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What Happens at Plate Boundaries

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					              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Learning Set 3                                                                             14 class periods*

   What Happens at Plate Boundaries?
   Overview                                                  Content Background for
   Students investigate plate boundaries and geologic        Teachers
   activity in their regions. They begin by modeling
                                                             During the twentieth century, and especially since
   plate interactions with blocks of clay. They make
                                                             the 1960s, scientists have generally accepted the
   observations and interpret their observations. They
                                                             belief that the crust of the Earth rests on tectonic
   refine and build on their interpretations as they
                                                             plates and are in motion, albeit very slow motion.
   read about the science of earthquakes. They are
                                                             The explanation for this motion is thought to be
   introduced to the seismic waves that carry energy
                                                             the convection currents found in the mantle, the
   from the epicenter of an earthquake, seismographs,
                                                             region directly below the crust. This mantle material
   and measures of earthquake magnitude and
                                                             is hot and dense, yet capable of responding to the
   intensity. Using what they have learned about
                                                             intense pressures located in the interior of the Earth.
   seismic waves and seismographs, students locate the
                                                             As the mantle is heated by the even hotter core,
   epicenter of an earthquake using data from three
                                                             convection currents carry the less dense material
   seismograph stations, learning how scientists use
                                                             upward over long periods of time where it comes
   triangulation. Students analyze current earthquake
                                                             into contact with the lithosphere. Convection
   data from the United States Geological Survey
                                                             currents typically rise vertically from the source
   (USGS) to develop a greater familiarity with
                                                             of heating, travel horizontally while cooling, and
   geologic activity worldwide. They look for patterns
                                                             then sink perpendicularly. The mantle material will
   in earthquake data from the past week, and begin
                                                             eventually be heated again and repeat the circuit. It
   to infer the locations of plate boundaries. They
                                                             is the horizontal motion of the mantle that causes
   recognize that there are gaps in their data, and they
                                                             the motion of the plates. The preponderance of
   examine a map showing earthquake data from a
                                                             Earth’s volcanoes and earthquakes will occur
   one-year period. They record the plate boundaries
                                                             at these relatively unstable plate boundaries.
   they can identify in their regions and they record
   where the map has too much or too little data.
   To complete their best plate boundary inferences,
   they use My World to select the best data. Once
   students have identified plate boundaries in their
   regions, they meet with students who were assigned
   neighboring regions and determine how their plate
   boundaries interconnect. Finally, the class creates
   a map of plate boundaries around the world.




                                                                   *A class period is considered to be 40 to 50 minutes.
                                                           156
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Plate Boundary Locations
There are eight major plates and several minor
plates which support the crust of the Earth.
These are shown in the diagram below:




                                                                                                                       3.0
                                                                                                                       5.0
                                                                 Plate movements vary widely in direction and
   Major Plates                   Minor Plates
                                                                 distance. The range of typical plate movement
 North American Plate   Caribbean Plate (below Florida)          is between 2 and 12 cm per year. While this
 South American Plate   Nazca Plate (west of Peru and Chile)     may seem very slow to a person in real time, in
 Eurasian Plate         Phillipine Sea Plate (west of China)
                                                                 geologic time, this is quite rapid. For example,
                                                                 over 100,000 years, a plate may move 10 km
 African Plate          Arabian Plate (east of Africa)
                                                                 (6 miles). One plate interacting with another
 Indian Plate           Cocos Plate                              can cause great stress in the rocky structure.
                        (south of western Mexico)
                                                                 Occasionally, this stress must be released in an
 Australian Plate       Juan de Fuca Plate (west of U.S.A.)      earthquake. Sensitive measuring instruments
 Pacific Plate           Scotia Plate                             record thousands of small earthquakes each day.
                        (southern Atlantic Ocean)
 Antarctic Plate




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              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Plate boundaries are also the site of most              are moving toward each other. These are also
   volcanic activity. The famous “Ring of Fire”            called compressional boundaries. There are three
   around the Pacific Ocean is a good example of            occurrences possible with convergent boundaries.
   this. There are about 450 volcanoes in a very           The most common is the formation of a subduction
   narrow band that outlines the Pacific Plate.             zone where an oceanic plate meets a continental
                                                           plate. Being more dense, the oceanic plate will move
                                                           under the continental plate, forming a trench.
                                                           Infrequently, the oceanic plate will ride up on
                                                           the continental plate. When it happens, this is
                                                           called obduction but, being an unstable situation,
                                                           the oceanic plate usually buckles and becomes a
                                                           subduction zone. An example of a subduction zone
                                                           is the Pacific Plate which is subducted under the
                                                           Philippine Plate, forming the Marianas Trench.
                                                           The third possible event with convergent
                                                           boundaries is that neither plate undergoes
                                                           subduction. This forms an orogenic belt that
                                                           results in very high mountains. The Andes
                                                           Mountains, the Himalaya Mountains, and the
                                                           Alps are all examples of orogenic belt formation.
   Plate Boundary Interactions                             Transform boundaries occur where two plates
   There are three major types of plate boundary           are simply sliding past one another, with little
   interactions: divergent, convergent, and transform      compression or divergence. The most famous
   boundaries.                                             of these boundaries is the San Andreas Fault
                                                           in California. At the current rate of plate
   Divergent boundaries occur where two plates are         movement, it is predicted that Los Angeles will
   moving away from each other. These are commonly         be north of San Francisco in 20 million years.
   found on the ocean floor, such as the Mid-Atlantic
   Ridge. As the plates move apart, fresh magma is         Looking Ahead
   brought to the surface where it cools, forming new
   rock. In the center of the Atlantic Ocean, where        Students should have access to computers for
   new rock is constantly forming, data indicates          Sections 3.5 and 3.6. In Section 3.5 they will need
   that the rock is less than 10 million years old. At     access to the USGS Web site. Before class, ensure
   the coastal edges near the continents of North          that computers have working Internet access,
   and South America on the west and Europe and            that the USGS Web site is accessible, and that
   Africa on the east, sea bed rock are dated at           you know how to navigate the USGS Web site.
   150 million years. Calculations show that these
   plates are moving apart at about 2 cm per year.
   Other examples of underwater divergent plates
   are the East Pacific Rise and the Carlsberg
   Ridge in the Indian Ocean. Divergent plates
   do occur on land also. Examples of this are
   the Great Rift Valley in eastern Africa and
   the Baikal Rift Zone in eastern Russia.
   Convergent boundaries occur where two plates



                                                         158
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Learning Set 3 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
   Section             Activity and Purpose                                       Assessment
                                                           Formative                                            Summative
                                                           Understanding Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                           Goals         Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                         and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                         Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
Section 3.0 (5 min)




                                                                                                                              3.0
What Happens      Students are introduced to the topic
at Plate
Boundaries?
                  and question they will answer in this
                  Learning Set.
                                                                ✓
Section 3.1 (45 min)
Think About       The term plate boundaries is defined
What Happens
at Plate
Boundaries
                  for students.
                                                                ✓
Get Started:      Students use blocks of modeling clay
Simulate Plate
Interactions
                  to simulate plate boundaries
                  and movement.
                                                                ✓
Procedure         Students simulate the forces at plate
                  boundaries using blocks of
                  modeling clays.
                                                                             ✓                        ✓
                                                                             ✓
Analyze Your      Students apply their simulations to
Data              the forces of Earth.
Communicate:      Students share their results and ideas
Share Your
Results
                  with the class.
                                                                                         ✓            ✓             ✓
Reflect            Students consider the ramifications
                  of plate boundary forces in Reflect
                  questions.
                                                                             ✓           ✓            ✓             ✓
Update the        Students add new information,
Project Board     ideas, and questions to the class
                  Project Board.
                                                                ✓            ✓           ✓            ✓
Section 3.2 (70 min)
What Causes       Students consider the force behind
Earthquakes       an earthquake, as demonstrated by
and What          a tsunami.
Happens When
They Occur?


                                                                                         ✓            ✓
Stop and Think    Students think about what a tsunami
                  in Chile would be like.
What Causes an    Students read about the cause of
Earthquake?       earthquakes and how the stress on a
                  bent ruler is similar.
                                                                                         ✓
                                                                                         ✓            ✓
Stop and Think    Students apply new content
                  information to answer questions.




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              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Learning Set 3 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide (cont'd)
        Section             Activity and Purpose                                      Assessment
                                                               Formative                                            Summative
                                                               Understanding Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                               Goals         Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                             and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                             Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
    How Does           Students read about seismic waves
    Energy From an
    Earthquake
    Travel?
                       and the epicenter of an earthquake.
                                                                                             ✓
                                                                                             ✓            ✓
    Stop and Think     Questions focus students on the
                       focus of an earthquake.
    Demonstration:     Students observe a demonstration of
    How Does the       P waves and S waves (longitudinal
    Energy of an
    Earthquake
    Travel Through
                       and transverse waves).
                                                                                             ✓
    Earth?
    Stop and Think     Students apply content information
                       about waves to answer questions.                                      ✓            ✓             ✓
    From Where         Students read that the energy of an
    Does the           earthquake is stored in the strain in
    Energy of an       rocks.
    Earthquake
    Come From?
    Stop and Think     Students apply content information
                       about energy and energy
                       transformations to answer questions.                                  ✓            ✓             ✓
    Update the         Students keep track of their progress
    Project Board      by updating the Project Board.               ✓            ✓           ✓            ✓
    Section 3.3 (55 min)
    How Do             Students read more about the San
    Scientists         Francisco earthquake and how we
    Collect and        now record earthquakes with
    Evaluate Data      seismographs.
    From
    Earthquakes?
    How Do             The seismograph and the Richter
    Scientists         Scale are described for students.
    Measure the
    Strength of an
                                                                                             ✓
    Earthquake?
    How Do             Students read about the Modified
    Scientists         Mercalli Intensity Scale for
    Measure an
    Earthquake’s
                       measuring the effects of
                       earthquakes.
                                                                                             ✓
    Effects?
    Earthquake         Students are given safety tips for
    Safety             future earthquake survival.



                                                                 160
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   Section              Activity and Purpose                                      Assessment
                                                           Formative                                            Summative
                                                           Understanding Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                           Goals         Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                         and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                         Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
Stop and Think     Students consider earthquake
                                                                                         ✓            ✓             ✓




                                                                                                                              3.0
                   intensity and how it is measured.

Be a Scientist:    Students read about the study of
How Do             earthquakes by scientists, including
Scientists Know    the elastic rebound theory.
so Much About
Earthquakes
                                                                                         ✓
and Seismic
Activity?
Section 3.4 (65 min)
How Do           Students are briefly introduced to

                                                                                         ✓
Scientists Find  the activity—finding the epicenter of
the Epicenter of an earthquake.
an Earthquake?


                                                                ✓            ✓
Conference         Groups discuss the possible epicenter
                   of the 1960 Chilean earthquake.
Reflect             Students learn that they do not have
                   enough information to find the
                   epicenter.                                                ✓
                                                                ✓
Procedure          Students determine the epicenter of
                   an earthquake in the United States.
Part One: Salt     Students use earthquake data from

                                                                                                      ✓
Lake City, Utah,   the first seismograph station.
Seismograph
Station

Stop and Think     Students realize they need more
                   information to find the epicenter of
                   this earthquake.                                                      ✓            ✓
Part Two:          Students use earthquake data from a

                                                                                                      ✓
Houston, Texas,    second seismograph station.
Seismograph
Station


                                                                                         ✓            ✓
Stop and Think     Students reduce the possible
                   epicenters to two points.
Part Three:        Students use earthquake data from a
Savannah,          third seismograph station.
Georgia,
Seismograph
                                                                                                      ✓
Station
Reflect             Students answer Reflect questions to
                   consolidate their understanding of
                   how epicenters are determined.                            ✓           ✓            ✓             ✓
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                                                                                                    EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Learning Set 3 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide (cont'd)
        Section             Activity and Purpose                                       Assessment
                                                                Formative                                            Summative
                                                                Understanding Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                                Goals         Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                              and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                              Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
    Be a Scientist:    Students learn that the process of
    Triangulation      finding the epicenter is done by
                       triangulation.                                                         ✓
    Section 3.5 (110 min)
    What Can           Students are introduced to the new
    Earthquake         activity, one which will use real data
    Data Tell You      to discover plate boundaries.
    About the
    Location of                                                      ✓
    Plate
    Boundaries?
    What Data Is       Students use the USGS Web site to

                                                                     ✓            ✓
    Recorded           find current data on earthquakes.
    About
    Earthquakes?

    Communicate:       Students share their findings with
    Share Your
    Ideas
                       the class.
                                                                                              ✓            ✓
    Be a Scientist:    Students consider the units of
    Earthquake
    Measurements
                       earthquake recording: time and
                       distance.                                                              ✓
    Identify           Students use the USGS Web site to
    Earthquakes in
    Your Region
                       learn about earthquakes in their
                       assigned region.                                                                    ✓
    Reflect             Students reflect on what they have
                       learned about earthquakes in their
                       assigned regions.                                          ✓           ✓
    Identify           Students take on a new assignment:

                                                                                                           ✓
    Earthquakes        locating the site of recent
    Around the         earthquakes on a world map.
    World


                                                                                  ✓                        ✓
    Analyze Your       Students analyze and record the class
    Data               data on worldwide earthquakes.

    Communicate:    Students share their plate boundary
    Share Your Data inferences with the class.
    and Ideas                                                                                 ✓            ✓
    Update Your        Students update their My Region
    My Region
    Project Board
                       Project Board.
                                                                     ✓            ✓           ✓            ✓
                                                                     ✓            ✓           ✓            ✓
    Update the         Students update the class Project
    Project Board      Board.



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Project-Based Inquiry Science
   Section             Activity and Purpose                                      Assessment
                                                          Formative                                            Summative
                                                          Understanding Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                          Goals         Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                        and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                        Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
Section 3.6 (85 min)




                                                                                                                             3.0
How Can One       Students are introduced to the Big
Year of           Data Map for the next activity and
Earthquake Data
Help You Better
Identify Plate
                  set about to find the plate
                  boundaries in their assigned regions.        ✓
Boundaries?
Procedure         On transparencies, students mark the

                                                                            ✓           ✓            ✓
                  earthquake activity in their regions
                  and then lay their transparencies
                  over the Big Data Map.




                                                                                                                             5.0
Identifying Plate Students learn to identify plate
Boundaries from boundaries by examining
Earthquake
Data
                  earthquake data.                                                      ✓
How Much Data Examples of too much, too little, and
Is Enough?    just right data are shown to the
              students.


                                                                            ✓                        ✓
Analyze Your      Students analyze the earthquake
Data              data from their assigned region.
Refine Your        Students use My World and three
Data to           years of data to plot plate
Improve Your
Plate Boundary
                  boundaries.
                                                               ✓
Inferences
Procedure         Students gather earthquake data for
                  their assigned region using My
                  World.
                                                                            ✓                        ✓
Update Your       Students update their My Region
My Region
Project Board
                  Project Board as needed.
                                                                            ✓           ✓            ✓
                                                                            ✓           ✓            ✓
Reflect            Students reflect on their plate
                  boundary determinations.
Update the        Students update the class Project
Project Board     Board with new information, ideas,
                  and questions.
                                                               ✓            ✓           ✓            ✓
Section 3.7 (60 min)
Where Are         Students learn they are to determine
Plate             plate boundaries for Earth.
Boundaries
Located Across
the Entire
                                                               ✓
Earth?




                                                            163
                                                                                                   EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Learning Set 3 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide (cont'd)
        Section             Activity and Purpose                                       Assessment
                                                                Formative                                            Summative
                                                                Understanding Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                                Goals         Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                              and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                              Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
    Conference:    Groups prepare a world map
    Neighboring
    Region Meeting
                   showing plate boundaries.
                                                                                  ✓                        ✓
    Communicate:       Groups present their inferences

                                                                                              ✓            ✓             ✓
    Share Your         about worldwide plate boundaries.
    Plate Boundary
    Inferences


                                                                                              ✓            ✓
    Reflect             Students reflect on the class data
                       and the class discussion.


                                                                                  ✓                        ✓
    Conference         Groups complete sketches of plate
                       boundaries for their assigned regions.
    Reflect             Students return to the San Francisco

                                                                                  ✓           ✓
                       and Chile earthquakes and apply
                       their new understanding of plate
                       boundaries.

    Learning Set 3: Back to the Big Question (80 min)
    What Processes     Students review their
    Within Earth
    Cause Geologic
    Activity?
                       accomplishments in Learning Set 3.
                                                                     ✓
    Add to Your        Students make cards for 21 new
    Picture Map        terms and use them to make Picture
                       Maps that show the connections
                       between the terms.
                                                                                  ✓                        ✓
    Explain            Groups prepare explanations that
                       describe the connection between
                       tectonic plates and geologic activity.
                                                                                  ✓                        ✓
    Conference:        Student pairs with the same assigned
    Share Your
    Explanation
                       region meet to agree on one
                       explanation statement.                                     ✓                        ✓
                                                                                              ✓            ✓             ✓
    Communicate        Groups share their explanation with
                       the class.


                                                                                              ✓            ✓             ✓
    Reflect             Pairs answer questions about their
                       explanation.

    Update the         Students update the class Project
    Project Board      Board with new information
                       and questions.
                                                                     ✓            ✓           ✓            ✓



                                                                  164
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Meeting the Needs of All Students
Differentiated Instruction: Augmentation and Accommodations
 Learning Issue             Reference                           Augmentation and Accommodations
Reading Strategy:     3.2 Read                Augmentation
Activate prior        What Causes Earthquakes • Ask students who have been in, witnessed, or seen the aftermath of an
knowledge/            and What Happens When     earthquake to share their experiences with the class. Include students
personal experience   They Occur?               who live near a fault line or who have seen a fault line for other reasons.
                                                Encourage their classmates to ask questions. Be sure the discussion is




                                                                                                                              3.0
                                                sensitive, however, as experiencing an earthquake can be traumatic.

Reading Strategy:     3.2 Read                Augmentation
Make predictions      What Causes Earthquakes • Read aloud the heading, What Causes Earthquakes and What Happens
based on headers      and What Happens When     When They Occur? Continue speaking aloud to model a prediction of
                      They Occur?               what students will be reading about under that heading. (The text
                                                probably talks about what happens inside Earth to cause earthquakes
                                                and then will tell about the changes an earthquake makes in and on
                                                Earth.) Then have students write predictions telling what they think
                                                they will be reading about under these headings from the same section:
                                                What Causes an Earthquake? How Does Energy From an Earthquake
                                                Travel? and Demonstration.

Understanding         3.2 Read                Augmentation
diagrams              What Causes Earthquakes • The act of drawing or copying a diagram and labeling it can help
                      and What Happens When     students better remember the information in the diagram. Have all
                      They Occur?               students draw and label the diagrams of the three types of faults;
                                                the relationship between fault, focus, and epicenter; P wave; S wave;
                                                surface wave; longitudinal wave; and transverse wave.
                                                  • Some students may wish to color their diagrams and may find that color
                                                    helps them to remember aspects of the diagrams.
                                                  Accommodations
                                                  • Make colored pencils or crayons available to students who wish to color
                                                    their diagrams.

Map-reading skills    3.3 Read                    Augmentation
                      How Do Scientists Collect   • Students may benefit from a review of how to read a map, including
                      and Evaluate Data From        how to interpret a map key.
                      Earthquakes?
Using Venn diagrams   3.3 Read                    Augmentation
                      How Do Scientists           • Venn diagrams help students compare and contrast. Have students
                      Measure the Strength of       use Venn diagrams to show similarities and differences between the
                      an Earthquake?                information scientists get from a seismogram and the information they
                      How Do Scientists             get from the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.
                      Measure an Earthquake’s
                                                  Accommodations
                      Effects?
                                                  • Show students how to draw a Venn diagram. Alternatively, provide
                                                    students with empty Venn diagrams. Note the importance of labeling
                                                    each circle in the Venn diagrams.
                                                  • Provide students with a Venn diagram with the left circle labeled
                                                    Seismogram, the right circle labeled Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale,
                                                    and the overlap labeled Both.




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              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Strategies for Students with Limited English-Language Proficiency
      Learning Issue                Reference                                      Augmentation
    Vocabulary              3.1 Understand the        • You may wish to review the meaning of force, as it is used in the plural
    comprehension           Question                    in the first paragraph. One way to get across the meaning of some
                            Think About What            unfamiliar terms is by using gestures. To help students understand force
                            Happens at Plate            and forces, you can demonstrate a push and also a pull with your hands.
                            Boundaries

    Inferring               3.3 Read                  • Hold a brief class discussion about this statement in the caption: Notice
    Verbal expression       What’s the Point?           that intensity is only measured on land. Ask ELL volunteers to infer
                                                        why that is. (There are no man-made structures offshore, so there is no
                                                        damage to assess.)

    Vocabulary              3.5 Explore               • Be sure students correctly determine the meaning of clusters from
    comprehension           Analyze Your Data           context. Draw a connection to the patterns students make in between
                                                        classes, either while walking through the halls or standing in front of
                                                        lockers or in lounge areas.

    Vocabulary              3.6 Investigate           • Challenge students to figure out the meaning of annotate from the
    comprehension           Refine Your Data to          context of Step 5.
                            Improve Your Plate
                            Boundary Inferences:
                            Procedure
    Vocabulary              3.7 Explore               • Check students’ understanding of the word neighboring. Have an ELL
    comprehension           Conference: Neighboring     student define the word neighbor in their own words, then extend the
                            Region Meeting              definition to the context of graphing.

    Speaking competency 3.7 Explore                   • ELL students benefit greatly from the opportunity to speak in English.
                        Communicate                     Some ELL students will be self-conscious and shy about speaking in
                                                        front of their peers, while others will be less reluctant to try. Be sure to
                                                        encourage all ELL students to speak in class, as experience will broaden
                                                        their comfort level. Over time, the shy students will become increasingly
                                                        less self-conscious about speaking in front of their classmates. With
                                                        that in mind, have students with limited English-language proficiency
                                                        present their groups’ plate boundary inferences to the class.
    Written expression      3.BBQ                     • Have ELL students fill in the Create Your Explanation forms for their
                                                        groups. Remind them to write in complete sentences, using correct
                                                        grammar, usage, and punctuation. You may wish to ask ELL students of
                                                        different levels of proficiency with English to review one another’s forms
                                                        and suggest corrections and improvements to each other’s writing.




                                                               166
Project-Based Inquiry Science
      Learning Set 3

      What Happens
      at Plate
      Boundaries?




                                           3.0
       Teaching
       Strategies and
       Sample Answers
      Ask students what they know
      about the places where the plates
      in Earth’s crust meet. They should
      know that volcanic activity
      and earthquakes occur at these
      places. They should have some
      ideas about how earthquakes
      occur at these places due to
      plate interactions. How do these
      interactions cause the changes
      students have observed where
      earthquakes have occurred? What
      would students need to learn to be
      able to map the edges of plates?
      Tell students that in this
      Learning Set they will investigate
      earthquakes and identify where
      plates interact. They will also
      develop their understanding
      of the geologic activity in their
      regions, the patterns of geologic
      activity across regions, and
      what processes within Earth
      cause geologic activity.




167
                    EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.1 Understand the Question                                                                                               45 min

   Think About What Happens at Plate Boundaries
   Overview                                                            Materials
   Students use blocks of clay to model Earth’s
                                                                            Quantity                             Item
   plates and simulate several types of plate




                                                                                                                                      3.1
   interaction. After recording observations from                        2-3 per group        Flat blocks of modeling clay
   their simulations, they develop interpretations of                    1 sheet per group    Wax paper
   their observations. They share these interpretations
   with the class and discuss what they think they                       1 per student        Simulating Plate Interactions page
                                                                                              Project Board page
   now know about plate interaction. The class
   records what they think they know and what                            1 per classroom      Laminated class Project Board
   they need to investigate in the Project Board.
                                                                       Activity Setup and
                                                                       Preparation
                                                                       In this section, students will simulate plate
                                                                       interactions by moving blocks of clay across a
                                                                       table or desk. They may need to put sheets of
                                                                       wax paper down to keep the clay from sticking
                                                                       to the table or desktop. Try the simulation
                                                                       with blocks of clay before class to see what
                                                                       the most effective way of doing it is.



            Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

                                            Benchmarks met in Section 3.1

    Benchmarks                                                                                                          Page(s)

    SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth’s                 EE 92
    crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth’s surface, including volcanic eruptions,
    earthquakes, and mountain building.

    LA.6.2.2.3 The student will organize information to show understanding (e.g., representing main ideas               EE 94-95
    within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, or comparing/contrasting).

    LA.6.4.2.2 The student will record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends) related          EE 94-95
    to a topic, including visual aids to organize and record information and include a list of sources used.




                                                                  168
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Section 3.1 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
 Subsection           Activity and Purpose                                        Assessment
                                                         Formative                                              Summative
                                                         Understanding   Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                         Goals           Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                         and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                         Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
Think About      The term plate boundaries is defined




                                                                                                                              3.1
What Happens
at Plate
Boundaries
                 for students.
                                                              ✓
Get Started:     Students use blocks of modeling clay
Simulate Plate
Interactions
                 to simulate plate boundaries and
                 movement.                                    ✓
Procedure        Students simulate the forces at plate
                 boundaries using blocks of modeling
                 clay.
                                                                            ✓                         ✓
                                                                            ✓
Analyze Your     Students apply their simulations to




                                                                                                                              5.0
Data             the forces of Earth.
Communicate:     Students share their results and
Share Your
Results
                 ideas with the class.
                                                                                         ✓            ✓             ✓
Reflect           Students consider the ramifications
                 of plate boundary forces in Reflect
                 questions.                                                 ✓            ✓            ✓             ✓
Update the       Students add new information,
Project Board    ideas, and questions to the class
                 Project Board.                               ✓             ✓            ✓            ✓
Student
Reflection
Questions
                                                                                         ✓            ✓             ✓

NOTES




                                                           169
                                                                                                    EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.1 Understand the Question

   Think About
   What Happens
   at Plate
   Boundaries




                                                                             3.1
    Teaching
    Strategies and
    Sample Answers
   Let students know they will first
   investigate how plates interact.
   At the places where plates meet,
   which are called plate boundaries,
   plates apply forces on each
   other. Because students cannot
   directly observe this interaction,
   they will use a simulation. Tell
   them that they will model this
   interaction using blocks of clay.

   Get Started
   Simulate Plate
   Interactions
   Show students the clay blocks
   they will use and briefly discuss
   the procedure. Tell them first they   on one clay block from opposite
   will lay two blocks of clay on a     ends and observe what happens
   table and push them together,        (Step 4). Finally, they should lay
   recording their observations (Step   two clay blocks next to each other
   1). Continuing to apply steady       and pull them apart, recording
   pressure, they should observe        their observations (Step 5).
   what happens (Step 2). Then
   they should slide the clay blocks
   sideways against each other and
   observe what happens. They
   should record their observations
   using arrows to indicate direction
   (Step 3). Then they should pull


                                                      170
Project-Based Inquiry Science
      Procedure
      As pairs run their simulations,
      ask them what observations
      they have made. Look at the
      observations they have recorded.
      Their observations should include
      deformations of the clay. They
      should be drawing pictures of




                                          3.1
      the clay in each interaction to
      show how the blocks of clay
      are affected. Their drawings
      should show any deformations
      in the blocks of clay after the
      interaction. The drawings of
      blocks sliding past each other
      should include arrows to show
      the direction of motion.




171
                   EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Analyze Your Data
   When students have finished
   running their simulations,
   have them discuss what their
   observations suggest about
   real interactions between
   plates in Earth’s crust with
   their partners. Together, they




                                                                          3.1
   should develop interpretations
   of their observations for each
   interaction they simulated, and
   record their interpretations in the
   Data Analysis column of their
   Simulating Plate Interactions
   pages. Emphasize that they should
   imagine their blocks of clay are
   plates in Earth’s crust. They can
   then imagine how plates in Earth’s
   crust might be deformed in ways
   similar to the blocks of clay.

   Communicate
   Share Your Results
   When pairs have had time to
   interpret their results, have
   them share the results along
   with their interpretations. They
   should describe what they
   observed when they simulated
   plate interactions with the clay,
   and they should describe what
   they think their observations
   suggest about interactions
                                         over or under each other. If
   of plates in Earth’s crust.
                                         no one has observed this, note
   Emphasize that students               this as something to bring up
   should listen carefully to other      in the Reflect discussion. You
   students’ observations and            will want to elicit students’
   should examine their drawings.        ideas about what could happen
   They should record anything           when plates move under or over
   that they learn from other            each other and record their
   students in the Communicate           ideas on the Project Board.
   column of their Simulating
   Plate Interactions pages.
   Ideally, some students will have
   observed that plates can move


                                                       172
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                        3.1 Understand the Question



                                                                                Reflect
                                                                                1. Sketches should reflect what
                                                                                they learned from their simulation
                                                                                and from the class discussion.
                                                                                2. Students might suggest
                                                                                that they need to know
                                                                                where most earthquakes
                                                                                and volcanoes are found.




                                                                                                                      3.1
                                                                                3. If the plate boundaries
                                                                                are located where most
                                                                                geologic activity takes
                                                                                place, that would be good
                                                                                evidence that the boundaries
                                                                                cause geologic activity.

                                                                                Update the
                                                                                Project Board




Sample Project Board Entries
  What do we think             What do we need to                                                  What is our
                                                                What are we learning?
     we know?                     investigate?                                                     evidence?
 Plate boundaries may    Where do earthquakes occur?            Plate boundaries can cause   clay block simulation
 cause earthquakes and   Where do volcanoes occur?              topographic changes as
 volcanoes.                                                     plates interact.
                         What causes earthquakes and
                         volcanoes at plate boundaries?


*Students should generate actual Project Board entries.




                                                          173
                                                                                                EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Student Reflection                     • How was it useful to               Teacher Reflection
                                           record your observations,
   Questions                               interpretations, and the           Questions
                                           ideas from your discussions?
   • In what ways do you think your                                           • What misconceptions
                                           (Recording observations,
     simulation accurately predicts                                             do students hold about
                                           interpretations, and ideas
     the events that occur when                                                 earthquakes or plate
                                           helped students consider what
     plates interact? What are some                                             interactions? How can you
                                           they had done and how it
     things you could do to test these                                          challenge those misconceptions?
                                           led to their ideas about plate
     predictions? (This question is




                                                                                                                  3.1
                                           interactions and earthquakes.)     • How were you able to engage
     meant to engage students in
                                                                                students in developing their
     evaluating the strengths of their   • Based on the ideas you
                                                                                understanding of plate
     model and thinking about what         have developed about plate
                                                                                interaction? How can you
     they should investigate.)             interactions so far, what
                                                                                engage students going forward?
                                           conclusion might you draw
   • Do you think the different
                                           if you saw that a lot of           • How were you able to keep
     types of plate interaction cause
                                           earthquakes occurred in one          discussions focused and
     different types of earthquake
                                           location? (Students should           constructive?
     activity? Why? (This question
                                           recognize that this might
     is meant to engage students in
                                           indicate the presence of a plate
     imagining how the different
                                           boundary.)
     types of plate interaction
     generate earthquakes.)
   • How did class discussion
     help you develop your
     interpretations? (Students
     should identify specific ideas
     they got from their classmates.)




                                                        174
Project-Based Inquiry Science
              3.1 Understand the Question



NOTES




                                            3.1
                                            5.0




        175
                    EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.2 Read                                                                                                          70 min

   What Causes Earthquakes and What Happens
   When They Occur?
   Overview                                                            Activity Setup and
   Students learn more about the science of                            Preparation




                                                                                                                                3.2
   earthquakes, developing an accurate understanding
                                                                       In this section, you will demonstrate how
   of how plate interactions cause earthquakes. They
                                                                       longitudinal waves and transverse waves travel
   are introduced to the seismic waves that carry energy
                                                                       through materials using a spring. Before class, tie a
   from the epicenter of an earthquake. They watch a
                                                                       ribbon to the coiled spring toy. Put the ribbon on a
   demonstration of how longitudinal waves (similar to
                                                                       coil far enough from either end of the spring so that
   P waves) and transverse waves (similar to S waves)
                                                                       students can see clearly how waves pass through
   travel through a spring, developing an understanding
                                                                       it. Try sending longitudinal and transverse waves
   of the characteristics of these different seismic waves
                                                                       through the spring before class so that you know
   and how they affect Earth’s surface. Finally, they
                                                                       how the spring will behave. To do this, tie one end
   record what they have learned on the Project Board,
                                                                       of the spring to a secure object or have a colleague
   connecting this science knowledge to the ideas they
                                                                       hold one end of it. Stretch the spring out and use
   developed through simulations and observations.
                                                                       your free hand to gently bat the back of the hand
                                                                       holding the spring. This will send a longitudinal
   Materials                                                           wave through the spring. Then use your free hand
                                                                       to gently bat the side of the hand holding the spring.
       Quantity                           Item                         This will send a transverse wave through the spring.
    1 per classroom      Coiled spring toy
                         Ribbon
                         Laminated class Project Board
                         Big World Map




            Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

                                           Benchmarks met in Section 3.2

    Benchmarks                                                                                                   Page(s)

    SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth’s         EE 97-98
    crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth’s surface, including volcanic eruptions,
    earthquakes, and mountain building.

    SC.7.E.6.7 Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and              EE 97-103
    volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.

    LA.6.2.2.3 The student will organize information to show understanding (e.g., representing main ideas         EE 104
    within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, or comparing/contrasting).

    LA.6.4.2.2 The student will record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends) related    EE 104
    to a topic, including visual aids to organize and record information and include a list of sources used.


                                                                  176
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Section 3.2 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
 Subsection           Activity and Purpose                                        Assessment
                                                         Formative                                              Summative
                                                         Understanding   Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                         Goals           Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                         and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                         Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
What Causes      Students consider the force behind




                                                                                                                              3.2
Earthquakes      an earthquake, as demonstrated by
and What         a tsunami.
Happens
When They
Occur?


                                                                                         ✓            ✓
Stop and Think   Students think about what a
                 tsunami in Chile would be like.
What Causes an   Students read about the cause of
Earthquake?      earthquakes and how the stress on
                 a bent ruler is similar.                                                ✓
                                                                                         ✓            ✓
Stop and Think   Students apply new content
                 information to answer questions.

How Does         Students read about seismic waves
Energy From an
Earthquake
Travel?
                 and the epicenter of an earthquake.
                                                                                         ✓
Stop and Think   Questions engage students in
                 thinking about the focus of an
                 earthquake.
                                                                                         ✓            ✓
Demonstration:   Students observe a demonstration
How Does the     of P waves and S waves
Energy of an
Earthquake
Travel Through
                 (longitudinal and transverse waves).
                                                                                         ✓
Earth?


                                                                                         ✓            ✓             ✓
Stop and Think   Students apply content information
                 about waves to answer questions.

Where Does the   Students read that the energy of an
Energy of an     earthquake is stored in the strain
Earthquake       in rocks.
Come From?
Stop and Think   Students apply content information
                 about energy and energy
                 transformations to answer questions.                                    ✓            ✓             ✓
                                                              ✓             ✓            ✓            ✓
Update the       Students keep track of their progress
Project Board    by updating the Project Board.

Student
Reflection
Questions                                                                                ✓            ✓             ✓


                                                            177
                                                                                                    EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.2 Read

   What Causes
   Earthquakes
   and What
   Happens When




                                                                                                                 3.2
   They Occur?
    Teaching
    Strategies and
    Sample Answers
   Point out the picture in the
   student text. Ask students
   to describe what they think
   happened where the photograph
   was taken. Have they ever
   seen anything that looks
   like this photograph?
   Discuss the events that caused
   the destruction in the picture.
   An earthquake near the coast
   of Chile ruptured the ocean
   floor, and vibrations spread
   outwards through Earth’s crust.
   The shifting of the ocean floor
   caused a tsunami, which sent
   waves crashing at 320 kilometers                                           office building with those of a
   per hour onto coasts around          Stop and Think                        farmer working in his fields.
   the Pacific Ocean. Emphasize          1. Students may have trouble
   that students will soon be able
   to explain how events within
                                        with the location of Chile. If so,    What Causes an
                                        locate Chile on a map with the
   Earth caused this destruction.       class. Make sure that students        Earthquake?
                                        identify Mount Aconcagua as           When students have had a few
                                        an Earth structure in Chile.          minutes to answer the Stop
                                        2. Students’ paragraphs should be     and Think questions, discuss
                                        brief but illustrate how terrifying   the causes of earthquakes. Tell
                                        the experience might be. You          students they should think
                                        might have them compare the           about their simulations of plate
                                        experiences of a person in a tall     interactions as they learn about


                                                       178
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                        Discuss the importance of faults
                                                                        in earthquakes. As the student
                                                                        text points out, most earthquakes
                                                                        occur when the rock on either
                                                                        side of a fault moves. Earthquakes
                                                                        may occur along part of the fault.
                                                                        The magnitude of the earthquake
                                                                        is determined by how much of a
                                                                        fault or how much of a fault zone




                                                                                                             3.2
                                                                        is involved in the earthquake.
                                                                        Tell students that different types
                                                                        of plate interactions can form
                                                                        faults. One important way plates
                                                                        interact and form faults is when
                                                                        two plates that are sliding past
                                                                        each other become stuck. The
                                                                        rest of the plates keep moving,
                                                                        and the stuck part creates a
                                                                        tremendous strain. Eventually,
                                                                        the strain causes rock along the
                                                                        fault to break loose and snap
                                                                        back to their original position in
                                                                        the plates. The release of energy
                                                                        causes an earthquake. Three types
                                                                        of faults are illustrated in the
                                                                        student text. It is not important
                                                                        to know how different plate
                                                                        interactions cause each kind,
                                                                        but they should understand that
                                                                        each of these types represent a
                                                                        different way parts of Earth’s
                                                                        crust can move past each other.



the causes of earthquakes.         bends until it breaks; then the
Emphasize that their simulations   pieces of the crust snap back. The
and the story of the earthquake    student text uses the example
in Chile provide information       of a wooden ruler. Point out
that will help them understand     the picture at the bottom of the
the causes of earthquakes.         page. The student in the picture
                                   is bending a wooden ruler.
Discuss how the plates that
                                   When the ruler breaks, the two
students modeled with clay
                                   pieces become straight again.
can bump into and slide past
each other. The force of these     Tell students that when this
interactions is great, and can     happens in Earth’s crust, the
cause the crust to bend and        fracture is known as a fault.
break. In this case, the crust


                                                  179
                                                                                      EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?




                                                                 3.2




                                                      180
Project-Based Inquiry Science
      Stop and Think
      1. It is the overall area of a fault
      zone that determines the strength
      of an earthquake. An earthquake
      may take place at only a portion
      of a fault. If 10 km of a fault is
      involved in one earthquake and
      5 km of the fault is involved




                                             3.2
      in a second earthquake, the
      first will be stronger.
      2. Students should be able
      to describe how the motion
      of rock on either side of a
      fault can release energy,
      causing earthquakes.

      How Does
      Energy from
      an Earthquake
      Travel?
      Discuss what happens at the
      focus of an earthquake. The
      focus is the spot where the rock
      breaks. As strain builds at this
      point, the rocks push against
      the surrounding rock until it is
      deformed. Just as the two parts of
      the bent ruler snap back to their
      original shapes when the ruler
      breaks, the parts of the crust on
      either side of a fault snap back
      to their original shapes when
      they break free in an earthquake.
      The energy of this back and
      forth motion (vibration) travels
      outward from the focus through
      surrounding rock in waves,
      called seismic waves. These
      waves shake Earth’s surface.
      Make sure they understand
      that seismic waves shake the
      Earth with the greatest force
      directly above the focus, at a
      point known as the epicenter.


181
                     EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Stop and Think
   1. The focus is where the
   rock that is creating tension
   and deforming surrounding
   rock breaks and releases
   waves of energy.
   2. The epicenter is located
   directly above the focus.




                                                                 3.2
   Demonstration
   How Does the
   Energy of an
   Earthquake Travel
   Through Earth?
   Discuss the waves that carry an
   earthquake’s energy through
   Earth. Tell students the waves
   that are called body waves
   travel through Earth. When
   they reach Earth’s surface, they
   cause surface waves, which
   travel along the surface.

   Body Waves
   Discuss the two types of body
   waves: P waves and S waves. P
   waves travel faster than S waves.
   As they travel, they push rock
   particles into the particles ahead
   of them, alternately expanding
   and contracting the rock they
   travel through. They travel
   through liquids and gases as well
   as rock, because these forms
   of matter can be compressed
   and expand in the same way
   rock can. Waves that move in
   this way are called longitudinal
   waves. Tell students that you
   will now demonstrate how
   longitudinal waves travel.




                                                      182
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                       3.2 Read



                                                                            wave. Repeat the demonstration
                                                                            a few times so that students will
                                                                            be able to observe the waves of
                                                                            compression and expansion.

                                                                            Transverse Waves
                                                                            Tell students that the other type
                                                                            of body wave, the S waves, or




                                                                                                                  3.2
                                                                            secondary waves, are slower than P
                                                                            waves and move particles in a side-
                                                                            to-side motion. They happen when
                                                                            movement along a fault jerks the
                                                                            crust. Unlike P waves, S waves can
                                                                            only travel through solids. S waves
                                                                            displace particles, so they do not
                                                                            return to their original positions.
                                                                            Waves that move this way are
                                                                            known as transverse waves.
                                                                            Demonstrate how transverse
                                                                            waves travel through matter by
                                                                            giving one end of the spring a
                                                                            light shake. If you have a free
                                                                            hand, you can use it to hit the
                                                                            hand holding the spring: but
                                                                            this time, hit the side of your
                                                                            hand. Emphasize that students
                                                                            should watch the ribbon on
                                                                            the spring as transverse waves
                                                                            pass through it. Now the
                                                                            ribbon moves up and down.




Longitudinal                          longitudinal waves pass through it.
                                      Then, with the spring stretched
Waves                                 out, send a compression wave
Demonstrate how longitudinal          through the spring by lightly
waves travel through materials        flicking your hand towards the
using a spring with a ribbon tied     opposite end of the spring. Point
to it. Lay the spring on a table      out that waves of compression
where students can see it. Then       and expansion move through the
stretch it by tying one end of the    spring. Ask students what happens
spring to a stationary object (or     to the ribbon. They should respond
have a student hold one end). Point   that the ribbon does not move
out the ribbon and direct them to     along the spring. It only moves
observe how the ribbon moves as       forward and backward with each


                                                     183
                                                                                          EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Surface Waves
   Introduce surface waves. Surface
   waves travel more slowly than
   body waves. Surface waves
   appear when body waves reach
   Earth’s surface. Surface waves
   may cause Earth’s surface to
   rise and fall, like the waves in a




                                                                 3.2
   body of water. Or they may move
   from side to side, like a slithering
   snake. Point out the illustration
   of P waves, S waves, and surface
   waves in the student text.




                                                      184
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                 3.2 Read



      Stop and Think
      1. In P waves, particles move
      closer together and farther
      apart along the direction the
      waves are traveling. In S waves,
      particles move back and forth
      perpendicular to the direction
      the waves are traveling.




                                            3.2
      2. P waves and S waves are body
      waves. P waves are longitudinal
      waves; S waves are transverse
      waves. Transverse waves are
      slower than longitudinal waves,
      and they are not able to pass
      through gases and liquids.
      Therefore, transverse waves
      usually reach the epicenter and
      other locations after longitudinal
      waves, and they are interrupted
      by places in Earth where there
      is liquid or gas. Then there are
      surface waves, the slowest of all
      seismic waves. These can move
      up and down, or side to side.

      Where Does the
      Energy of an
      Earthquake Come
      From?
      Now that students know how
      the energy of an earthquake
      travels, have them read where
      the energy comes from. Help
      them to understand that the
      energy comes from the convection
      movement of the mantle which
      tries to move the crustal plate.
      When the plate doesn’t move,
      strain in the rocks builds up.
      Eventually, this strain must be
      released in an earthquake.




185
                    EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Stop and Think
   1. The energy released in
   an earthquake is from strain
   contained in the rocks by
   pressure from the mantle.
   2. Students may suggest that
   stored electrical energy in a
   battery is transformed into




                                                                                                               3.2
   light energy in a flashlight.
   Or that chemical energy
   is transformed into kinetic
   energy in an automobile.

   Update the
   Project Board




   Sample Project Board Entries
        What do we think             What do we need             What are we                  What is our
           we know?                   to investigate?             learning?                   evidence?
    Energy travels in waves. In     Where are the edges of   Seismic waves:              coiled spring toy
    order of speed, longitudinal,   the plate boundaries?    longitudinal, transverse,   demonstrations
    transverse, then surface                                 and surface waves.          science reading
    seismic waves.                                           Faults occur along plate    ruler demonstration
                                                             boundaries.

   *Students should generate actual Project Board entries.




                                                             186
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                    3.2 Read



Student Reflection                    • You know that some                 Teacher Reflection
                                       earthquakes are stronger than
Questions                              others. How do you think           Questions
                                       earthquakes are measured? (The
• P waves usually reach the                                               • Students will soon use seismic
                                       purpose of this question is to
  epicenter of an earthquake                                                waves to locate the epicenter of
                                       get students to think about how
  before S waves. Do you think                                              an earthquake. What do you
                                       scientists measure earthquakes.)
  the distance between the first                                             think they need to learn before
  P waves and the first S waves                                              they can do this successfully?
  increases, decreases, or stays




                                                                                                               3.2
                                                                          • How were you able to identify
  the same as they travel away
                                                                            misconceptions about seismic
  from the focus? (The distance
                                                                            waves? What might you try
  between the first P waves and
                                                                            next time?
  the first S waves increases. If P
  waves travel X miles per hour                                           • How were you able to assess
  faster than S waves, then after                                           students’ engagement in the
  1 hour the distance between                                               demonstrations? What might
  the first P waves and the first                                             you try next time?
  S waves will be X miles, while
  after 2 hours it will be 2X.)




                                                   187
                                                                                        EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.3 Read                                                                                                           55 min

   How Do Scientists Collect and Evaluate Data
   From Earthquakes?
   Overview
   Students are introduced to magnitude and intensity                the earthquake, and is estimated using observations




                                                                                                                                 3.3
   as measures of an earthquake’s severity. They learn               of the earthquake’s effects. They differentiate
   that the magnitude of an earthquake depends on                    between these two measures, and learn that
   the energy released in the earthquake, and can                    magnitude is usually expressed by a number on the
   be measured with a seismograph, which records                     Richter Scale, while intensity is usually expressed by
   the heights of seismic waves. They learn that the                 a number on the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale.
   intensity of an earthquake depends on the effects of



            Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

                                          Benchmarks met in Section 3.3

    Benchmarks                                                                                                    Page(s)

    SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth’s         EE 106-107
    crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth’s surface, including volcanic eruptions,
    earthquakes, and mountain building.

    SC.7.E.6.7 Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and            EE 106-107, 114
    volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.

    SC.6.N.2.3 Recognize that scientists who make contributions to scientific knowledge come from all               EE 114
    kinds of backgrounds and possess varied talents, interests, and goals.

    SC.6.N.3.1 Recognize and explain that a scientific theory is a well-supported and widely accepted               EE 114
    explanation of nature and is not simply a claim posed by an individual. Thus, the use of the term theory
    in science is very different than how it is used in everyday life.

    SC.7.N.2.1 Identify an instance from the history of science in which scientific knowledge has changed         EE 105, 114
    when new evidence or new interpretations are encountered.




                                                                188
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Section 3.3 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
Subsection            Activity and Purpose                                         Assessment
                                                          Formative                                              Summative
                                                          Understanding   Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                          Goals           Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                          and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                          Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
How Do           Students read more about the San




                                                                                                                               3.3
Scientists       Francisco earthquake and how we
Collect and      now record earthquakes with
Evaluate Data    seismographs.
From
Earthquakes?
How Do           The seismograph and the Richter
Scientists       Scale are described for students.
Measure the
Strength of an
                                                                                          ✓
Earthquake?
How Do           Students read about the Modified




                                                                                                                               5.0
Scientists       Mercalli Intensity Scale for measuring
Measure an
Earthquake’s
                 the effects of earthquakes.
                                                                                          ✓
Effects?
Earthquake       Students are given safety tips for
Safety           future earthquake survival.


                                                                                          ✓            ✓             ✓
Stop and Think Students consider earthquake
               intensity and how it is measured.
Be a Scientist: Students read about the study of
How Do          earthquakes by scientists, including
Scientists Know the elastic rebound theory.
so Much About
Earthquakes
                                                                                          ✓
and Seismic
Activity?
Student
Reflection
Questions                                                                                 ✓            ✓             ✓




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   3.3 Read                             Ask students how they think           of earthquakes on a numerical
                                        scientists record the strength of     scale. Describe the instrument
   How Do                               an earthquake. How do scientists
                                        know if one earthquake is
                                                                              that scientists developed to record
                                                                              seismic waves: the seismograph. A
   Scientists                           stronger than another? Students
                                        may suggest that scientists observe
                                                                              basic seismograph runs a sheet of
                                                                              paper against the tip of a pen that
   Collect and                          the effects of the earthquake, such
                                        as damage to buildings. Tell them
                                                                              is attached to a suspended weight.
                                                                              Because they are suspended, the
   Evaluate                             this is correct and they will soon    weight and pen stay stationary




                                                                                                                    3.3
                                        learn more about this method of       even as seismic waves pass
   Data from                            measuring an earthquake. Tell
                                        students that scientists are also
                                                                              through the ground. The paper,
                                                                              however, shakes with the ground.
   Earthquakes?                         able to measure the strength
                                        of the seismic waves generated
                                                                              The result is that the pen traces a
                                                                              graph of the waves on the paper.
                                        by an earthquake directly.            The graph is called a seismogram.
    Teaching                            Briefly discuss the history
                                                                              Point out the diagram of a
                                                                              seismograph in the student text.
                                        of scientific measurement of
    Strategies and                      earthquakes. Early documentation
    Sample Answers                      of earthquakes often consisted of
                                        eyewitness accounts. Scientists
                                        have only recently developed the
   Discuss the effects of the Great
                                        ability to measure the strength
   San Francisco Earthquake. The
   earthquake was a catastrophe,
   breaking gas lines and starting
   fires that burned for days. At
   the time it occurred, it was the
   largest recorded earthquake.




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                3.3 Read




                            3.3




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                                                                 3.3




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Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                    3.3 Read



                                                                        the Loma Prieta Earthquake
                                                                        in 1989. The bottom two are
                                                                        from the Great San Francisco
                                                                        Earthquake of 1906. Ask
                                                                        students which earthquake was
                                                                        stronger. They should be able
                                                                        to tell from the higher peaks in
                                                                        the graph of the San Francisco
                                                                        earthquake that it was by far




                                                                                                                3.3
                                                                        the stronger earthquake.
                                                                        Tell students that scientists in the
                                                                        United States express the magnitude
                                                                        of an earthquake using the Richter
                                                                        Scale. The Richter Scale ranges
                                                                        from 1 to 10, with high numbers
                                                                        representing great magnitudes.
                                                                        Describe how the numbers on the
                                                                        scale correspond to what people
                                                                        experience during the earthquake.
                                                                        The earthquake in Chile that
                                                                        students read about earlier had a
                                                                        magnitude of 9.5 on the Richter
                                                                        Scale, the highest ever recorded.
                                                                        By contrast, people usually cannot
                                                                        feel earthquakes with magnitudes
                                                                        around 1 or 2. Earthquakes with
                                                                        magnitudes around 3 or 4 usually
                                                                        do not cause damage, though they
                                                                        may be felt. Earthquakes with
                                                                        magnitudes around between 4
                                                                        and 6 are felt by people nearby,
                                                                        and earthquakes with magnitudes
                                                                        above 6 cause a lot of damage.
                                                                        Discuss the nonlinear increase in
How Do Scientists                  nearest the earthquake to measure    strength along the Richter Scale.
                                   its magnitude. The greater the       Every increase of 1 on the Richter
Measure the                        magnitude of the earthquake—         Scale indicates a tenfold increase
                                   that is, the more energy the         in seismic wave height. This means
Strength of an                     earthquake releases—the larger the   that an earthquake with magnitude
Earthquake?                        vibrations under the seismograph,    5 has 10 times the wave height of
                                   and the more violently the           an earthquake with magnitude
Discuss how scientists use         seismograph shakes. The more         4. The increase in energy is even
seismographs to measure the        violently the seismograph shakes,    greater. An increase of 1 on the
magnitude of an earthquake.        the higher the peaks of the          Richter scale indicates 32 times the
Point out that scientists have     waves on the seismogram.             energy. The chart of the Richter
seismographs at centers around                                          Scale in the student text illustrates
the world. When an earthquake      Point out the seismograms
                                   in the student text. The top         how the strength of earthquakes
occurs, they use the seismograph                                        increases along the Richter Scale.
                                   two seismograms are from

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                                                                 3.3




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                3.3 Read




                            3.3




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   How Do Scientists
   Measure an
   Earthquake’s
   Effects?
   Scientists call the severity of an
   earthquake’s effects the intensity
   of the earthquake. They use




                                                                                                                     3.3
   a different scale to measure
   intensity. In the United States,
   scientists usually use the Modified
   Mercalli Intensity Scale. The
   Modified Mercalli Intensity
   Scale uses Roman Numerals,
   I–XII, to describe earthquake
   intensity. There is a table
   describing what each number in
   the Modified Mercalli Intensity
   Scale denotes in the student text.
   Draw students’ attention to the
   photographs in the student text.
   The first picture shows the Fiji
   islands, where two magnitude 7
   earthquakes occurred in quick
   succession. The second shows
   Bam, a city in Iran where a 6.6
   magnitude earthquake occurred.
   The magnitude 7 earthquakes
   near the Fiji islands caused no
   damage and nearby people barely
   felt them. Emphasize that the
   magnitude 7 earthquake was
   much stronger than the magnitude     Students should recognize that the     Draw students’ attention to the
   6.6 earthquake, but the effects      magnitude of the earthquake is         map of California in the student
   of even a strong earthquake          one factor, but it is also important   text. Ask students if the intensity
   will vary from place to place.       to understand that the presence        of the earthquake is the same
                                        of masonry and frame structures        in all areas of the map. What
   After you discuss the descriptions
                                        in a community is a factor.            is the range of the intensities?
   in the Modified Mercalli Scale,
                                        Another factor is the distance of      They should recognize that the
   ask students what factors might
                                        communities from the epicenter         intensity of the earthquake varied.
   make the events described more
                                        of an earthquake. If a community       Within California, the intensity
   likely to occur. For instance,
                                        with poorly constructed masonry        varied from about II or III to IX.
   an earthquake with intensity
                                        buildings is directly over the         Emphasize that the earthquake
   X destroys most masonry and
                                        epicenter of an earthquake, even       had only one magnitude: the
   frame structures. What factors
                                        a relatively moderate magnitude        magnitude measured by the
   make this likely to happen?
                                        earthquake may reach intensity X.      seismograph nearest the epicenter.


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                                                                                    3.3 Read




                                                                                                3.3
But, the effects of the earthquake   different intensities depending on
were different in different areas.   the types of structures around the
                                     epicenters of the earthquakes. You
Tell students that as a subjective
                                     may need to use a few examples
measure, intensity does not have
                                     to help students understand this.
the same objective accuracy as
magnitude. Intensity is judged
based on human experience
and observations of damage to
structures. It may be impossible
to judge the intensity of an
earthquake in an uninhabited
area, and earthquakes with
similar seismic waves will have


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                                                                 3.3




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Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                 3.3 Read



      Earthquake Safety
      Briefly discuss earthquake
      safety. Ask students if they
      know of any safety guidelines
      for earthquakes. The bulleted
      list in the student text describes
      safety guidelines to follow during
      an earthquake. Discuss each of




                                            3.3
      these with the class, particularly
      if their community is in an
      earthquake-prone region.

      Stop and Think
      1. The Richter Scale measures the
      magnitude of earthquakes (the
      height of the seismic waves) and
      the Modified Mercalli Intensity
      Scale measures the intensity of
      earthquakes (the effects of the
      earthquake). Ideally, they will
      also be able to tell you that the
      Richter Scale runs from 0 to 10,
      while the Mercalli Intensity Scale
      runs from I to XII, and that the
      Mercalli Intensity Scale is less
      accurate than the Richter Scale.
      2. Students may have many
      ideas, but they should mention
      that the kind of structures
      present in the areas affected
      by an earthquake and the
      distance of the structures
      from the epicenter of the
      earthquake affect the intensity
      and the amount of damage.




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   Be a Scientist:
   How Do
   Scientists Know
   so Much About
   Earthquakes and
   Seismic Activity?




                                                                 3.3
   Discuss the development of
   modern earthquake science.
   Much of what scientists know
   about earthquakes was learned
   in the days after the Great San
   Francisco Earthquake of 1906.
   A group of scientists determined
   that a fault line, the San Andreas
   Fault, ran through California.
   They developed a new theory,
   the elastic rebound theory,
   which suggested that energy
   builds up in Earth’s crust as rock
   along a fault moves. Many of
   these scientists’ findings were
   of great practical significance.
   They found that most fatalities
   in an earthquake are due to
   structural failures. They also
   found that structures resting on
   bedrock experienced less violent
   shaking than structures on
   sedimentary soil. This has helped
   scientists and engineers build
   structures that can withstand
   earthquakes and prevent a
   great number of fatalities.
   Emphasize that the team explored
   the entire length of the San
   Andreas Fault and mapped
   it. Their maps helped other
   scientists predict earthquake
   activity in the region.




                                                      200
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                3.3 Read




                            3.3




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              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Student Reflection                    • Do earthquakes with greater            San Andreas Fault are evidence
                                          magnitudes have greater                that Earth’s crust is moving and
   Questions                              intensity? If an earthquake            changing. Scientists studying
                                          with magnitude 7 on the                the earthquake and the San
   • An earthquake in City A
                                          Richter Scale occurred in a            Andreas Fault concluded
     measures 5.5 on the Richter
                                          densely populated city with            that the movement of rock
     Scale. An earthquake in City
                                          poorly built structures, would         around the fault caused the
     B measures 7.5 on the Richter
                                          you expect the intensity of the        earthquake.)
     Scale. How much greater was
                                          earthquake to be high? If an
     the energy released in the                                                • What causes faults? Why does




                                                                                                                      3.3
                                          earthquake with magnitude
     earthquake in City B? (Each                                                 the rock in faults move? (The
                                          7 occurred in the middle of
     increase of 1 on the Richter                                                interaction of plates in the crust
                                          an uninhabited desert, would
     Scale represents 32 times the                                               causes faults and the motion of
                                          you expect the intensity to be
     energy released. Therefore, an                                              the plates causes the rock in the
                                          high? (The magnitude of an
     increase of 2 on the Richter                                                faults to move.)
                                          earthquake contributes to its
     Scale represents 322, or 1024
                                          intensity. An earthquake with
     times the energy released.)
                                          a high magnitude will likely         Teacher Reflection
     NOTE: It is not important            also have a high intensity.          Questions
     that students calculate the          Because intensity measures the
     value of 322; they only              effects of an earthquake, the        • What difficulties did students
     need to understand that an           intensity of an earthquake in a        have differentiating the
     increase of 2 on the Richter         densely populated city is likely       Richter Scale and the Modified
     Scale means that the energy          to be high. Because intensity          Mercalli Intensity Scale?
     is 32 × 32 times greater.            is a subjective measure, the           What difficulties did students
                                          intensity of an earthquake in          have differentiating between
   • What clues do you think could                                               magnitude and intensity? How
     help you find the epicenter of        an uninhabited area with no
                                          structures cannot be estimated.)       can you help them with this?
     an earthquake? What tools
     could help you? (Students will     • You read about the Great San         • How were you able to engage
     learn how scientists find the         Francisco Earthquake of 1906           students in learning about
     epicenter of an earthquake in        and scientists’ studies of the San     seismology? What might you
     the next section. This question      Andreas Fault. What evidence           try next time?
     is meant to engage them in           was there in your reading that       • How were you able to assess
     thinking about the problem and       Earth’s crust is moving and            students’ involvement and
     how they could use what they         changing? (Students should             understanding in this section?
     know now to solve it.)               recognize that the earthquake
                                          itself and the existence of the




                                                       202
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                         3.3 Read



NOTES




                                     3.3
                                     5.0




        203
              EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.4 Explore                                                                                                          65 min

   How Do Scientists Find the Epicenter of
   an Earthquake?
   Overview
   Students use data from three seismograph stations                epicenter. They recognize that they do not have




                                                                                                                                 3.4
   to locate the epicenter of an earthquake. First,                 enough information to determine the location
   they examine a map of the Chilean earthquake                     of the epicenter, and they calculate the distance
   of 1960 showing a seismograph station and a                      of the epicenter from two other seismograph
   circle representing the possible locations of the                stations. By examining how the three circles
   epicenter based on its distance from the station.                overlap on their map, they can locate the epicenter.
   They try to determine the location of the epicenter,             They learn that this process, triangulation,
   engaging in the problem of finding epicenters.                    is important to scientists in several fields.
   Then, they are given P wave and S wave arrival
   times from a seismograph station in Salt Lake                    Materials
   City recorded during a different earthquake. They
   use a graph relating the differences of arrival                      Quantity                           Item
   times for P waves and S waves and the distance
                                                                     1 per student        Compass with a sharp pencil
   from an epicenter to find how far the epicenter                                         Ruler
   is from Salt Lake City, and they draw a circle
                                                                     1 per group          Finding the Epicenter page
   on their maps to show possible locations of the



            Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

                                          Benchmarks met in Section 3.4

    Benchmarks                                                                                                    Page(s)

    SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth’s          EE 117
    crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth’s surface, including volcanic eruptions,
    earthquakes, and mountain building.

    SC.7.E.6.7 Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and               EE 117
    volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.




                                                               204
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Section 3.4 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
 Subsection             Activity and Purpose                                      Assessment
                                                           Formative                                            Summative
                                                           Understanding Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                           Goals         Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                         and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                         Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
How Do             Students are briefly introduced to




                                                                                                                              3.4
                                                                                         ✓
Scientists Find    the activity—finding the epicenter
the Epicenter of   of an earthquake.
an Earthquake?


                                                                ✓            ✓
Conference         Groups discuss the possible epicenter
                   of the 1960 Chilean earthquake.

Reflect             Students learn that they do not
                   have enough information to find
                   the epicenter.                                            ✓
                                                                ✓
Procedure          Students determine the epicenter of
                   an earthquake in the United States.




                                                                                                                              5.0
Part One: Salt     Students use earthquake data from
Lake City, Utah,
Seismograph
Station
                   the first seismograph station.
                                                                                                      ✓
Stop and Think     Students realize they need more
                   information to find the epicenter of
                   this earthquake.
                                                                                         ✓            ✓
Part Two:          Students use earthquake data from

                                                                                                      ✓
Houston, Texas,    a second seismograph station.
Seismograph
Station


                                                                                         ✓            ✓
Stop and Think     Students reduce the possible
                   epicenters to two points.

Part Three:        Students use earthquake data from
Savannah,          a third seismograph station.
Georgia,
Seismograph                                                                                           ✓
Station
Reflect             Students answer Reflect questions
                   to consolidate their understanding
                   of how epicenters are determined.                         ✓           ✓            ✓             ✓
Be a Scientist:    Students learn that the process of
Triangulation      finding the epicenter is done by
                   triangulation.                                                        ✓
Student
Reflection
Questions                                                                                ✓            ✓             ✓



                                                             205
                                                                                                    EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.4 Explore

   How Do
   Scientists
   Find the
   Epicenter of an




                                                                 3.4
   Earthquake?
    Teaching
    Strategies and
    Sample Answers
   Remind students that during
   an earthquake, energy spreads
   out from the focus in seismic
   waves. Point out that the average
   observer probably will not be
   able to tell where an earthquake’s
   focus or epicenter are. The
   epicenter is just the point on the
   surface directly over the focus of
   the earthquake; there is nothing
   to distinguish it from other areas
   in an earthquake. Ask students
   how they think scientists identify
   an earthquake’s epicenter.
   Tell students that when an
   earthquake occurs, scientists use
   data from several seismograph
   locations to find the epicenter.
   Students will now determine
   how scientists do this.




                                                      206
Project-Based Inquiry Science
      Conference
      Draw students’ attention to the
      map in the student text. Tell
      students that the map shows the
      area on the Chilean coast where
      the 1960 earthquake hit. Explain
      that the map shows a seismograph
      station, and that scientists at




                                           3.4
      the station determined that the
      epicenter of the earthquake was
      100 kilometers away. A circle
      around the seismograph station
      shows locations that are 100
      kilometers away from the station.
      Have students discuss where they
      think the epicenter was with their
      group. Emphasize that students
      should give reasons why they
      chose the location they did.

      Reflect
      1. Students should report
      that there were disagreements
      and confusion.
      2. In this Reflect discussion,
      students should discover for
      themselves that they know
      that the epicenter was on the
      circle drawn on the map, but
      that they do not have enough
      data to determine where on the
      circle the epicenter was. Once
      students begin to see this, you
      can reinforce their discovery
      by telling them that one station
      cannot give them enough
      data to locate the epicenter.
      3. Students may suggest that they
      need to use data from several
      seismograph stations to determine
      the epicenter of an earthquake.




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              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Procedure
   Tell students that they will
   be given data from several
   seismograph stations. Using
   the difference in arrival times
   between P and S waves, they
   will calculate the distance of the
   epicenter from each seismograph




                                                                                                                  3.4
   station. Then, they will be able to
   use this information to determine
   the location of the epicenter.

   Part One:
   Salt Lake City,
   Utah Seismograph
   Station
   Distribute the Finding the
   Epicenter pages to groups
   and discuss how students
   will find the distance of the
   epicenter from the Salt Lake
   City seismograph station.
   Begin this discussion by pointing
   out the graph in the student
   text. Remind students that P
   waves travel faster than S waves
   so the farther away you are
   from the epicenter, the greater
   the difference between the
   time the first P waves hit and
   the time the first S waves hit.
   A seismograph station by the          they move out to the right on       difference of arrival times at
   epicenter will record almost the      the graph, the distance from        the Salt Lake City seismograph
   same arrival times for P waves        the epicenter increases and the     station (3 min 10 s) on the
   and S waves. A seismograph            difference between the arrival      graph. They will then use a
   station far from the epicenter        times of P and S waves increases.   ruler and the graph to find the
   will record later arrival times       Ask students what the difference    distance of the epicenter from the
   for S waves than for P waves.         between the arrival times of P      seismograph station. The student
                                         waves and S waves is at 1000 km.    text gives detailed instructions
   Point out to students that the        (about 1.75 min) Ask students       for finding this distance; go
   graph in the student text shows       what the difference between the     over these as necessary.
   how the difference between the        arrival times of P and S waves is
   arrival time of P and S waves                                             After students have determined
                                         at 5000 km. (about 6.8 min)
   increases as the distance from                                            the distance, have them use a
   the epicenter increases. As           Tell students they will find the     compass to draw a circle around


                                                        208
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                 3.4 Explore




                                                                                               3.4
Salt Lake City on their Finding     distance of the epicenter from
the Epicenter pages with a radius   the Salt Lake City station.
that represents the distance
                                    Check to make sure that groups
that they found. They can get
                                    got the correct distance (2000 km)
the correct radius for their
                                    and that they drew a circle with
compass by putting the point
                                    the correct radius on their map.
of the compass on the 0 end of
the map’s scale and opening
the compass until the pencil
tip is at the distance the found,
which should be 2000 km.
Have students work with
their groups to determine the


                                                   209
                                                                         EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Stop and Think
   1. Students should recognize
   that any point on the circle they
   drew could be the epicenter.
   Even though they are closer to
   knowing where the epicenter is,
   they need more information.
   2. Students will begin to see that




                                                                 3.4
   having information from a second
   seismograph station would help
   them locate the epicenter.

   Part Two:
   Houston, Texas
   Seismograph
   Station
   Have students repeat the
   procedure for the seismograph
   station in Houston. Emphasize
   that for Salt Lake City, the
   difference in arrival times
   was 3 min and 10 s; but for
   Houston it is only 2 min and
   0 s. Make certain students use
   the correct distance for the
   distance from Houston (about
   1200 km). This will intersect
   the first circle in two places.




                                                      210
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                     3.4 Explore



                                                                          Make sure that students’ third
                                                                          circles overlap with their earlier
                                                                          circles. All three circles should
                                                                          meet at or near Lake Superior.

                                                                          Reflect
                                                                          1. The epicenter of the earthquake
                                                                          was under Lake Superior.




                                                                                                                   3.4
                                                                          2. With data from one station,
                                                                          scientists can only determine that
                                                                          the epicenter lies in a circle. With
                                                                          two stations, scientists can only
                                                                          determine that the epicenter lies
                                                                          on one of two intersections of
                                                                          two circles. With three stations,
                                                                          scientists can determine a unique
                                                                          location for the epicenter.
                                                                          3. There is always some amount
                                                                          of error in measurements. The
                                                                          radius of the circles will be close
                                                                          to the epicenter but never exact.
                                                                          If the circles are a little too small,
                                                                          there may be an area where
                                                                          the circles do not quite meet.
                                                                          4. Because students have
                                                                          already discussed that they
                                                                          are able to identify a unique
                                                                          location with three stations,
                                                                          they should realize that a fourth
                                                                          station could not provide any
                                                                          additional information.
                                                                          5. Two seismographs in two
                                                                          different cities could record
Stop and Think                     Part Three:                            the same difference in arrival
                                                                          times of P and S waves when
1. Students should see that        Savannah, Georgia                      both cities were the same
they do not have enough
information to be certain          Seismograph                            distance from the epicenter.
where the epicenter was.           Station                                6. A seismograph would
                                                                          show no difference in arrival
2. They should recognize that                                             times of P and S waves
                                   Have students repeat the
before they drew the second                                               when the seismograph was
                                   procedure for the station in
circle, any point on their first                                          located on the epicenter.
                                   Savannah, Georgia. Emphasize
circle was a possible answer.
                                   that for this station the difference   7. In many cases, finding
Now they have ruled out all
                                   in arrival times is 1 min and          the location of an epicenter
but two points on each circle.
                                   50 s (about 1100 km).                  would be finding the location
3. Data from a third seismograph                                          of a plate boundary.
station will solve the problem.
                                                   211
                                                                                          EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Be a Scientist:
   Triangulation
   Briefly reinforce what students
   learned from the procedure by
   discussing how each seismograph
   station narrows down the possible
   locations of the epicenter, but
   three are required to determine




                                                                 3.4
   exactly where the epicenter is.
   Tell students that scientists call
   this triangulation. Discuss with
   the class that to triangulate
   means to make a measurement
   using three data points.




                                                      212
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                   3.4 Explore



Student Reflection                     • How does data collected at the     Teacher Reflection
                                        seismograph stations support
Questions                               the conclusion that Earth’s        Questions
                                        plates are moving? (The data
• Describe triangulation. What                                             • What part of learning to
                                        provides evidence of interaction
  is required to triangulate                                                 triangulate the epicenter of
                                        between Earth’s plates.)
  the location of something?                                                 an earthquake presented the
  (Students should know that          • What ideas did you get from          greatest challenge for students?
  when they found the location          class discussions? How did the       How can you help students
  of an epicenter, they used            discussions help you? (Students      master the concepts involved in




                                                                                                                 3.4
  triangulation. To triangulate a       may have discovered that other       calculating the distance of the
  location, it is necessary to know     groups could not locate the          epicenter and triangulating the
  the distance of the point from        epicenter without data from          location of the epicenter?
  three locations.)                     three seismograph stations.
                                                                           • How were you able to guide
                                        They may also have gotten
• Why do you think it is                                                     students to discover the
                                        ideas about triangulation from
  important to locate the                                                    concepts they needed while
                                        their classmates.)
  epicenters of earthquakes? How                                             ensuring that they were active
  can this help you understand        • Why was it necessary to keep         in making those discoveries?
  how the interaction of plates         records of the distances of the      What might you try next time?
  causes geologic activity?             epicenter from the seismograph
                                                                           • How did students use
  (Students should recognize that       stations? (Students needed
                                                                             discussion with their group
  identifying the epicenters of         to use their calculations for
                                                                             members to solve problems in
  earthquakes can help them find         all three of the seismograph
                                                                             this section? What can you do
  plate boundaries. Identifying         stations to find the location of
                                                                             to encourage this collaboration?
  plate boundaries can help find         the epicenter.)
  what kinds of geologic activity
  happen at plate boundaries.)




                                                     213
                                                                                         EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.5 Explore                                                                                                         110 min

   What Can Earthquake Data Tell You About the
   Location of Plate Boundaries?
   Overview
   Students use current data from the United States                    earthquakes globally from the past week and look




                                                                                                                                    3.5
   Geological Survey (USGS) Web site to investigate                    for patterns. Based on this, they begin to infer
   recent earthquakes. They analyze the data to                        the locations of plate boundaries. Once the class
   find the most recent earthquake, the number of                       has discussed their confidence in their predictions
   earthquakes globally and locally in the past week,                  about plate boundaries and what more they want to
   and the earthquakes with the greatest and smallest                  learn, they update their My Region Project Board
   magnitudes. Then they collect and analyze data on                   and the class Project Board. They record their
   recent earthquakes in their regions from the Web                    ideas about plate boundaries in their regions and
   site. They begin to identify patterns in the locations              around the world and what they think they should
   of earthquakes. Working with the class, they find                    learn to make their predictions more accurate.




            Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

                                           Benchmarks met in Section 3.5

    Benchmarks                                                                                                      Page(s)

    SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth’s             EE 123
    crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth’s surface, including volcanic eruptions,
    earthquakes, and mountain building.

    SC.7.E.6.7 Recognize that heat flow and movement of material within Earth causes earthquakes and                  EE 123
    volcanic eruptions, and creates mountains and ocean basins.

    SC.6.N.1.4 Discuss, compare, and negotiate methods used, results obtained, and explanations among            EE 123-124, 126,
    groups of students conducting the same investigation.                                                            128-130

    LA.6.2.2.3 The student will organize information to show understanding (e.g., representing main ideas          EE 128-130
    within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, or comparing/contrasting).

    LA.6.4.2.2 The student will record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends) related     EE 128-130
    to a topic, including visual aids to organize and record information and include a list of sources used.




                                                                  214
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Materials                                           Activity Setup and
   Quantity                       Item
                                                    Preparation
1 per student     Three-page Map                    Students will be investigating recent earthquakes
                  Purple marker                     using the USGS Web site. They will need computers
1 per class       Big World Map
                                                    with Internet access. Verify that the site is accessible
                                                    before class. Since the structure and addresses
1 per group       Computer with Internet access     of Web sites sometimes change, you should take
                  Crayons or coloring pencils
                                                    the time to explore the USGS site and to locate




                                                                                                               3.5
1 per classroom   Computer with Internet access     the information that students will need before
(optional)        Projector                         class. You can find the current URL by entering
                  Projection screen                 USGS earthquakes in an Internet search engine.
                                                    Consider setting up a computer with a projector,
                                                    projection screen, and Internet access so that you
                                                    can show the class how to navigate the USGS Web
                                                    site. It is not necessary, but it may save class time.




                                                                                                               5.0
NOTES




                                                  215
                                                                                      EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Section 3.5 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
     Subsection             Activity and Purpose                                         Assessment
                                                                Formative                                              Summative
                                                                Understanding   Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                                Goals           Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                                and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                                Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
    What Can           Students are introduced to the new




                                                                                                                                     3.5
    Earthquake         activity, one which will use real data
    Data Tell You      to discover plate boundaries.
    About the
    Location of
                                                                     ✓
    Plate
    Boundaries?
    What Data Is   Students use the USGS Web site to
    Recorded About find current data on earthquakes.
    Earthquakes?
                                                                     ✓             ✓
    Communicate:       Students share their findings with
    Share Your
    Ideas
                       the class.
                                                                                                ✓            ✓
    Be a Scientist:    Students consider the units of
    Earthquake
    Measurements
                       earthquake recording: time and
                       distance.
                                                                                                ✓
    Identify           Students use the USGS Web site to
    Earthquakes in
    Your Region
                       learn about earthquakes in their
                       assigned region.
                                                                                                             ✓
    Reflect             Students reflect on what they have
                       learned about earthquakes in their
                       assigned regions.
                                                                                   ✓            ✓
    Identify           Students take on a new assignment:
    Earthquakes
    Around the
    World
                       locating the site of recent
                       earthquakes on a world map.                                                           ✓
    Analyze Your       Students analyze and record the
    Data               class data on worldwide
                       earthquakes.
                                                                                   ✓                         ✓
    Communicate:       Students share their plate boundary
    Share Your Data
    and Ideas
                       inferences with the class.
                                                                                                ✓            ✓
    Update Your My Students update their My Region
    Region Project
    Board
                   Project Board.
                                                                     ✓             ✓            ✓            ✓
                                                                     ✓             ✓            ✓            ✓
    Update the         Students update the class Project
    Project Board      Board.
    Student
    Reflection
    Questions
                                                                                                ✓            ✓             ✓



                                                                  216
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                              3.5 Explore



      3.5 Explore

      What Can
      Earthquake
      Data Tell
      You About




                                            3.5
      the Location
      of Plate
      Boundaries?
       Teaching
       Strategies and
       Sample Answers
      Remind students that they were
      able to locate the epicenters of
      earthquakes using data from
      seismograph stations. This is
      important because identifying
      the epicenters of earthquakes can
      help scientists recognize global
      patterns of earthquake activity.
      Ask students how they can learn
      more about global earthquake
      patterns. What would they need
      to know in order to identify plate
      boundaries around the world?
      Tell students they will now
      analyze data to identify where
      earthquakes have occurred in
      the past week. They will plot the
      data to see if the data tell them
      anything about plate boundaries.




217
                    EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   What Data Is
   Recorded about
   Earthquakes?
   Tell students they will work with
   their partners at computers to
   investigate recent earthquakes.
   Have students start a Web




                                                                                                           3.5
   browser on their computers and
   navigate to the United States
   Geological Survey (USGS). If
   necessary, write the URL for
   USGS in a place where students
   can see it. If you have a computer
   with a projector, you can guide
   students by projecting your
   browser on a screen while
   you navigate the Web site.
   Once students have found
   the USGS site, go over the
   questions in the student text.
   1. A map of earthquakes with
   magnitude 4.5 and higher around
   the world, such as that on the
   USGS Earthquake Hazards main
   page, can give students a good
   idea of where most earthquakes
   occur. The earthquakes in
   this map should be clustered
   around East Asia, the South
   Pacific, and the west coasts of
   North and South America.
   2. One way to determine where
                                        magnitudes of 1 or greater.       7. Student answers should
   the most recent earthquake
                                        Students can use this list to     be accurately obtained
   occurred is to look at lists of
                                        find the most recent earthquake   from the Web site.
   earthquakes in specific areas
                                        in the United States.
   from the past week. The USGS
   Web site has regional lists that     4. Student answers should         Communicate
   include small, medium, and           be accurately obtained
   large earthquakes. You can find      from the Web site.                Share Your Ideas
   these lists by clicking World        5. Student answers should         When pairs have finished
   in the left navigation bar, and      be accurately obtained            answering the questions in the
   then selecting specific regions      from the Web site.                student text, have them share
   under World Region Maps.                                               their answers with the class.
                                        6. Student answers should
   3. USGS also lists earthquakes       be accurately obtained            Emphasize that they should
   in the United States with            from the Web site.                tell the class how they got

                                                      218
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                   3.5 Explore



                                                                           estimate the number of miles.
                                                                           For more accurate work, divide
                                                                           the number of km by 0.6.

                                                                           Measuring and
                                                                           Comparing Time
                                                                           Discuss how times are usually
                                                                           expressed according to the




                                                                                                                 3.5
                                                                           local time zone, but scientists
                                                                           use Coordinated Universal
                                                                           Time to express times. Tell
                                                                           students that when it is 4:00 AM
                                                                           in San Francisco, it is noon in
                                                                           Greenwich, England and 8:00 PM
                                                                           in Beijing, China. This is because
                                                                           the spherical shape of Earth
                                                                           results in different experiences
                                                                           of time in different countries.
                                                                           When the Sun is rising in San
                                                                           Francisco, it is directly overhead
                                                                           in Greenwich and it is setting in
                                                                           Beijing. By convention, scientists
                                                                           use Coordinated Universal Time
                                                                           (UTC) to avoid ambiguity. UTC
                                                                           is always the same wherever
                                                                           you are in the world. When it
                                                                           is 3:00 AM in San Francisco,
                                                                           the UTC time is 11:00 AM.
                                                                           If students ask about daylight
                                                                           savings time, you can explain
                                                                           that UTC does not change
                                                                           seasonally, while local time may.

their answers. The rest of the         Be a Scientist:
class should be able to find the
information they used on the Web       Earthquake
site. If any pairs have analyzed the
data in different ways, make sure
                                       Measurements
this is discussed with the class.
                                       Estimating Miles
                                       from Kilometers
                                       Briefly discuss how to estimate
                                       miles from kilometers. If the
                                       depth of an earthquake is given
                                       in kilometers, you can divide the
                                       number of kilometers by two to


                                                      219
                                                                                         EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Identify
   Earthquakes in
   Your Region
   Distribute Three-page Maps
   and purple markers. Go over
   the procedure with the class.
   Students should find their pair’s




                                                                 3.5
   Earth structure on the map
   using the coordinates given in
   their pen pal letter. They should
   mark the location with an X
   and draw a rectangle to indicate
   the borders of their region.
   Then they should use the USGS
   data to find the earthquakes
   in their regions and mark the
   locations of the earthquakes
   on the map with triangles.
   They should use purple dots to
   mark the earthquakes in their
   region on the Big World Map.
   Have students work with
   their partners to identify
   earthquakes in their region.
   Help them as necessary.




                                                      220
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                  3.5 Explore



                                                                          with magnitude 4.5 or greater,
                                                                          ask students if the number of
                                                                          earthquakes surprises them.
                                                                          Were there more or fewer
                                                                          earthquakes than they expected?
                                                                          Each pair will find a set of
                                                                          earthquakes on the map. Divide
                                                                          the earthquakes from the past
                                                                          week into as many sets as there




                                                                                                                3.5
                                                                          are pairs in the class, and assign
                                                                          one set to each pair. They should
                                                                          first use the coordinates to
                                                                          plot each earthquake on their
                                                                          Three-page Map, rounding the
                                                                          coordinates to the nearest tenth
                                                                          and check the location using the
                                                                          geographic name of the region
                                                                          given on the Web site. Then they
                                                                          should record the depth of each
                                                                          earthquake on their Three-page
                                                                          Maps. Finally, they should put
                                                                          a purple dot on the Big World
                                                                          Map at the location of each of
                                                                          the earthquakes they found.
                                                                          As students research, assist
                                                                          them as necessary. Ask if they
                                                                          verified the locations they
                                                                          found for earthquakes using the
                                                                          geographic names. If there were
                                                                          any discrepancies, ask how they
                                                                          resolved them. Make sure that all
                                                                          groups have marked the locations
                                                                          of their earthquakes on the Big
                                                                          World Map before continuing.
Reflect                                 in and the pattern strengthened.
                                       Ask them what patterns they are
Have students work with their          beginning to see in earthquakes
partners to answer the Reflect          on the Big World Map. They
questions. Once pairs have             should start to see an emerging
answered the questions, lead a class   pattern of plate boundaries.
discussion of their responses. Ask
them what patterns they observed       Identify
in the locations of earthquakes.
Students should have noticed that      Earthquakes
the earthquakes cluster in lines.      Around the World
If they included earthquakes
from the past month, students          As the class views the list of
would likely see the lines filled       earthquakes from the past week

                                                      221
                                                                                        EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Analyze Your Data
   Have pairs analyze the data they
   gathered using the questions
   in the student text as a guide.
   Distribute coloring pencils or
   crayons for students to draw plate
   boundaries. Then have students
   mark the locations of all of the




                                                                 3.5
   earthquakes that are on the Big
   World Map on their Three-page
   Maps. Students should answer
   the first three Analyze Your Data
   questions using their Three-page
   Maps. They should mark where
   they think plate boundaries
   are on their maps using the
   colored pencils or crayons and
   answer the last two questions.
   Students should recognize that
   the earthquake locations form
   lines, both in their regions and
   globally. They should see that
   this suggests that the plates in
   Earth’s crust have edges, and
   that earthquakes occur where
   these edges meet. They should
   also identify some earthquakes
   that do not fit the pattern. Tell
   them that they will investigate
   what causes these earthquakes
   far from plate boundaries later.




                                                      222
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                3.5 Explore



                                                                        together to better identify where
                                                                        plate boundaries are. For now,
                                                                        they should note anything they
                                                                        cannot agree on so that they
                                                                        can come back to it later.
                                                                        When pairs have presented
                                                                        their predictions, lead a class
                                                                        discussion of the questions in the
                                                                        student text. Ask students what




                                                                                                              3.5
                                                                        patterns they see in earthquakes
                                                                        worldwide. Their answers
                                                                        should be based on clusters and
                                                                        bands of earthquakes on the Big
                                                                        World Map. Ask them where
                                                                        they think plate boundaries are.
                                                                        They should base their answers
                                                                        on the predictions different
                                                                        pairs made and the earthquakes
                                                                        marked on the Big World Map.
                                                                        Ask students what else they need
                                                                        to know to more accurately and
                                                                        completely identify Earth’s plate
                                                                        boundaries. Students should
                                                                        recognize any gaps that remain
                                                                        in their inferred plate boundaries.
                                                                        The data from the past week
                                                                        probably do not provide a
                                                                        complete picture. Students should
                                                                        recognize that earthquake data
                                                                        over a longer period of time might
                                                                        help them identify patterns. They
                                                                        should have questions about what
                                                                        they can learn from the depth of
                                                                        an earthquake. Is there anything
Communicate                        make their predictions.              they can learn from looking at
                                   As students share, the audience      the magnitudes of earthquakes?
Share Your Data                    should listen for supporting ideas   They should also recognize that
                                                                        there are many things they do
and Ideas                          and think about whether they
                                                                        not know about how earthquakes
                                   agree with their predictions. If
Have students share their data     they disagree with any predictions   occur, such as how plates move
and predictions with the class.    or think any of the supporting       and why earthquakes sometimes
Have them show their maps          ideas are weak, they should          occur far from plate boundaries.
to the class, pointing out their   offer constructive comments.
predictions for the locations      The class may not be able to
of plate boundaries and the        come to agreement right now.
patterns in the earthquakes        This is okay. The class will have
on their maps and any other        opportunities later to work
information that led them to

                                                  223
                                                                                      EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Update Your My
   Region Project
   Board
   Now that students have discussed
   their predictions for plate boundaries
   and the patterns they found in
   earthquake data from their region,




                                                                                                                               3.5
   they should record what they think
   they know about their region in the
   What do we think we know? column
   of their Region Project Board. For
   everything they put in the What do
   we think we know? column, they
   should record their evidence in the
   What is our evidence? column.
   Finally, any questions they have
   should go in the What do we need to
   investigate? column.

   Update the
   Project Board
   Ask students what ideas and
   questions about plate boundaries
   they can add to the Project Board.
   Make sure any disagreements that
   arose over plate-boundary
   predictions are recorded as
   investigative questions. Make sure
   they record questions about how
   earthquakes occur, what they can
   learn from the magnitude and depth
   of earthquakes, and what they
   might learn from longer-term
   earthquake data.

   Sample Project Board Entries
       What do we               What do we need      What are we            What is our        What does it mean for the
     think we know?              to investigate?      learning?             evidence?           challenge or question?
    1 km is about 0.6 mi    More earthquake data   Where earthquakes       USGS data about     Something at plate boundaries
                            to confirm the 1 week   occur and how many      earthquakes         may cause geologic activity.
    Most earthquakes        of data.               occur each week.
    occur at plate                                                         science readings.
    boundaries.                                    Coordinated Universal
                                                   Time is the same all
                                                   over Earth.

   *Students should generate actual Project Board entries.
                                                             224
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                   3.5 Explore



Student Reflection                    • How much more earthquake            Teacher Reflection
                                       data do you think you would
Questions                              need to be sure of your plate       Questions
                                       boundary predictions? (The
• Which regions of the world                                               • What evidence do you have
                                       purpose of this question is to
  experienced earthquakes with                                               that students understand the
                                       get students to think about
  the greatest magnitude recently?                                           importance of collaboration
                                       the data they have and what
  Which regions of the world                                                 in science? How can you help
                                       further data they need. Students
  experienced the greatest number                                            students understand this?
                                       will access data in My World
  of earthquakes recently?




                                                                                                                 3.5
                                       to revise their plate boundary      • How were you able to guide
  (Students should look at a map
                                       predictions in the next section.)     students to effectively gather
  of the world with earthquake
                                                                             data from the USGS Web site?
  data on the USGS Web site.         • How can you use the data you
                                                                             What might you try next time?
  Typically, high-magnitude            gathered from the USGS Web
                                                                             How were you able to guide
  earthquakes are clustered            site as evidence that Earth’s
                                                                             students to make inferences
  around the coastal regions of        crust is moving and changing?
                                                                             from the data? What might you
  Asia, from the South Pacific          (Global patterns of earthquake
                                                                             try next time?
  and Indonesia to the Sea of          activity suggest that Earth’s
  Japan, and in Central America        crust has breaks, and that it is    • How were you able to engage
  and western South America.           moving and changing.)                 students in discussing their
  There are also typically a                                                 results and their ideas with the
                                     • Why was it important to share
  great number of earthquakes                                                class? How were you able to
                                       your data and ideas with the
  clustered around the Bering                                                keep them focused on the task?
                                       class? (Different pairs gathered
  Straight and California.)                                                  What else might you try?
                                       data on different earthquakes,
• How did your plate boundary          so the class needed all students
  predictions change since the         to share their findings. In
  start of this Learning Set? What     addition, different pairs may
  did you base those changes on?       have developed different ideas.)
  (Students should describe how      • What do you think causes the
  their predictions changed with       patterns of earthquake activity
  new data.)                           that you are finding? (The
                                       interaction of plates causes
                                       patterns of earthquake activity.
                                       Earthquakes cluster around
                                       places where two plates meet
                                       and interact.)




                                                    225
                                                                                         EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.6 Investigate                                                                                                   85 min

   How Can One Year of Earthquake Data Help
   You Better Identify Plate Boundaries?
   Overview
   Students gather data on earthquakes in their                        that show earthquakes with a narrower range




                                                                                                                              3.6
   regions from the Big Data Map. Working with                         of magnitudes to find plate boundaries where
   other students whose regions are geographically                     the Big Data Map had too much data. They
   close, they infer where there are plate boundaries                  examine maps that show earthquakes over a
   in their region and draw these plate boundaries                     greater period of time to find plate boundaries
   on transparencies. They also identify places on                     where the Big Data Map had too little data. They
   the Big Data Map where the clusters or bands of                     revise the plate boundaries they drew on their
   earthquakes are so thick that the exact location                    transparencies. Then they update their Region
   of the plate boundary cannot be found, or where                     Project Board with new regional information
   there are too few earthquakes to find the plate                      and the class Project Board with new ideas about
   boundary. Using My World, they examine maps                         earthquakes and finding plate boundaries.



            Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

                                           Benchmarks met in Section 3.6

    Benchmarks                                                                                                   Page(s)

    SC.6.N.2.2 Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or        EE 131
    interpretations are encountered.

    SC.7.N.1.1 Define a problem from the seventh grade curriculum, use appropriate reference materials            EE 131-140
    to support scientific understanding, plan and carry out scientific investigation of various types, such as
    systematic observations or experiments, identify variables, collect and organize data, interpret data in
    charts, tables, and graphics, analyze information, make predictions, and defend conclusions.

    LA.6.2.2.3 The student will organize information to show understanding (e.g., representing main ideas        EE 137-140
    within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, or comparing/contrasting).

    LA.6.4.2.2 The student will record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends) related   EE 137-140
    to a topic, including visual aids to organize and record information and include a list of sources used.




                                                                  226
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Materials                                                      large, you may want to rearrange the room to
                                                               accommodate them. You may need to put desks
    Quantity                         Item                      together, or lay the maps out on the floor. Use
 2 per group         Big Data Map
                                                               the table below as a guide, consider how to put
                                                               pairs into larger groups to share Big Data Maps.
 several per group   Blank transparencies
 1 per group         Transparent tape                                        Big Data Map Group Assignments
                     Masking tape or paper clips
                                                                   Eurasia       North and     North and     South Pacific
                     Transparency markers (black, red, and
                                                                                 South America South America
                     green)




                                                                                                                            3.6
                     Computer with My World                        Mount         Mount         Mount Popo    Mount Fiji
                     Three-page Map                                Everest       Aconcagua     (Mexico)
                                                                                 (Andes)
 2 per group         Blue and yellow markers
                                                                   Mount         Mount Popo    Baja          Java Trench
 1 per classroom     Laminated class Project Board                 Kilimanjaro   (Mexico)      Peninsula
                                                                   (Tanzania)
 1 per student       Project Board page
                                                                   Iceland       Baja          Hawaiian
                                                                                 Peninsula     Islands
Activity Setup and
                                                               Students will also need to use My World in
Preparation                                                    this section. They will access to computers




                                                                                                                            5.0
In this section, groups of students will be taping             with My World and the ESInquiry project file
transparencies over Big Data Maps. If they                     installed. If possible, have students work at the
use smaller sheets, they will need to tape them                computers they used earlier so they can access
together with transparent tape. They can use                   files from previous work. Have computers
masking tape to fix the transparencies to the                   allocated for your students before class.
Big Data Maps. Because the data maps are


NOTES




                                                             227
                                                                                                    EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Section 3.6 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
     Subsection             Activity and Purpose                                      Assessment
                                                               Formative                                            Summative
                                                               Understanding Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                               Goals         Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                             and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                             Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
    How Can One        Students are introduced to the Big




                                                                                                                                  3.6
    Year of            Data Map for the next activity and
    Earthquake         set about to find the plate
    Data Help You
    Better Identify
                       boundaries in their assigned regions.
                                                                    ✓
    Plate
    Boundaries?
    Procedure          On transparencies, students mark the

                                                                                 ✓           ✓            ✓
                       earthquake activity in their regions
                       and then lay their transparencies
                       over the Big Data Map.
    Identifying Plate Students learn to identify plate
    Boundaries from boundaries by examining
    Earthquake
    Data
                      earthquake data.                                                       ✓
    How Much           Examples of too much, too little, and
    Data Is            just right data are shown to the
    Enough?            students.
    Analyze Your       Students analyze the earthquake
    Data               data from their assigned region.                          ✓                        ✓
    Refine Your         Students use My World and three
    Data to            years of data to plot plate
    Improve Your
    Plate Boundary
                       boundaries.
                                                                    ✓
    Inferences
    Procedure          Students gather earthquake data for
                       their assigned region using My
                       World.
                                                                                 ✓                        ✓
    Update Your        Students update their My Region
    My Region
    Project Board
                       Project Board as needed.
                                                                                 ✓           ✓            ✓
                                                                                 ✓           ✓            ✓
    Reflect             Students reflect on their plate
                       boundary determinations.
    Update the         Students update the class Project
    Project Board      Board with new information, ideas,
                       and questions.                               ✓            ✓           ✓            ✓
    Student
    Reflection
    Questions                                                                                ✓            ✓            ✓



                                                                  228
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                            3.6 Investigate



      3.6 Investigate

      How Can
      One Year of
      Earthquake
      Data Help




                                              3.6
      You Better
      Identify Plate
      Boundaries?
       Teaching
       Strategies and
       Sample Answers
      Point out that the plate boundary
      predictions students recorded
      on their Three-page Maps were
      incomplete. There were some places
      where students did not have enough
      data to make any predictions.
      Ask students how they think they
      could complete their predictions.
      Tell students they are going to use
      a large map, like the Big World
      Map, that shows earthquake data.
      Students will examine this map,
      the Big Data Map, and identify
      places where earthquakes occurred
      in their region during a one-year
      period. Using this new data, they
      will make more inferences about
      the locations of plate boundaries.
      Once they have analyzed the
      data from the map, students
      will use My World to find more
      earthquake data. This will allow
      them to make more complete
      predictions about the location of
      plate boundaries in their region.


229
                    EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Procedure
   Show students a Big Data Map.
   If necessary, describe how to
   assemble a Big Data Map. Get
   students into their regional
   groups and distribute Big
   Data Maps. Distribute blank
   transparencies, transparent tape,




                                                                                                         3.6
   masking tape or paper clips, and
   black, green, and red markers.
   Once regional groups have their
   Big Data Maps assembled,
   go over the questions in
   Step 1 with the class.
   • Students should determine that
     the earthquakes took place over
     a year.
   • Students should recognize
     that the map does not show
     all earthquakes that took
     place over a year because it
     only shows earthquakes of
     magnitude 4.5 and higher.
   • Students should recognize that
     much of the additional data
     would probably be clustered in
     the same places as the data they
     have.
   • Students should explain that
     the map gives them the location
     of each earthquake and the
     earthquake’s magnitude.
                                        onto their transparencies so that   to go over the following
   Have students place                  they can put the transparencies     Identifying Plate Boundary
   transparencies over the map          down in the same place later.       Zones from Earthquake Data
   and secure them with masking                                             textbox with the class.
   tape. Each pair should place         With the transparencies in place,
   their transparencies over their      students should look for bands
   region on the map. If they need      and clusters of earthquakes in
   several transparencies to cover      their region. They can mark these
   their region, they should tape       lightly on their transparencies.
   the transparencies together          Using these bands and clusters
   with transparent tape. They          of earthquakes, students will
   should copy the coordinates          work with their partners to try
   of a few points from the map         to identify plate boundaries.
                                        This would be a good time


                                                       230
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            3.6 Investigate




                              3.6




231
      EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Identifying Plate
   Boundaries from
   Earthquake Data
   You can have students read this
   segment as they examine the Big
   Data Maps or you can go over
   it with the class. It is important




                                                                 3.6
   for students to understand that
   there is no objective criterion
   for what the right amount of
   data is. The right amount of
   data is the amount of data that
   allows them to best determine
   where the plate boundary is.




                                                      232
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                           3.6 Investigate



      How Much Data
      Are Enough?
      Point out that in the example
      data maps in the student text
      are of the Aleutian Islands.
      To choose the right amount of
      data for the Aleutian Islands,
      a scientist or student would




                                             3.6
      simply evaluate which of the
      data maps gave the clearest and
      most complete picture of where
      the plate boundary is. You can
      evaluate students’ understanding
      as they sort bands and clusters
      of earthquakes in their data.




233
                   EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Analyze Your Data
   1. Students should correctly
   place their region with respect
   to the edges of its plate.
   2. Students should have found
   that they were able to make
   more complete predictions
   with the additional data.




                                                                 3.6
   3. For places where there was
   too little data, students should
   recognize that they need to look
   at a data map with more data.




                                                      234
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                           3.6 Investigate



                                                                     where a plate boundary is and
                                                                     mark those areas on their new
                                                                     Three-page Maps. Then they
                                                                     should start My World, select
                                                                     Earth Structures and Processes
                                                                     in the Library dropdown, and
                                                                     open the ESInquiry file.
                                                                     In the Layer List, they should
                                                                     turn on Earth Structures boxes




                                                                                                             3.6
                                                                     and Earthquakes big. They can
                                                                     select 3 years in the Earthquakes
                                                                     big layer. They should zoom
                                                                     in on their region and decide
                                                                     whether there is too much, too
                                                                     little, or the right amount of
                                                                     information. They can select a
                                                                     shorter time period if there is
                                                                     too much information. They can
                                                                     select Earthquakes medium if
                                                                     there is too little information.
                                                                     They should use My World to
                                                                     look closely at earthquakes in
                                                                     the areas they marked on their
                                                                     Three-page Maps. They should
                                                                     draw plate boundaries on their
                                                                     Three-page Map and record
                                                                     supporting information.
                                                                     Once you have gone
                                                                     over the procedure, give
                                                                     students a timeframe and
                                                                     have them get started.
                                                                     Point out that students can
                                                                     display the earthquakes within a
                                                                     date range in one color and the
Refine Your Data                   to find plate boundaries. They
                                                                     earthquakes outside of the date
                                  may be able to find clear data
                                                                     range in another color, or they
to Improve Your                   for the bands and clusters they
                                                                     can simply hide earthquakes
                                  circled on their transparencies.
Plate Boundary                                                       outside of the date range. To use
                                                                     two different colors, students can
Inferences                        Procedure                          select Color Selected (Yellow) or
Let students know that they       Go over the procedure with         Color Selected (Magenta) in the
will now use My World to          the class. Have students fi rst     Highlight Mode dropdown. To
better identify where the plate   examine their transparencies.      hide any earthquakes outside the
boundaries in their region are.   They should find the places         date range, they can select Hide
Using My World, they will be      on their transparencies where      Unselected in the dropdown.
able to select the amount of      there was too much or too little
data that will best allow them    information to decide exactly


                                                 235
                                                                                   EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?




                                                                 3.6




                                                      236
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                       3.6 Investigate



                                                                                 Update Your My
                                                                                 Region Project
                                                                                 Board
                                                                                 Have students work with their
                                                                                 partners to update their My
                                                                                 Region Project Boards. They
                                                                                 should record new information




                                                                                                                         3.6
                                                                                 about earthquakes in their region
                                                                                 in the What are we learning?
                                                                                 column. They should record
                                                                                 inferences about plate boundaries
                                                                                 in their region in the What do we
                                                                                 think we know? column. They
                                                                                 should record any questions they
                                                                                 have or things they need more
                                                                                 evidence for in the What do we
                                                                                 need to investigate? column.

                                                                                 Reflect
                                                                                 1. Students should accurately
                                                                                 report in what ways their
                                                                                 inferences changed.
                                                                                 2. Students will report that
                                                                                 they were able to make more
                                                                                 reliable predictions about plate
                                                                                 boundaries with more data.
                                                                                 3. Students should feel
                                                                                 more confident of their
                                                                                 inferences since they are
                                                                                 supported with more data.


Sample My Region Project Board Entries
 What do we think          What do we need         What are we     What is our
    we know?                to investigate?         learning?      evidence?
 I know more about         What causes plates to   How to judge    science
 the precise location of   move?                   how much data   knowledge
 plate boundaries for      What causes             is enough.      through
 my region.                earthquakes in the                      reading and
 There are hundreds of     middle of a plate?                      practice
 earthquakes in my
 region each year.

*Students should generate actual Project Board entries.



                                                            237
                                                                                               EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Update the
   Project Board
   Conduct a class discussion to
   update the class Project Board.




                                                                                                      3.6
   Sample Project Board Entries
       What do we think         What do we need            What are we             What is our
          we know?               to investigate?            learning?              evidence?
    We know more about the      What causes plates to   How to identify plate   science knowledge
    precise location of plate   move?                   boundaries from         through reading and
    boundaries for the world.   What causes             earthquake data.        practice
    There are thousands of      earthquakes in the      How to judge how        science knowledge
    earthquakes in the world    middle of a plate?      much data is enough.
    each year.


   *Students should generate actual Project Board entries.




                                                           238
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                   3.6 Investigate



Student Reflection                     • Why was it important to record       Teacher Reflection
                                        what you are learning on the
Questions                               Project Boards? (Students should     Questions
                                        recognize that it is important for
• How did using the data in My                                               • What difficulties did students
                                        them to track their progress and
  World assist you in your plate                                               have deciding where they had
                                        the evidence they are gathering
  boundary predictions? Were you                                               too little data, too much data,
                                        for their ideas.)
  able to find the right amount of                                              or the right amount of data
  data for your region? If not, did   • Were you more confident of              to be confident of their plate
  you have too much data or too         your revised predictions? Why?         boundary predictions? What




                                                                                                                     3.6
  little? (Students should describe     (Students should base their            might you try to make this
  how they used the data in My          confidence on the data they             easier next time?
  World, what was useful about          used for their revisions.)
                                                                             • How were you able to help
  it, and if it was enough, too       • What claims did you make               students make inferences from
  much, or too little.)                 from the earthquake data               the data in the Big Data Map
• Describe what data you chose          and what did you base them             and My World? What might
  to use to support your plate          on? (Students should realize           you try next time?
  boundary predictions and why?         that their predictions of plate
                                                                             • What difficulties did groups
  (Students should describe the         boundaries locations are their
                                                                               have working with Big Data
  information they used, such as        claims and are based on the
                                                                               Maps and My World? What can
  depth and magnitude, and why          trends in the earthquake data
                                                                               you try next time?
  they used it to support their         they used in the My World
  plate boundary prediction.)           software.)
• How do you think your               • What are the benefits of using
  boundaries may change when            a map and the earthquake
  you discuss them with other           data in My World? (Students
  groups whose regions share            should describe maps as being
  the boundary? (The purpose of         good models of Earth, and that
  this question is to get students      plotting earthquake data on a
  to think about their boundary         map makes it easier to analyze
  predictions and the other             and communicate the data.
  Earth structures that share the       Some may mention how you
  boundary.)                            can see or visualize the patterns
                                        which they use to determine
                                        their plate boundaries.)




                                                     239
                                                                                           EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.7 Explore                                                                                                         60 min

   Where Are Plate Boundaries Located Across
   the Entire Earth?
   Overview                                                         Materials
   Students with neighboring regions meet to determine




                                                                                                                                3.7
                                                                        Quantity                           Item
   how the plate boundaries they have identified                      several per group    Transparencies with plate boundary
   interconnect. Within a meeting, each pair presents                                     sketches
   their predictions for plate boundaries in their                                        Transparencies to trace final plate
   region along with supporting evidence. They settle                                     boundary predictions
   disagreements about how the plate boundaries                      1 per group          Transparent tape
   interconnect by examining their data. Once they have                                   Computer stations with My World
   agreed on how the plate boundaries interconnect,                                       software installed
   they draw where they think the plate boundaries are                                    Markers
                                                                                          My Region Project Board page
   throughout the larger area that contains all of their
   regions and share their predictions with the class. The           5-7 per classroom    Big Data Maps from previous section
   class discusses whether they are confident in their plate          1 per student        Three-page Map, with plate
   boundary predictions, and they gather more data and                                    boundaries and notes on them
   revise their predictions if necessary. Once they are              1 per classroom      Laminated class Project Board
   confident of their predictions, they create a class map
   showing the plate boundaries around the world. Pairs
   independently create new maps of the plate boundaries
   in their regions using the class’s map as a reference.



            Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

                                          Benchmarks met in Section 3.7

    Benchmarks                                                                                                     Page(s)

    SC.7.E.6.5 Explore the scientific theory of plate tectonics by describing how the movement of Earth’s          EE 141, 144
    crustal plates causes both slow and rapid changes in Earth’s surface, including volcanic eruptions,
    earthquakes, and mountain building.




                                                               240
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Activity Setup and                                                To evaluate students’ work, familiarize yourself
                                                                  with the plate boundaries of Earth. Before class,
Preparation                                                       look at world maps showing plate boundaries.
                                                                  You can find some good maps showing plate
Pairs with neighboring regions will get together in
                                                                  boundaries on the Internet. Try searching the
Neighbor Region Meetings. You will need to decide
                                                                  Keywords like Earth plate maps, and look for
how to divide the class into groups for the Neighbor
                                                                  Web sites by organizations such as the USGS.
Region Meetings. Here is a possible division:
                                                                  Knowing Earth’s plate boundaries will prepare you
• Mt. Popo, Baja Peninsula, and Mt. Aconcagua                     to help students make decisions about their own




                                                                                                                                3.7
• Mt. Everest, Iceland, and Mt. Kilimanjaro                       plate boundaries. Set up the computer projection
                                                                  system with the My World project file for this
• Mt. Fiji, Java Trench, and Hawaii                               section. If the class conversation leads students
                                                                  to revisit the data, you can use the projector.



Section 3.7 Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
  Subsection           Activity and Purpose                                         Assessment




                                                                                                                                5.0
                                                           Formative                                              Summative
                                                           Understanding   Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                           Goals           Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                           and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                           Evaluation   Feedback                  graded
 Where Are Plate Students learn they are to determine
 Boundaries      plate boundaries for Earth.
 Located Across
 the Entire
                                                                ✓
 Earth?
 Conference:      Groups prepare a world map
 Neighboring
 Region Meeting
                  showing plate boundaries.
                                                                              ✓                         ✓
 Communicate:     Groups present their inferences
 Share Your
 Plate Boundary
 Inferences
                  about worldwide plate boundaries.
                                                                                           ✓            ✓             ✓
                                                                                           ✓            ✓
 Reflect           Students reflect on the class data
                  and the class discussion.


                                                                              ✓                         ✓
 Conference       Groups complete sketches of plate
                  boundaries for their assigned regions.
 Reflect           Students return to the San Francisco

                                                                              ✓            ✓
                  and Chile earthquakes and apply
                  their new understanding of
                  plate boundaries.
 Student
 Reflection
 Questions                                                                                 ✓            ✓             ✓



                                                             241
                                                                                                      EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   3.7 Explore                           Conference                        While each pair presents, have
                                                                           other students in the group
                                         Neighboring
   Where Are Plate                       Region Meeting
                                                                           evaluate their plate predictions
                                                                           based on the pairs’ evidence and
   Boundaries                            Tell students they will now
                                                                           their own data. Students should
                                                                           use the bulleted questions in
   Located Across                        share their plate boundary
                                         inferences and evidence with
                                                                           Step 3 as guidelines to evaluate
                                                                           the pair’s predictions. After
   the Entire                            other students working in the     all pairs have presented, have




                                                                                                                3.7
                                         same area in Neighboring Region   the group come to agreement
   Earth?                                Meetings. In this meeting they
                                         will decide on the location of
                                                                           about the plate boundaries in
                                                                           their neighboring regions. Their
                                         plate boundaries throughout       presentations should include their
                                                                           plate boundaries and information
    Teaching                             the larger area containing all
                                                                           about how they decided on
                                         of the neighboring regions.
    Strategies and                        Divide the class into groups,
                                                                           plate boundaries in their
                                                                           Neighboring Region Meeting.
    Sample Answers                       distribute markers, and go        They should follow the guidelines
                                         over the instructions for         in Step 6 as they prepare their
                                         the Neighboring Region            presentations for the class.
   Introduce students to the
                                         Meetings. Groups will put their
   activity by telling them that
                                         transparencies together in the
   they will now work together
                                         correct order, so they cover
   to create a map showing all of
                                         the neighboring regions on the
   the plates in Earth’s crust. They
                                         map. Each pair should discuss
   will start by sharing their plate
                                         the plate boundaries they drew
   boundaries with other students
                                         on the transparencies and
   who examined earthquakes near
                                         share their Three-page Maps
   their region. This will allow
                                         and supporting information.
   them to find how their plate
   boundaries connect with the
   plate boundaries other students
   identified. Once they have done
   this, they will work with the class
   to construct a world map showing
   plates and plate boundaries.




                                                       242
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                            3.7




243
      EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?




                                                                 3.7




                                                      244
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                               3.7 Explore



      Communicate
      Share Your Plate
      Boundaries
      Have groups present their plate
      boundaries to the class. Each
      group should begin by showing
      the transparent overlays with




                                             3.7
      the plate boundaries they agreed
      on. They should discuss the
      evidence that supports the plate
      boundaries they identified. They
      should discuss which boundaries
      were easy to agree on, which were
      more difficult, and the reasons
      some were more difficult than
      others. They should also point
      out any plate boundaries they
      revised during the meeting. If
      they can identify any complete
      plates, they should do so.

      Reflect
      1. Students should identify
      places where they were
      able to make inferences
      based on clear evidence.
      2. These could be places where
      students were not able to get
      the right amount of data, or
      where they seemed to have
      contradictory evidence.
      3. Students should identify
      places where they cannot
      confidently complete the plate
      boundaries because they do
      not have enough data.
      4. Students should provide
      the locations of plate overlap.
      They should provide the
      evidence for this overlap.




245
                    EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Conference
   Distribute new Three-page Maps
   if necessary, and have pairs draw
   the plate boundaries in their
   regions using the class’s plate map
   as a reference. They should shade
   in the plate their Earth structure
   is on. Have them save these maps;




                                                                 3.7
   they will use them again later.

   Reflect
   Students should have found
   that plate boundaries run
   along the coast of Chile and
   through San Francisco. They
   can reasonably conclude then
   that the earthquakes in Chile
   and San Francisco occurred on
   or near these plate boundaries.




                                                      246
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                                   3.7 Explore



Student Reflection                  • How did you use your Three-           Teacher Reflection
                                     page Maps and transparencies
Questions                            to develop ideas about the plate      Questions
                                     boundaries around the world?
• Which of your plate boundaries                                           • What difficulties did students
                                     (Students should have used
  did the class agree with you                                               have with agreeing on the plate
                                     their maps and transparencies
  about? Which of your plate                                                 boundaries of Earth?
                                     as references as they discussed
  boundaries did some students
                                     global plate boundaries.)             • How did you evaluate students’
  disagree with you about? Why?
                                                                             contributions to the class
  (Students should describe the    • Why was it important to have




                                                                                                                 3.7
                                                                             discussion of global plate
  reasons for others agreeing or     reliable data during your
                                                                             boundaries? What ideas do you
  disagreeing with their plate       discussions of plate boundaries
                                                                             have for encouraging students
  boundary predictions.)             in and around your region?
                                                                             to actively participate in class
                                     (Students needed reliable data to
• What did you do during this                                                discussions?
                                     support their ideas. In particular,
  section that you think best
                                     they needed reliable data to          • How did you monitor the
  exhibits how you worked
                                     settle disagreements about where        Neighboring Region Meetings?
  together, like scientists, to
                                     plate boundaries are.)                  What ideas do you have for
  share your findings and
                                                                             next time?
  refine your ideas? (Students
  discussed the plates in their
  regions with students who had
  studied neighboring regions in
  Neighboring Region Meetings.)




                                                   247
                                                                                         EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Learning Set 3                                                                                                            80 min

   Back to the Big Question
   Overview                                                            Materials
   Students list the geologic terms they have learned




                                                                                                                                      3.BBQ
                                                                            Quantity                             Item
   in this Learning Set and make sketches to show
                                                                         1 per student        Create Your Explanation page
   the defining features of each term. Then they                                               Project Board page
   record connections between them, synthesizing
   the geologic ideas they have learned. Using the                       1 per classroom      Laminated class Project Board
   data they gathered, they create explanations of
   which plates in their regions interact to cause
   geologic activity. Finally, they consider what
   information would help them better explain what
   causes geologic activity and changes in their Earth
   structure, and they update the Project Board.



            Florida Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

                                Benchmarks met in Back to the Big Question

    Benchmarks                                                                                                          Page(s)

    SC.6.N.1.5 Recognize that science involves creativity, not just in designing experiments, but also in               EE 145-147
    creating explanations that fit evidence.

    SC.6.N.2.2 Explain that scientific knowledge is durable because it is open to change as new evidence or               EE 145
    interpretations are encountered.

    SC.8.N.1.6 Understand that scientific investigations involve the collection of relevant empirical                    EE 145-148
    evidence, the use of logical reasoning, and the application of imagination in devising hypotheses,
    predictions, explanations and models to make sense of the collected evidence.

    LA.6.2.2.3 The student will organize information to show understanding (e.g., representing main ideas               EE 146-148
    within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing, or comparing/contrasting).

    LA.6.4.2.2 The student will record information (e.g., observations, notes, lists, charts, legends) related          EE 146-148
    to a topic, including visual aids to organize and record information and include a list of sources used.




                                                                  248
Project-Based Inquiry Science
Section 3.BBQ Pacing, Purpose, and Assessment Guide
 Subsection           Activity and Purpose                                         Assessment
                                                          Formative                                              Summative
                                                          Understanding   Self         Classroom    Artifact     Student
                                                          Goals           Evaluation   Discussion   Evaluation   work that
                                                                          and Peer     Teacher                   can also be
                                                                          Evaluation   Feedback                  graded




                                                                                                                               3.BBQ
What Processes   Students review their
Within Earth
Cause Geologic
Activity?
                 accomplishments in Learning Set 3.
                                                               ✓
Add to Your      Students make cards for 21 new
Picture Map      terms and use them to make Picture
                 Maps that show the connections
                 between the terms.
                                                                             ✓                         ✓
Explain          Groups prepare explanations that
                 describe the connection between
                 tectonic plates and geologic activity.
                                                                             ✓                         ✓




                                                                                                                               5.0
Conference:      Student pairs with the same
Share Your
Explanation
                 assigned region meet to agree on
                 one explanation statement.                                  ✓                         ✓
                                                                                          ✓            ✓             ✓
Communicate      Groups share their explanation with
                 the class.


                                                                                          ✓            ✓             ✓
Reflect           Pairs answer questions about their
                 explanation.

Update the       Students update the class Project
Project Board    Board with new information and
                 questions.                                    ✓             ✓            ✓            ✓
Student
Reflection
Questions                                                                                 ✓            ✓             ✓




                                                             249
                                                                                                     EVER- CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Learning Set 3                        know they may want to refer to       triangulation, Richter Scale,
                                         their Project Board as they are      Modified Mercalli Intensity
   Back to the Big                       revising their explanations.         Scale, and plate boundary.
                                                                              When students have completed
   Question                              Add to Your                          their cards, have them share the
                                         Picture Map                          cards with a group of students
                                                                              who were assigned to the same
                                         Tell students that they will add
    Teaching                                                                  region. Each student should listen




                                                                                                                   3.BBQ
                                         to their Picture Maps by writing     to other members’ descriptions
    Strategies and                       important terms on index cards,      of the terms and think about
                                         as they did in Learning Sets 1 and   information they can add to
    Sample Answers                       2. They will draw a picture of       their own cards or changes they
                                         each term to communicate what        can make to their drawings.
   What Processes                        it means. Emphasize that their
                                                                              They should work with their
                                         drawings should help people who
   Within Earth                          are not familiar with the terms      groups to find how the terms
                                         understand what they mean. The       go together, including the terms
   Cause Geologic                        student text mentions some of        from Learning Sets 1 and 2. They
   Activity?                             the words that may be new to         should arrange their cards on
                                         students: earthquake, tsunami,       the table to show how the ideas
                                         magnitude, depth, intensity,         connect. When they have agreed
   Remind students of the Unit’s Big
                                         fault, seismic waves, seismograph,   on how the ideas connect, they
   Question: What processes within
                                         seismogram, body waves,              should record the connections on
   Earth cause geologic activity?
   Ask groups what claims they           surface waves, longitudinal
   made for the processes that cause     wave, transverse wave, P waves,
   geologic activity in Learning Set     S waves, epicenter, focus,
   2. Tell them that they will now
   construct explanations of geologic
   activity in their regions. Have the
   class Project Board on display and
   point out where it is. Let students




                                                       250
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                            3.BBQ




251
      EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   the back of the cards. If members
   of the group disagree about how
   the ideas connect, they should
   record their disagreement.

   Explain
   Let students know that they will
   now create explanations of which




                                                                 3.BBQ
   plates interact to cause geologic
   activity in their regions. They will
   use evidence from the earthquake
   data they gathered and science
   knowledge from their reading.
   Review the parts of a good
   explanation with the class: the
   claim, the evidence, the science
   knowledge, and the explanation
   connecting the evidence and the
   science knowledge to the claim.
   A good explanation could have
   the form: The movements of
   Earth’s layers cause Earth’s
   surface to change by … We
   know this because we observed
   … and we learned that …
   Students should use the bulleted
   list in the text as a reference
   for creating explanations.
   As groups work on their
   explanations, monitor their
   progress and help them with
   any difficulties they are having.
   Ask them what evidence and
   science knowledge they are
   using to support their claims.
   Note the similarities and
   differences among groups’
   claims. During presentations,
   you might consider having two
   groups with very similar claims
   present one after the other so
   that students can compare how
   they supported their claims.




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Project-Based Inquiry Science
                 Back to the Big Question



      Conference
      Share Your
      Explanation
      When students have completed
      their explanations, have pairs
      meet with other pairs who




                                            3.BBQ
      studied the same region to share
      their explanations. As each
      pair presents their explanation,
      the other students in the group
      should listen and think about
      ways they can improve their
      explanations. Then they should
      share their revised explanations
      and use the best one for their
      presentation to the class.




253
                    EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   Communicate
   Have groups present the explanation
   they chose to the class. With the
   class, review the explanation and
   ask the class to identify the parts
   of the explanation. Encourage
   students to suggest any different




                                                                                                                              3.BBQ
   ideas they have for the explanations
   presented. Ask groups with similar
   interpretations if they used any
   different evidence and science
   knowledge to support their claims.

   Reflect
   1. Students should accurately
   specify the changes they made
   to their explanations and the
   reasons they made changes.
   2. Students should accurately
   evaluate how well they have
   explained earthquake patterns in
   their regions and how well their
   explanations can be applied to
   regions with similar Earth structures.
   3. Students may have questions
   about what causes plates to
   move, what patterns they can
   find in volcanic activity, what
   causes volcanic activity, what
   they can learn from depth data,
   and why some earthquakes
   occur in the middle of plates.

   Update the
   Project Board
   Sample Project Board Entries
     What do we think                 What do we need to
                                                                        What are we learning?        What is our evidence?
        we know?                         investigate?
    Where the plate             Why do the plates move?                 What the Richter scale is.   science knowledge from
    boundaries are across       What is the cause of volcanoes?         What the Modified Mercalli    readings
    the entire globe.                                                   Intensity Scale is.
                                Are earthquakes and volcanoes
                                connected in some way?

   *Students should generate actual Project Board entries.

                                                                  254
Project-Based Inquiry Science
                                                                                      Back to the Big Question



Student Reflection                     • How did organizing geologic        • How is an interpretation
                                        terms by their connections           different from an explanation?
Questions                               with other terms help you?           (In an explanation, claims are
                                        How did recording what you           supported by the observations
• What is occurring under Earth’s
                                        have learned in a list with your     [evidence] and science
  crust to cause its plates to
                                        drawing help? (Students should       knowledge.)
  move? (The purpose of this is
                                        recognize that organizing terms
  to elicit students’ initial ideas                                        • What evidence did you use to
                                        by their connections helped
  about what is occurring in the                                             support your explanations?




                                                                                                                 3.BBQ
                                        them to understand how all
  mantle to cause the tectonic                                               (Students should have
                                        of these geologic terms are
  plates to move. Students will                                              used evidence from their
                                        related and can be applied to
  learn about convective currents                                            observations of earthquakes,
                                        understanding Earth structures.
  in the next Learning Set.)                                                 volcanic activity, and
                                        Making a list of the things
                                                                             topographical features.)
• How did listening to other            they learned with the drawings
  groups’ explanations help you         should have helped students see
  refine your own explanations?          how individual observations        Teacher Reflection
  (Students should have identified       were related to their final         Questions
  evidence and science knowledge        interpretations.)
  in other groups’ explanations                                            • What concepts in this Learning
                                      • How did you use scientific            Set were difficult for students?
  that they could use. They
                                        knowledge in your                    How can you help them master
  should also have considered the
                                        explanations? (Students should       these concepts?
  strengths and weaknesses of
                                        have used scientific knowledge
  other pairs’ explanations.)                                              • How have you been able to
                                        as evidence to support the
• Why was it important to record        claims in their explanations.)       evaluate students’ progress
  what you have learned along                                                as they learn about geologic
  with your evidence on the                                                  activity and Earth structures?
  Project Board? (Students should                                          • What management issues arose
  recognize that this allows them                                            when students worked with
  to track their progress toward                                             regional groups? What ideas do
  answering the Big Question.)                                               you have for addressing these
                                                                             issues next time?




                                                     255
                                                                                         EVER-CHANGING EARTH
              Learning Set 3 What Happens at Plate Boundaries?



   NOTES




                                                      256
Project-Based Inquiry Science

				
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