                                                                                                                         REDKEY

                                                                                                                                  STUART                                                                                                                                            MULBERRY                                                                                                                                                                                          SUMMITVILLE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MICHIGANTOWN                                                                                                  MADISON                                                                    SCHIDELER
       INE              INDIANA NORTHEASTERN RAILROAD                                                                                 WILLIAMSPORT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WEST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SOUTH                                                                          BOYLESTON SCIRCLEVILLE                              GOLDSMITH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ELWOOD                  NS     ORESTES

                                                                                                                                            LEBANON                          ATTICA                                                                                                                                                                                 KEMPTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        FRANKFORT                           NS           HILLISBURG                                   TIPTON                             HOBBS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ELWOOD DUNDEE                    ALEXANDRIA                                        ROYERTON
       INCR             INDIAN CREEK RAILROAD CO.                                                                                                             NS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           DESOTO
                                                                                                                                      MARSHFIELD                                                                                               ROMNEY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                UNION
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      GILMAN                                                                                                                         CITY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ATLANTA                                                                                        CAMMACK
                                                                                                                                JOHNSONVILLE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    REED                                                  PARKER

       INOH             INDIANA & OHIO RAILROAD INC.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CLINTON                                                                           MILLERSBURG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                STATION                            MAYFIELD            CITY FARMLAND            CSX

                                                                                                                   STATE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SELMA                                                     HARRISVILLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ARCADIA                                         INCR                                                         MUNCIE                                                        WINCHESTER

                                                                                                                           VVR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             FLORIDA



       INRD             INDIANA RAILROAD CO.                                                                                    FOSTER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               CHESTERFIELD DALEVILLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       EDGEWOOD                                                              COWAN                                               RANDOLPH


       IRRM             INDIANA RAILROAD MUSEUM                                                                            GESSIE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ANDERSON
                                                                                                                                                                    FOUNTAIN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LAPEL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CRAWFORDSVILLE                                                                                                                                                  NOBLESVILLE
       ISRR             INDIANA SOUTHERN RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NEW

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        EMPORIA                              MT.SUMMIT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  LINNSBURG                                                                                                                                                                     PENDLETON

       ISW              INDIANA SOUTHWESTERN RR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     CS INGALLS
                                                                                                                   EUGENE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FISHERS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        WHITESVILLE                     NEW         CS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ROSS            X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ASHLAND
                                                                                                                   CAYUGA                                                                                                                                                                      JAMESTOWN                                                                                                                                         FORTVILLE                                                         NEW                       MILLVILLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CASTLE                                             NS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LADOGA                                                                                                                                            CASTLETON                        WOODBURY                                                                                                                                     FORK

                                                                                                                                                   NEWPORT                                                                                                          HAW                                                                                 NEW                                                                       McCORDSVILLE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             LIZTON                                                                                        OAKLANDON


       KTR               KENDALLVILLE TERMINAL RAILWAY                                                                                                                                                                                                             SIDING                                     CSX       PITTSBORO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             HENRY                       NEW                        WAYNE                                        NS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    LAWRENCE              X                                                                                                            LISBON


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        INDIANAPOLIS                                                                  HANCOCK                                                                                                                         RICHMOND
       LER               LOGANSPORT & EEL RIVER SHORTLINE CO. INC                                                    DANA CSX                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CSX
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CARPENTERSVILLE                                             HENDRICKS                                CLERMONT SPEEDWAY                                                                                                                                                                                                         MILTON

                                                                                                                                                                                        PARKE                                                                                                                                                                                                  CSX


                                                                                                                                                         ALTA                                                                                                                                                   DANVILLE                AVON               CSX

       LI               LOUISVILLE & INDIANA RAILROAD CO.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       CSX                                                                                                                                                                                    BOSTON

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PUTNAM                                                  HADLEY                                                            BEN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CSX                                                      NEW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       PALESTINE                                                   RUSH
                                                                                                                                                          GROVE                                                                                                                                                                                            DAVIS                        BEECH         CS                                              CARROLLTON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GROVE              X                                                                                                                                                                                           KITCHEL
       LORL             LUCAS OIL RAIL LINE

                                                                                                                                FAIRVIEW                                                                                                                                 CSX                                                                                 VALLEY                       EDGEWOOD                                       FOUNTAINTOWN                                                                                                                                     BROWNSVILLE
                                                                                                                                   PARK                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               GWYNNSVILLE                                                                     LYONSVILLE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             MILLS                                                                                      MORRISTOWN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        FILLMORE                                                                                                           SOUTHPORT

                                                                                                                                 CLINTON                                                                                                                                                                                                                  CAMBY                                                                                                                                  ARLINGTON

       MGR              MG RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ACTON           BROOKFIELD                                                                                       GLENNWOOD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        X                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               CSX
                                                                                                                                                          NUMA                                                                    CS                  GREENCASTLE                                                                                                                                  GREENWOOD                      LONDON
                                                                                                                                                                                                              LENA                                                                                                                           MOORESVILLE           FRANCES                                                                                                                                                                                                                             COTTAGE                WEST

       MW               MAUMEE & WESTERN RAILROAD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              FAIRLAND                                                    RUSHVILLE                                       FAYETTE                                        GROVE               COLLEGE
                                                                                                                     SHEPARDSVILLE                                                                   CARBON                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CS

                                                                                                                                                                   FONTENET                  PERTH                                                    PUTNAMVILLE                                                                                                                   STONES


                                                                                                                                                                                  X                                                                  CS
                                                                                                                                        NORTH                                                                                                                                                                                                BROOKLYN
                                                                                                                  SANDFORD              TERRE                                                                                                           X                                                                                                                                            WHITELAND

       NS               NORFOLK SOUTHERN                                                                                                HAUTE
                                                                                                                                                                      BURNETT                                                                                                                                                                BETHANY                                                                            SHELBYVILLE                     CI

                                                                                                                                ST. MARY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   BATH

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CENTERTON                                 BARGERSVILLE
       OVR              OHIO VALLEY RAILROAD
                                                                                                                                                              HAUTE                                                                                                                                                                CAMBELSIDING               PROVIDENCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FRANKLIN                          SHELBY                        PRESCOTT



                                                                                                                          HAUTE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               ST.PAUL

                                                                                                                                                                                                CLAY                                                                                              PARAGON                     MARTINSVILLE

                                                                                                                                                                             CSX                                                                                                                                ISR                                                                JOHNSON


       SWR               SOUTHWIND RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        WHITAKER                               MORGANTOWN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           GREENSBURG                                                                       CEDAR

                                                                                                                         YOUNGSTOWN                                                                                                                                         GOSPORT                                                                                                                       EDINBURG                                                                                                                                                                            GROVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      NEW                                                                        NEW
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CIND                                                                                          TRENTON

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FRUITDALE                                                                                                                                                        POINT
        TPW              TOLEDO, PEORIA, & WESTERN RAILWAY CORP.                                                                                                       BLACKHAWK                                                                                                                         MONROE                                                                                                                 TAYLORSVILLE


                                                                                                                                     PIMENTO                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         CI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OWEN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DEA                 WEST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          TREVLAC                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D                               HARRISON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        SPENCER                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        RBO

       VVR              VERMILLION VALLEY RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         HELMSBURG                                                                                                                                                                                            SPADES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SUNMAN            WEISBURG
                                                                                                                                  CSX                                                                                                                                                             ELLETSVILLE

        WC               WABASH CENTRAL RAILROAD                                                                                                                                                                                                      FREEDOM                                                               UNIONVILLE                                                                                                                                                                                             RIPLEY

                                                                                                                                                                                  COALMONT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GUILFORD

                                                                                                                                                                                       JASONVILLE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 CIND

        WSR              WINAMAC SOUTHERN RAILROAD                                                       SULLIVAN                                                         GILMOUR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        GREEN                                         RD                                                   BROWN


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                OSGOOD                                               GREENDALE
                                                                                                                                                                                        MIDLAND              WORTHINGTON                                                                            IN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           MILAN           HILL                                  X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       X                                                         CS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ELWREN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        COLD

        WWV              WHITEWATER VALLEY RAILROAD                                                                                                                      CASS
                                                                                                                                                                                        VICKSBURG                                                                 SOLSBERRY                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              HOLTON        DABNEY

                                                                                                                               D                                                                                                        IN                                                                                                                                                                                JONESVILLE

                                                                                                                                                                DUGGER                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  AURORA
                                                                                                                           I      NEW                                                       LINTON

                                                                                                                                LEBANON                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            NORTH
                                                                                                                                                    PAXTON                                                                               BLOOMFIELD                                                                                                                                                                                                                               VERNON

                                                                                                                                                                                  SPONSLER                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HAYDEN                       VERNON
                                                                                                                                                                                          BEE                                                                                                                                                                                                                      SEYMOUR                                        CSX

                                                                                                                                CARLISLE                                               HUNTER



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ELIZABETHTOWN                                                                      DUPONT
                                                                                                                                                                                RR     SANDBORN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BROWNSTOWN                                                                                                        JEFFERSON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               X                                                                                                                                                                                SWITZERLAND
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        MEDORA                     VALLONIA
                                                                                                                                      BUSSERON                                                                                                                    INR

                                                                                                                                                                                                               INRD                                                   D                                                                                                                                                            RETREAT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               BURNS                                    WILLIAMS

                                                                                                                                      EMISON                                                    PLAINVILLE                                     CITY                  CALE                                                                                      SPARKS-                                                        CROTHERSVILLE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              INDIAN                                                                                            VILLE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   IN TARRY                                      FT.RITNER                                                                                                                                                                       MADISON

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SPRINGS                                   PARK

                                                                                                                                                                                                       DAVIESS                                                                                                                            TUNNELTON
                                                                                                                                             KNOX                                                                                                                                                            CSX

                                                                                                                                                                                           GRAHAM                                                                                                                           MITCHELL

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        HURON                                                                                    WASHINGTON

                                                                                                                                                          SX                                                                                                       CSX                                                                                                                                                                                             SCOTTSBURG
                                                                                                                                                                       WASHINGTON                      CSX        CANNELBURG                                                                                                              LEIPSIC
                                                                                                                   VINCENNES                                                                                                                LOGOOTEE

                                                                                                                                                          WHEATLAND                                         MONTGOMERY                               SHOALS             IRONTON                                  ORLEANS                     CSX                   CAMPBELLSBURG
                                                                                                                                                                                  MAYSVILLE                                                                                                                                                                                  HITCHCOCK
                                                                                                                                                                                  THOMAS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          UNDERWOOD
                                                                                                                   PURCELL                                                                                                                                                                                     ORANGE                                                                                                   HARRISTOWN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   WEST BADEN                                                                                                                                                                                  CLARK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SPRINGS                                                                                                                                                        HENRYVILLE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FRENCH LICK

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   RM                                                                                                              NEW PEKIN
                                                                                                                 HAZELTON                     PIKE                         PETERSBURG                                                                                         IR                                                                                                                                                NEW PROVIDENCE


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CARWOOD                CHARLESTOWN


                                                                                                                                                                                      CATO                                                                         DUBOIS


                                                                                                                                                        GLEZEN               W                                                                          R                                                                                                                                                                                     ST.JOSEPH
                                                                          E.MT.CARMEL                 PATOKA                                                               AW                                          JASPER                      DC                                                                                                                                                                                                          SELLERSBURG

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             STATE OF INDIANA



                                                                                                         PRINCETON                                                                     NS

                                                                                                                                                                                                    VELPEN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     WATSON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         NS                                                                                               X
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 NS                                                                                                                                                  CS

                                                                                                                   DOUGLAS                     CITY                                                            MILLERSPORT                                                                          TASWELL                                    MILLTOWN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  RAMSEY                                                    NEW
                                                                                                                                                                       ISRR                                                                                                 BIRDSEYE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ENGLISH                                DEPAUW                                                                   ALBANY

                                                                                                                                  FRANCISCO                                                                                                  ST.ANTHONYS                                                                                                                                               MOTTS


                                                                                                                                                                             COE                                                                                                              ECKERTY                                                                            CORYDON

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      STATION                GEORGETOWN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BRETZVILLE ST.MARKS             NS                                                                                                   JUNCTION                                                      NS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   CRANDALL                   EDWARDSVILLE                                JEFFERSONVILLE

                                                                                                          FORT                                                                                                                                                                                                              CRAWFORD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             RAIL SYSTEM MAP


                                                                     ISW                      ST.JAMES
                                                                        CYNTIANA                                                                         R

                                                                                                           INGLEFIELD                                                                                                          CITY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       R TA T I O N





                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PA R T M E

                                                                                                                                                  CHANDLER                                                                                S

                                                                                                                                                                       BOONVILLE                                                              EVANSTON

                                                                                                                                        STEVENSON                                                                   CHRISNEY
                                                                     ST.PHILIP                                    NS                                                                                                                                                 TROY



                                               UPTON                 EVWR                                                                                                                                                                                               HOS
                                                                                                           EVANSVILLE                                                                                                                                                       CITY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       T                               S

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           OF TRAN
                                               SWR     MT. VERNON                                                                          YANKEETOWN

                                                                                              RAHM                                                                                         ROCKPORT

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       DEPARTMENT OF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Mitchell E. Daniels, Governor
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Karl B. Browning, Commissioner

 INDOT                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Base Map Generated from
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            U.S. Geological Survey
GRAPHICS                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              &
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            U.S. Census Tiger Files

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      The preparation of this publication has been
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       financed in part through a grant from the

            IMRR (BASE)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      United States Department of Transportation
         1"=10 MILES (APPROX.)

    Based on information found in the previously referenced document, Scheduled Intercity
    Transportation: Rural Service Areas in the United States: June 2005, approximately 43 percent
    of the rural residents of Indiana have reasonable access to passenger rail service. Figure 14
    indicates the state’s transit propensity by census tract and the twenty-five mile radius around
    Indiana’s train stations. This provides a visual illustration of the limited amount of the state
    population that is within reasonable access of an Amtrak station. In addition, Table 15 below
    notes the twenty-five Indiana cities exceeding a population of 25,000 that lack passenger rail

                                              Table 15:
                            Indiana Cities Lacking Passenger Rail Service

                          City                        2005 Pop. Est.

                  Anderson                                        57,360
                  Bloomington                                     71,374
                  Carmel                                          61,394
                  Columbus                                        39,300
                  Evansville                                     115,956
                  Fishers                                         57,222
                  Fort Wayne                                     247,849
                  Gary                                            97,719
                  Goshen                                          30,889
                  Greenwood                                       42,194
                  Hobart                                          27,446
                  Jeffersonville                                  28,560
                  Kokomo                                          46,232
                  Lawrence                                        41,236
                  Marion                                          30,890
                  Merrillville                                    31,174
                  Mishawaka                                       48,260
                  Muncie                                          66,176
                  New Albany                                      36,665
                  Noblesville                                     38,826
                  Portage                                         35,267
                  Richmond                                        37,367
                  Schererville                                    28,130
                  Terre Haute                                     58,438
                  Valparaiso                                      29,245

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              61
                                        Figure 14:
                        Indiana Transit Propensity by Census Tract

                                With Indiana Train Stations

                                              [                                _
                                                                               [            _
                                                                                            [                         LaGrange              Steuben

               [                                  LaPorte
                                                                          St. Joseph              Elkhart

               [      Lake
                                                                                                                        Noble                DeKalb _

                                                       Pulaski                Fulton
                                                                                                    Wabash          Huntington
                                                                          Cass           Miami                                                      Adams
                                              White                                                                                 Wells

                        Benton                               Carroll
                                                                                    Howard                                    Blackford

                                                                                                        Madison                              Randolph
                                           Montgomery              Boone


                               Parke                         Hendricks              [

                                                                                                                        Rush               _
                                                                                                                                      Fayette        Union

                                                                   Morgan           Johnson
                      Vigo                                                                                                                  Franklin

                                              Owen                                                                    Decatur
                                                                                                                                                                 Indiana Transit Propensity
                                                                                 Brown       Bartholomew
                                                                                                                                                Dearborn         By Census Tract
                                                                                                                                                                      Very Low
                                                                                         Jackson                                                                      Low
                                                                 Lawrence                                                                    Switzerland
                                                                                                                        Jefferson                                     Medium
                    Knox          Daviess        Martin                                                     Scott
                                                                  Orange                                                                                              Very High

                                                                                                                                                             [     Indiana Train Stations

                                                                                                                                                                   25-mile Radius Around Each
Posey                                   Spencer
                                                           Perry                                                                                                   Station



    Nationally, Amtrak operates three types of passenger rail service:

     ♦ A network of thirteen overnight cross-country trains, such as the Capitol Limited;
     ♦ Intercity trains such as the Acela in the northeast part of the country; and
     ♦ State-supported corridor trains serving fourteen states, such as the Carolinian and
         Piedmont in North Carolina.

    State-supported trains play an ever-increasing important role in Amtrak’s operations. Amtrak
    currently has partnerships with fourteen states to improve rail passenger service in their
    jurisdictions. These states include California, Illinois, Maine, Michigan, Missouri, New York,
    North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Texas, Vermont, Washington, and
    Wisconsin. Under Section 403(b) of the legislation that established the organization, Amtrak
    was authorized to operate intercity trains or routes funded by states. State-supported Amtrak
    trains are often referred to as “403(b) trains,” such as the Saluki that operates between
    Chicago and Carbondale. Figure 16 provides a list of the state-supported Amtrak trains
    along with their finance and operating characteristics.

    In most situations, the state-supported Amtrak service is administered at the state level by
    the state department of transportation’s rail division, not the department’s transit division.
    Administering Amtrak service and related rail programs requires the expertise and availability
    of staff focused specifically on the state’s rail program. Two states administer their state-
    supported Amtrak program through authorities, and Amtrak indicates that this structure has
    been successful. In fact, an Amtrak representative provided the opinion that for a state in the
    initial stages of considering possible state-supported Amtrak service, the authority option is
    recommended because it allows the greatest flexibility. These authorities are the Capital
    Corridor Joint Powers Authority (CCJPA) in California and the Northern New England
    Passenger Rail Authority (NNEPRA) in Maine.

    None of the state-supported Amtrak trains are designated by Amtrak as commuter trains. In
    fact, Amtrak cannot by law operate "commuter service" under the Amtrak name. While
    Amtrak does operate commuter trains under contract, such as the Virginia Railway Express
    that operates from the Northern Virginia suburbs to Washington D.C., Amtrak must charge a
    profit and cannot label these services as "Amtrak."

    Although the economy is depressed, higher fuel prices have resulted in significant increases
    in ridership for Amtrak. This includes the state-supported trains as well. For example,
    ridership on the aforementioned North Carolina supported trains increased over 20 percent
    from FY 2007 to FY 2008. In FY 2008, Amtrak’s income from state support is projected to be
    $167 million. State payments to Amtrak to operate state-supported trains range from just
    under $2 million for Texas to over $76 million for California.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                             63
Figure 16. Service, Finance and Operating Characteristics of State-Supported Amtrak Trains

   STATE       NUMBER           TRAIN ROUTE(S)            FY08        REVENUE SOURCE(S)         RIDERSHIP      TICKET
               OF DAILY                                 OPERATING                                  FY07       REVENUE
                TRAINS                                  SUPPORT/                                                FY07
California       68       1)Oakland‐Fresno‐             $76,600,000 Portion of gasoline tax       4,962,042   $89,391,956
                          3)Santa Barbara‐LA‐San
Illinois         28*      1)Chicago‐Carbondale           27,999,978 General revenue              1,402,096*   *27,770,668
                          2)Chicago‐St. Louis, MO
Maine            10       Portland‐Boston, MA           **7,209,623 1)CMAQ                         361,634      4,800,036
                                                                    2) General revenue
Michigan          4       1)Grand Rapids‐Chicago, IL      6,124,306 General revenue                232,461      6,223,632
                          2)Port Huron‐Chicago, IL
Missouri          4       Kansas City‐St. Louis           7,400,000 General revenue                116,517      2,508,912
New York          2       New York City‐Montreal          4,260,562 General revenue                101,097      5,065,860
North             4       1)Charlotte‐New York City     ***4,938,736 Lease fees derived from       306,763     14,343,745
Carolina                  2)Charlotte‐Raleigh                        freight railroad
                                                                     operating on state‐
                                                                     owned track
Oklahoma          2*      Oklahoma City‐Fort Worth        2,298,500 General revenue                *68,246     *1,260,579
Oregon            4       Portland‐Eugene                 4,200,000 1)Portion of fee charged      *674,153    *18,165,351
                                                                    for customized license
                                                                    2)General revenue
Pennsylvania     26       Philadelphia‐Harrisburg         7,240,917 General revenue                988,454     20,582,838
Texas             2*      Fort Worth‐Oklahoma City,       1,998,500 General revenue                *68,246     *1,260,579
Vermont           4       1)St. Albans‐Burlington‐NYC     3,940,033 General revenue                107,241      5,548,083
Washington       10       Vancouver, BC‐Seattle‐         11,200,000 Vehicle registration fees     *674,153    *18,165,351
                          Portland, OR
Wisconsin        14*      Milwaukee‐Chicago*              7,094,214 General revenue               *595,336    *10,230,272

* Route cost shared with adjacent state. Revenues reflect total derived from ticket sales on route(s);
   ridership represents total for route; figures duplicated in shared state’s row.
** Base cost not including fuel, less ticket revenue.
*** Estimate that may vary based upon factors that may include fuel costs.

Source: Amtrak Government Affairs
September 2008

    Prior to participating in state-supported train service, Amtrak procedures call for the
    preparation of a feasibility study of the proposed service. These studies are conducted by
    Amtrak at the formal request of the state. In most situations, the state is responsible for the
    entire cost of the study. An upcoming Kansas DOT feasibility study for proposed Kansas
    City – Oklahoma City – Fort Worth service is budgeted at $200,000. Conversations with
    Amtrak representatives indicated that Amtrak is currently inundated with requests for
    feasibility studies to be completed. A typical feasibility study would address such issues as:

      ♦   Potential ridership based on where and when the train may stop;
      ♦   Projected annual capital and operating costs;
      ♦   Projected revenue;
      ♦   Market share the train could capture;
      ♦   Economic benefits;
      ♦   Potential state support needed;
      ♦   Track improvements and associated costs;
      ♦   Highway/rail crossings;
      ♦   Feasible train schedules;
      ♦   Train set configuration; and
      ♦   Route capacity of shared tracks owned by the freight railroads.

    Start-up costs to initiate Amtrak service is the responsibility of the sponsoring state, typically
    coming from their general revenue funds. Federal funds have only been made available for
    start-up costs in a couple of unusual situations, one with congressional earmarked funds and
    another using Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) funds. Start-up costs include
    such items as:

      ♦ Acquiring rolling stock such as locomotives and cars. The cost of rolling stock
        depends on the number of train sets needed to serve the schedule and expected
        number of passengers; and
      ♦ Improving infrastructure such as tracks, ballast, ties, crossings, signals, and sidings.
        The cost of infrastructure improvements depends on the pre-existing infrastructure
        conditions and on the train’s desired operating speed.

    Once the funding for new service is appropriated, it can take as little as two construction
    seasons to initiate the service. However, this is dependent on the level of infrastructure
    improvements needed and, assuming the rail line is not state owned, the degree of difficulty
    in negotiating operating authority over the freight line railroad. Experience has shown that
    this is often a most difficult obstacle to overcome.

    With state-sponsored passenger rail services, host communities are responsible for the costs
    of planning, upgrading and maintaining their depots and stations. In many situations,
    depots, if available, may not have been utilized for years, resulting in substantial

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                                65
    refurbishment costs. Federal funding assistance for station studies and improvements is
    very uncertain at this time.

    There is also a potential shortage of passenger rail cars that could further delay service
    initiation. In many situations, the state and Amtrak have decided to use rehabilitated
    equipment, with the cost ranging from $800,000 to $1,200,000 million per rail car. The
    rehabilitation work typically includes new wheels, interiors, and restroom facilities. It is
    conceivable that the state could receive some assistance from Amtrak with the acquisition
    and maintenance of rail cars and locomotives due to the presence of the Beech Grove
    maintenance facility. The leasing of rail cars is also an option. Also, some states have or are
    considering buying cars for use by Amtrak.

    Operational funding needs are generally independent of the length of the service route.
    Amtrak determines the cost for intercity passenger rail service based upon ridership, fare box
    recovery, and food sales on the route. Ridership and ticket revenue varies greatly from state
    to state depending on the schedule, route, stops, amenities and other factors.

    State and regional agencies pay most of the operating costs for the service, reimbursing
    Amtrak for direct expenses. In most situations, the state annually negotiates the payment of
    operating costs based on revenue from the previous year and anticipated costs. Each state
    is unique in its cost and payment structure with Amtrak. Generally states use state general
    revenue funds or state fuel taxes to reimburse Amtrak for operating expenses. It is not
    unusual for state-supported trains to operate across state lines, resulting in each state
    negotiating its respective shares differently. State supporting shares are typically based on
    train miles and/or anticipated ridership.

    Amtrak’s operating costs are high, and the financial support required from the state is
    significant. For example, the North Carolina Department of Transportation supports the
    operation of two Amtrak trains that operate through North Carolina, the Carolinian and
    Piedmont. The operating costs for the two trains were just over $21 million in FY 2008. Even
    with a remarkable farebox recovery rate of 76.5 percent, generating over $16 million in
    revenue, the state’s required participation was still over $4.9 million. Amtrak operating costs
    for each train are based on the costs of their entire national network, with costs allocated
    uniformly throughout the Amtrak operation. Therefore, this minimizes the impact of cost
    saving measures on individual trains such as those that are state supported.

    It should be noted that the possibility of federal funds being available to assist states with
    operating support, start-up costs, or infrastructure improvements has recently improved. On
    October 1, 2008, the U.S. Senate passed the $13 billion Federal Railroad Safety
    Improvement Act, and it was signed into law on October 16, 2008. The Act reauthorizes
    Amtrak and authorizes significant federal funding for intercity passenger rail service and
    corridor development. For example, it creates a new State Capital Grant program for intercity
    passenger rail projects. The Act provides $1.9 billion over five years for grants to states to
    pay for the capital costs of facilities and equipment necessary to provide new or improved

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              66
    passenger rail services, with the federal share of the grants up to 80 percent of the cost.
    Grants would be awarded on a competitive basis for projects based on economic
    performance, anticipated ridership, and other factors.

    In addition, in July 2008 the Train Cars Act was introduced in Congress. If enacted, the Act
    will promote the replacement and rehabilitation of Amtrak’s fleet of passenger cars and
    hopefully revive the train car industry in the U.S. Specifically, the legislation includes the
    following actions:

    ♦ Create a new matching grant program for Amtrak and states to rehabilitate existing rail
      equipment and purchase new, American-made equipment;
    ♦ Authorizes Amtrak to issue up to $2.8 billion in qualified bonds over four years to finance
      train car projects;
    ♦ Allow states to receive a dollar-for-dollar match on any equipment fee they impose for the
      purchase of new domestically produced train cars; and
    ♦ Create a trust fund to give Amtrak and the states a source of capital funding to replace
      the nation’s supply of passenger train cars. The legislation would transfer one-quarter
      cent of the per-gallon motor fuels tax into the new Rolling Stock Trust Fund for three
      years generating approximately $400 million annually.

    States wanting to apply for federal matching funds through the above referenced legislation
    will need to have an intercity passenger rail plan. It is possible that federal funds may be
    available to the states to support the preparation of the plan. The scope of this study does
    not address a detailed analysis of potential rail corridors, rail condition, station stops, cost
    estimates, etc. that would be evaluated in such a passenger rail plan. The consultant
    recommends that INDOT conduct such a detailed rail study to further evaluate potential state
    participation in passenger rail service.


    While the primary purpose of this study was to assess the intercity bus needs in Indiana and
    provide recommendations for INDOT’s utilization of Section 5311(f) funds, the study was also
    intended to include an evaluation of the level of utilization of Indiana’s Amtrak service and
    provide recommendations regarding the use of state funds to support the provision of
    Amtrak service. Based on the consultant’s evaluation of existing information and
    understanding of Amtrak’s state-supported train program, the following observations and
    recommendations are provided.

     ♦ There are three long distance passenger trains which travel through Indiana along with
       two corridor trains operated by Amtrak;
     ♦ Ridership on these trains increased steadily for the past six years;

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              67
     ♦ Service is limited geographically to the northern portion of Indiana, with most of the
         state not within reasonable distance of an Amtrak station;
     ♦   There is no Amtrak service in north-central Indiana, but one can travel from South Bend
         to Indianapolis in about twelve hours, with a nearly six hour layover in Chicago;
     ♦   Fort Wayne is the largest Indiana city without Amtrak service, but much of it is within
         reasonable access of the Waterloo station;
     ♦   The branch line from Elkhart to Fort Wayne is not direct, requiring use of the Norfolk
         Southern line and Chicago, Fort Wayne and Eastern Railroad to initiate service;
     ♦   No Amtrak service exists in the southern portion of the state, such as along the
         Indianapolis – Bloomington – Evansville corridor (note that Evansville is not served by
         Amtrak resulting in no connections at the southern point);
     ♦   Rail lines along Indianapolis – Bloomington – Evansville corridor are owned by the
         Indiana Railroad Co. and the Indiana Southern Railroad;
     ♦   Indianapolis – Bloomington – Louisville would necessitate a very circuitous route;
     ♦   43 percent of the state’s rural population lives within reasonable access to an Amtrak
     ♦   There are eleven Indiana Amtrak stations, resulting in nearly 125,000 total boardings
         and alightings in FY 2008;
     ♦   Twenty-five Indiana cities with over 25,000 population lack passenger rail service;
     ♦   The Beech Grove Amtrak maintenance facility serves an important role for Amtrak and
         is a major employer for the state;
     ♦   Modest station improvements have been made recently;
     ♦   Northern Indiana Commuter Transportation District (NICTD) receives state funding and
         operates the South Shore Line commuter between Chicago and South Bend;
     ♦   Historically, INDOT has not shown interest in providing state support for Amtrak due to
         it not being commuter service, such as the South Shore Line;
     ♦   Indiana is part of the Midwest Regional Rail Initiative, a nine-state cooperative effort
         with Amtrak, for the purpose of developing an improved and expanded high-speed
         passenger rail system in the Midwest;
     ♦   A total of 14 states participate in Amtrak’s state-supported train program;
     ♦   None of the state-supported Amtrak trains are considered commuter trains;
     ♦   Most states administer state-supported rail programs out of the state DOT’s rail division
         as opposed to the transit division;
     ♦   As a prerequisite to state-supported rail service, Amtrak procedures require a feasibility
         study to be conducted of proposed state-supported service with the state responsible
         for study costs;
     ♦   Amtrak approval to conduct a feasibility study can be a lengthy process;
     ♦   Amtrak’s desire for the state to determine potential train stops prior to a study can
         become quite political and difficult;
     ♦   The state is responsible for substantial start-up and operating costs; and

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                             68
     ♦ Recent Congressional legislation may provide additional federal funds to assist states
         with operating support, start-up costs, or infrastructure improvements for state-
         supported train service.


     ♦ Evaluate study findings and stay attuned to changing federal programs and legislation
         affecting Amtrak’s state-supported train program;
     ♦   Facilitate state-level discussions regarding interest in state-supported Amtrak service;
     ♦   If applicable, keep rail advocacy group(s) involved to negate later issues;
     ♦   Conduct a detailed rail study to further evaluate potential state participation in
         passenger rail service, specifically addressing such issues as potential rail corridors,
         rail condition, station stops, and cost estimates;
     ♦   Following thorough consideration and determination of the preferred service corridor,
         contact Amtrak regarding possible feasibility study, if desired.

    INDIANA INTERCITY BUS STUDY                                                              69
                                      Appendix A:

              Indiana Intercity Bus and Passenger Rail Services
                          Needs Assessment Survey

The Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) is conducting a study to determine
the level of intercity bus and passenger rail (Amtrak) needs in the State of Indiana. This
information will be used by INDOT to evaluate the need for Federal and state support of
bus and passenger rail service in Indiana. The following Needs Assessment Survey will
provide the consultant conducting this study with information about the current level of,
and need for, additional services. Intercity bus service is typically considered that
provided by Greyhound although there may be other intercity bus operators that provide
such services.

To assist in this planning process, you are asked to complete this brief survey. INDOT is
surveying transportation planners, regional/economic development professionals, and
city/county executives to obtain wide input on potential needs. Please complete the
survey by September 26, 2008.

If you have any questions about this survey, please contact Mr. Charles W. Glover,
Senior Association, RLS & Associates, Inc. at (919) 233-1552 or via e-mail at

If you would like more information about current INDOT intercity bus and rail programs,
please contact:

Mr. Larry Buckel, Section Chief
Indiana Department of Transportation
Public Transit Section
100 North Senate Avenue
Room N808
Indianapolis, IN 46204
(317) 232-5292


                         Part 1. Identification of Respondent

1. Name of Organization: ____________________________________________________

2. Organization Director/CEO (Name/Title): ______________________________________

3. E-mail Address of Individual Listed above:   ___________________________________

4. Street or Mailing Address:     _______________________________________________

5. City:    ___________________________________________________________________

6. State:        _____________________________________________________________
                                        Appendix A:

7. Zip:          _____________________________________________________________

8. Telephone     _____________________________________________________________

9. Fax:          _____________________________________________________________

10. Name of Individual Responding to Survey:       ___________________________________

11. E-mail address of Respondent: ______________________________________________

12. Title of Respondent:      ____________________________________________________

13. Agency Website: __________________________________________________________

14. Please check the box that best describes your organization. (Check one only).

          County government                            Economic development agency
          City government                              Chamber of commerce
          Transit agency                               Private nonprofit social services
          Planning commission/MPO/RPO                  Other (please specify below):

15. Does your organization provide passenger transportation services?

           Yes                No

       If the answer to Question 15 was “No,” please go to Part 3,
       Question 22.

                           Part 2. Transportation Providers Only

16. If your agency provides public transportation services, list all counties in which these
    services are provided:

                 Service Area      Service Area   Service Area    Service Area    Service Area
                      #1                #2             #3              #4              #5

    County:      __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

   Please tell us anything else to assist in understanding your service area:


                                       Appendix A:

17. Is your service open to the general public?

          Yes               No

18. Do you provide service to an intercity bus or Amtrak station??

          Yes               No

   If “Yes,” what stations do you serve?:



19. Do you receive federal and/or state transit funds to support this service?

          Yes               No

20. How many vehicle trips to these stations do you make per month?

                         No. of vehicle trips

21. What is your average ridership per month to these stations?

                         No. of passenger trips

                  Part 3. Subjective Assessment of Intercity Needs

22. Are you aware of any intercity bus services operating in your area? (Check one only.)

        Yes, there are intercity services.
        No, I am unaware of any intercity bus services in our area.
        Not sure.

23. Are you aware of any passenger rail bus services operating in your area? (Check one

        Yes, there are passenger rail services.
        No, I am unaware of any passenger rail bus services in our area.
        Not sure.
                                        Appendix A:

24. Do you think there are currently intercity bus needs in your area that are not being

          Yes                  No

25. If you think there are unmet intercity bus needs in your area, please identify route(s)
    (list the origin/destination pairs) that could benefit most from the provision or
    improvement of services.




26. Do you presently have or are there needs in your area for intermodal passenger
    facilities that could allow connections between local public transportation, intercity
    bus, and intercity passenger rail?

          Yes                  No

   If “Yes,” please explain:



27. On a scale of 1 – 4, with “1” representing no importance and “4” representing a high
    degree of importance, please rank the value of intercity bus and/or passenger rail
    service in your area. (Circle one only.)

        Not important      Somewhat important         Important           Very Important

              1                     2                     4                      5

28. Would you support the use of Federal and state funds to support the operation of
    intercity bus services in your area?

          Yes                  No



                                         Appendix A:

29. Would you support the use of state funds to support the operation of Amtrak
    passenger rail service in some areas of the state?

          Yes                  No




30. Are there existing intercity transportation services that you believe are vulnerable to
    termination in your area?

          Yes                  No

   If “Yes,” please explain:



31. Please describe any intercity bus or passenger rail needs that you have not
    addressed in an earlier question.



        Thank You For Taking The Time To Complete The Survey

                               Please mail or fax this survey to:

                                     RLS & Associates, Inc.
                                    3131 South Dixie Highway
                                           Suite 545
                                       Dayton, OH 45439

                                    Facsimile: (937) 299-1055
                                      Appendix B

           Sample Intercity Bus Needs Assessment Survey
              Indiana Department of Transportation
                      Public Transit Section

Organization:          _________________________________________________ 
Contact Person:        _________________________________________________

Address:               _________________________________________________

Telephone:             _________________________________________________

E-Mail:                _________________________________________________

The following Needs Assessment Survey will provide the Public Transit Section with
information about areas of the state that would benefit from assistance for intercity bus
services to either provide new service or maintain existing service. Intercity bus service
is defined as: regularly scheduled bus service for the general public which operates with
limited stops over fixed routes connecting two or more urban areas not in close
proximity, which has the capacity for transporting baggage carried by passengers, and
which makes meaningful connections with scheduled intercity bus service to more distant
points, if such service is available. The information will be collected and evaluated to
determine which proposed services would provide the greatest public benefit and have
long term sustainability.

Is your agency a provider of public transportation services? ___ Yes ___ No

Including needs for intercity bus services (as defined above), what are the greatest unmet
       public transportation needs in your rural/regional area (please prioritize)?

Are there existing intercity and public transportation services that are vulnerable to
       termination in your area? ___ Yes ___ No
       If yes, please explain.

If you are a transportation provider, do you currently provide any services that connect
        with existing intercity bus, passenger rail, or commercial airline services? ___
        Yes ___ No
        If yes, please explain.
                                     Appendix B

Do you presently have or are there needs in your area for intermodal passenger facilities
      that could allow connections between local public transportation, intercity bus and
      passenger rail (where available)? ___ Yes ___ No
      If yes, please explain.

6.     Provide a narrative for each proposed intercity bus route (origin – destination
       pairs, for example city A to city B) if you see a need for new services in your
       region or a route that is vulnerable to termination. Note that proposals for such
       services can include feeder services designed to provide connections to intercity
       bus service. (Please identify route(s) on attached map).

7.     What do you view to be the primary purpose of the trips in your identified
       intercity bus route?

8.      What other county/regional entities could benefit from and be included in the
       discussion of intercity bus services in your area?

9.     Please describe any intercity bus needs that you have not addressed in an earlier
                          Appendix C:
  Tentative Schedule of INDOT Intercity Bus Program Activities

March:           Distribute by Email Intercity Bus Needs Assessment

April:           Evaluate Returned Surveys and Compile List of Proposed
                 Intercity Bus Services

May:             Evaluate Proposed Services Based on FTA Requirements
                 and State Funding Criteria and Develop Prioritized List of
                 Potential Intercity Bus Projects

June:            Conduct Consultative Process with Indiana’s Intercity Bus
                 Providers and Other Transportation Providers Proposing an
                 Intercity Bus Project

July:            Finalize List of Intercity Bus Services for which INDOT
                 Will Solicit Applications for Service Operation

July:            Distribute Application Package to Intercity Bus Companies
                 and Other Public Transportation Providers

August:          Evaluate Submitted Applications Based on Established

September:       Select Applicants to Provide Services and Receive Section
                 5311(f) Funding Support

October:         Include Section 5311(f) Projects in State Application
                 Submittal to FTA

November:        Receive FTA Approval of Statewide Application

November/        Prepare and Distribute Contracts to Selected Service
December:        Providers

January:         Contracted Intercity Bus Services Initiated

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