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Dudnikov June superintense Index of

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 54

  • pg 1
									Self-stabilization of e-p Instability and
   Accumulation of a Superintense
           Circulating Beam


             V. Dudnikov*,
                 BTG


                              BNL
            *e-mail:dvg43@yahoo.com   2June 2006
Superintense beam- circulating beam with
intensity far above a space charge limit
(with recalculated tune shift ΔQ>1)
For uniform beam:

ΔQ=-Nrp Ref / πβ2γ 3Qa(a+b)
N= ΔQ πβ2γ 3 Q a(a+b) / rpRef
For accelerators is typical ΔQ~0.1-0.3<1

 Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                         2 June 2006
Self-stabilization of e-p instability was observed in 1971.
Circulating 100% space charge compensated proton beam with
intensity, greater than the space charge limit
(tune shift Q>5) was accumulated in 1971-73.

•   G. Budker, G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, V. E. Chupriyanov, V. G. Shamovsky, et.
    al. in Proceedings of the Xth International Conference on Particle
    Accelerators, Serpukhov, Vol. 2, p. 287, 1977.
•   G. Dimov, V. Chupriyanov, V. Shamovsky. Sov. Phys., Tech. Phys.,
    16(10),1662,1971.
•   G. Dimov, V. Chupriyanov. Particle Accelerators, 14, 155- 84, 1984.
•   V. Dudnikov. Condition for Production of Circulating Proton Beam with
    Intensity Greater than Space Charge Limit, 20th ICFA Advanced Beam
    Dynamics Workshop on High Intensity High Brightness Hadron Beams
    HB2002, FNAL, 8-12 April 2002; http://www-bd.fnal.gov/icfa/workshops/20/
•   V. Dudnikov. PAC01 Chicago, 2001(IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001).
•   V. Dudnikov. PAC05, Knoxville, 2005.
•   F. Zimmermann. Review of Single Bunch Instabilities Driven by an Electron
    Cloud, Phys. Rev. S. T. – Accelerators and Beams, 7, 124801, 2004.

     Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                             2 June 2006
• Transverse e-p instability in the proton SR was self-
stabilized by increase a beam density and the rate of
secondary particles generation above a threshold level,
corresponded a decrease of the unstable wavelength 
below a transverse beam size a
• Increase a beam density nb and ion density ni above
a threshold level:

(nb + ni)> 2 /2πre a2 ; re = e2/mc2.
• In high current proton rings it is possible to reach this “Island of
stability” by fast concentrated high current charge exchange
injection without painting and enhanced generation of secondary
plasma as it was demonstrated in small scale PSR at the BINP.


 Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                         2 June 2006
                                          Outline
• e-p instability: historical remarks and references
• Small scale Proton Storage Rings
• Diagnostics
• Observations
• Damping of e-p instability
• Production of a stable space charge compensated
  super- intense circulating beam
• Applications

  Self-stabilization of e-p instability     BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                           2 June 2006
         Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics
                                        www.inp.nsk.su




Self-stabilization of e-p instability        BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                            2 June 2006
 First project of proton/antiproton collider VAPP, in
          the Novosibirsk INP (BINP), 1960

• Development of charge-exchange injection (and negative ion
  sources) for high brightness proton beam production. First
  observation and damping of e-p instability.

• Development of Proton/ Antiproton conversion.

• Development of electron cooling for high brightness proton and
  antiproton beam production.

• Production of space charge neutralized proton beam with intensity
  above space charge limit. Inductance Linac, Inertial Fusion, Neutron
  Generators.



   Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                           2 June 2006
    History of Charge Exchange Injection
                            (Graham Rees, ISIS , ICFA Workshop)

1. 1951        Alvarez, LBL (H-) ;
   1956        Moon, Birmingham Un. (H+2)
2. 1962-66     Budker, Dimov, Dudnikov, Novosibirsk ;
               first achievements; discovery of e-p instability.IPM
3. 1968-70 Ron Martin, ANL ; 50 MeV injection at ZGS
4. 1972       Jim Simpson, ANL ; 50-200 MeV, 30 Hz booster
5. 1975-76 Ron Martin et al, ANL ; 6 1012 ppp
6. 1977        Rauchas et al, ANL ; IPNS 50-500 MeV, 30 Hz
7. 1978        Hojvat et al, FNAL ; 0.2-8 GeV, 15 Hz booster
8. 1982        Barton et al, BNL ; 0.2-29 GeV, AGS
9. 1984        First very high intensity rings ; PSR and ISIS
10. 1980,85,88 IHEP, KEK booster, DESY III (HERA)
11. 1985-90 EHF, AHF and KAON design studies. SSC
12. 1992       AGS 1.2 GeV booster injector
13. 1990's      ESS, JHF and SNS 4-5 MW sources
 Self-stabilization of e-p instability     BNL         V.Dudnikov
                                         2 June 2006
History of Negative Ion
Sources Development
(J.Peters)
BDD, G.Budker, G.Dimov, V.Dudnikov
Charge-Exchange Injection
         INP Novosibirsk, 1965, bunched beam

                                                               Other INP PSR 1967:
                                                               coasting
                                                               beam instability
                                                               suppressed by
                                                               increasing beam
                                                               current;
                                                               fast accumulation of
                                                               secondary plasma
                                                               is essential for
                                                               stabilization;
                                                               1.8x1012 in 6 m
first observation of an e- driven instability?
coherent betatron oscillations & beam loss
with bunched proton beam; threshold ~1-1.5x1010,
circumference 2.5 m, stabilized by feedback
(G. Budker, G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, 1965).                         V. Dudnikov, PAC2001,
F. Zimmermann review                                              PAC2005
    Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                            2 June 2006
INP PSR for bunched beam accumulation by charge
    exchange injection (ionization loss~200eV)
                                                             1- fist stripper;
                                                             2- main stripper Pulsed
                                                                 supersonic jet;
                                                             3- gas pumping;
                                                             4- pickup integral;
                                                             5- accelerating drift tube;
                                                             6- gas luminescent profile
                                                                 Monitor;
                                                             7- Residual gas current
                                                                 monitor;
                                                             8- residual gas IPM;
                                                             9- BPM;
                                                             10- transformer Current
                                                                 monitor;
                                                             11- FC;
                                                             12- deflector for Suppression
                                                                 transverse instability by
                                                                 negative Feedback.

 Small Radius- High beam density. Revolution 5.3 MHz. 1MeV, 0.5 mA, 1 ms.
    Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                            2 June 2006
                 General view of INP PSR with
                charge exchange injection, 1965

                                                       1. Magnet
                                                       2. Vacuum chamber
                                                       3. Beam line
                                                       5. First stripping target
                                                       6. Second stripping target




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
 Residual gas ionization beam current & profile
           monitors (ICM,IPM),1965




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Residual gas luminescent beam profile monitor
                  INP,1965
                                                      1- magnetic pole;

                                                      2- proton beam;

                                                      3- moving collimator

                                                      4- light guide;

                                                      5-photomultiplier;

                                                      6-vacuum chamber



Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL           V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Beam profiles evolution during accumulation
Proton beam accumulation for different injection
current (0.1-0.5 mA), accumulated beam 300mA


                                                           Injected beam

                                                           Circulating beam,
                                                           Low injection current



                                                           Start saturation



                                                            Strong saturation



 Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                         2 June 2006
          Transverse instability in the INP PSR,
                 bunched beam (1965)




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Diagram of feedback system for e-p instability
        damping ( bunched beam)




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
      Transverse instability of bunched beam in
     INP PSR (1965) (& damping by FB system)




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Transverse instability of bunched beam with a high
                     RF voltage

                                                             1-ring pickup, peak bunch
                                                               intensity ;
                                                             2-radial loss monitor.

                                                             •   Beam was deflected
                                                                 after Instability loss.

                                                             •   Two peaks structure
                                                                 of beam after
                                                                 instability loss.

                                                             •   Only central part of
                                                                 the beam was lost




  Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                          2 June 2006
                        Models of two-stream instability
•      The beam- induces electron cloud build up and development of
       two-stream e-p instability is one of major concern for all projects
       with high beam intensity and brightness [1,2].
•      In the discussing models of e-p instability, transverse beam
       oscillations is excited by relative coherent oscillation of beam
       particles (protons, ions, electrons) and compensating particles
       (electrons, ions) [3,4,5].
•      For instability a bounce frequency of electron’s oscillation in
       potential of proton’s beam should be close to any mode of
       betatron frequency of beam in the laboratory frame.
1.     http://wwwslap.cern.ch/collective/electron-cloud/.
2.     http://conference.kek.jp/two-stream/.
3.     G.I.Budker, Sov. Atomic Energy, 5, 9, (1956).
4.     B.V. Chirikov, Sov. Atomic.Energy,19(3), 239, (1965).
5.     Koshkarev, Zenkevich, Particle Accelerators, (1971).
6.     M.Giovannozzi, E.Metral, G.Metral, G.Rumolo,and F. Zimmerman , Phys.Rev.
       ST-Accel. Beams, 6, 010101, (2003).

     Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                             2 June 2006
From B. Zotter report
         ISIS has much larger a and b, and low particle density. Bounce
         frequency is low . Only low modes of betatron oscillations are
         unstable. This lead to removing of electrons without beam loss.

From R. Macek report
The oscillation tune of the electrons inside the proton
beam (bounce frequency, plasma frequency), number of
oscillation per turn:
(Qe Ω)2 =4Nb rec2/a(a+b)L;
(Qe)2 =2Nb reR /a(a+b)πβ2


(Qe)2 =2(Nb +Ni) reR /a(a+b)πβ2


Wavelength λ=L/Qe<a self- stabilization.
R. A. Bosch, Suppression of two-stream hose instabilities at
wavelengths shorter than the beam’s transverse size, Phys.Rev. ST, 6
(2003).

 Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                         2 June 2006
    PSR for beam accumulation with inductive
                 acceleration

                                                              1-first stripper;
                                                              2-magnet pole n=0.6;
                                                              3-hollow copper torus
                                                              with inductance current;
                                                              4-main stripper;
                                                              5-accelerating gap;
                                                              6-ring pickup;
                                                              7-BPMs;
                                                              8-Res.gas IPM;
                                                              9-vacuum chamber.
                                                              FC; quartz screens;
                                                              Retarding electron and
                                                              ion collectors/
                                                               spectrometers .
Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
e-p instability with a low threshold in INP PSR, 1967
                                                            1-beam current, N>7e9p
                                                            2-beam potential, slow
                                                            Accumulation of electrons
                                                            10 μs, and fast loss 1 μs.
                                                            3-retarding grid electron
                                                                collector;
                                                            4,5-ion collector, ionizing
                                                            Current Monitor;
                                                            6,7-ion Collectors Beam
                                                            potential monitor;
                                                            8,9- negative mass
                                                                Instability.

                                                            Injection:
                                                            Coasting beam, 1MeV,
                                                                0.1mA
                                                            R=42 cm.



    Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                            2 June 2006
       PSR for Superintense Circulating p-Beam
                     Production
                                                                        1-striping gas target;
                                                                        2-gas pulser;
                                                                        3-FC;
                                                                        4-Q screen;
                                                                        5,6-moving targets;
                                                                        7-ion collectors;
                                                                        8-current monitor;
                                                                        9-BPM;
                                                                        10-Q pick ups;
                                                                        11-magnetic BPM;
                                                                        12-beam loss monitor;
                                                                        13-detector of secondary particles
                                                                        density;
                                                                        14-inductor core;
                                                                        15-gas pulsers;
                                                                        16-gas leaks.


Proton Energy -1 MeV; injection-up to 8 mA; bending radius-42 cm; magnetic field-3.5 kG;index-
n=0.2-0.7; St. sections-106 cm;aperture-4x6 cm; revolution-1.86 MHz; circulating current up to 300
mA is up to 9 time greater than a space charge limit. A Stripping target is a gas jet.
                                                          Tune diagram of betatron
                                                          frequencies of the storage
                                                          ring:
                                                          1-betatron frequency of
                                                          low intensity beam
                                                          νx=1.62; νz=0.85;
                                                          Blue-trajectory of
                                                          operation point with
                                                          variation of correction
                                                          current;
                                                          Red- trajectory of
                                                          operating point under the
                                                          influence of the space
                                                          charge.




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
 Instability of coasting beam in AG PSR, 1967

                                                        1- beam current
                                                           monitor;
                                                        2- vertical proton
                                                           loss monitor;
                                                        3- radial proton loss;
                                                        4- detected signal of
                                                           vertical BPM.

                                                        20 μs/div.




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
e-p instability of coasting beam in the INP PSR
                      (1967)




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
    Secondary Particles detector with repeller,
                   INP,1967




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Mass Spectrum of Ions from the Beam
Integral Signal (bottom), Differential Signal (top)




    Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                            2 June 2006
                           Inductive BPM, INP,1967




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Spectrums of coasting beam e-p instability in BINP
 PSR (magnetic BPM), very similar for LA PSR




  Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                          2 June 2006
       Beam accumulation with clearing voltage


                                                          • In beginning secondary
                                                             plasma accumulation
                                                            suppressed by strong
                                                            transverse electric field.
                                                          • Vertical instability with
                                                             zero mode oscillation
                                                             was observed
                                                             (Herward instability).




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
 Threshold intensity N (left) and growth rate J
(right) of instability as function of gas density n




             a- hydrogen; b- helium; c- air.

Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
         Beam accumulation with space charge
                   neutralization




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Self-stabilization of e-p instability was observed in 1971.
Circulating 100% space charge compensated proton beam
with intensity, greater than the space charge limit
(tune shift Q>5) was accumulated in 1971-73.
1. G. Budker, G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, V. E. Chupriyanov, V. G. Shamovsky, et.
   al. in Proceedings of the Xth International Conference on Particle
   Accelerators, Serpukhov, 1977, Vol. 2, p. 287.
2. G. Dimov, V. Chupriyanov, V. Shamovsky. Sov. Phys., Tech. Phys.,
   16(10),1662, 1971.
3. G. Dimov, V. Chupriyanov. Particle Accelerators, 14, 155- 84, 1984.
4. V. Dudnikov. Condition for Production of Circulating Proton Beam with
   Intensity Greater than Space Charge Limit, 20th ICFA Advanced Beam
   Dynamics Workshop on High Intensity High Brightness Hadron Beams
   HB2002, FNAL, 8-12 April 2002; http://www-bd.fnal.gov/icfa/workshops/20/
5. V. Dudnikov. PAC01 Chicago, 2001(IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001).
6. V. Dudnikov. PAC05, Knoxville, 2005.
7. F. Zimmermann. Review of Single Bunch Instabilities Driven by an Electron
   Cloud, Phys. Rev. S. T. – Accelerators and Beams, 7, 124801, 2004.

    Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                            2 June 2006
INP PSR for Beam above a Space Charge Limit
Ionization energy loss ~200 eV/turn, compensated by inductance field
Small Scale Proton Storage Ring for Accumulation of
      Proton Beam with Intensity Greater than
                Space Charge Limit




  Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                          2 June 2006
                                               Self-stabilization of e-p
                                               instability and accumulation
                                               of proton beam with intensity
                                               above a space charge limit
                                               (with high injection current
                                               >5.5mA).
                                               Strong instability with low
                                               injection current <5.5 mA.
                                               For self-stabilization it is
                                               important to have a high
                                               injected current density
                                               ( second threshold) and fast
                                               accumulation of secondary
                                               plasma.

Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Proton beam accumulation with intensity greater
           than space charge limit.
                       Dependence on injection current.
Np-number of accumulated protons; Ij- injection current;  Q-tune shift.




  Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                          2 June 2006
                Plasma generators for space charge
                         compensation

                                             1- circulating proton beam;
                                             2- magnetic poles;
                                             3- filaments, electron sources;
                                             4- grounded fine mesh;
                                             5- secondary emission plate with a negative
                                             potential.

Electrons e emitted by filaments 3 are oscillating between negative plates 5 with a
high secondary emission for electron multiplication.
A beam density and plasma density must be high enough for self stabilization of
e-p instability (second threshold).
Secondary ion accumulation is important for self stabilization of e-p instability.

     Self-stabilization of e-p instability        BNL         V.Dudnikov
                                                2 June 2006
 Beam accumulation with a plasma generator
                on and off

                                                      on      off
                         on
               off




Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                        2 June 2006
Space charge neutralized Superintense ion beams
   with intensity fare above space charge limit

 Can be useful:
 In Inductance Linac with recirculation,
 For Inertial Fusion,
 For Neutron, Antiproton, Mu meson Generators
 For resonant reaction with internal targets
 For High Power Density Physics
 For FFAG accelerators
 For Inductive Synchrotrons
 Intensity limit don’t determined: ΔQ> 10-100 can be possible?
 It is important to reproduce a Self-stabilization in Computer simulation

  Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                          2 June 2006
                             It is important to repeat!

It is very attractive to repeat an accumulation of
Superintense ion beam with modern high current injectors.
High current density beam should be stable without
secondary ions.
Now from RFQ it is possible to have H- beam with current
~100 mA and energy ~3 MeV.
This can be enough for accumulation ~ 1 kA of circulating
proton beam in a small storage ring with R~1m.
It is important to reproduce a Self-stabilization and Superintense beam
accumulation in Computer simulation

  Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                          2 June 2006
   Self-stabilization of e-p instability and accumulation of
proton beam with intensity above a space charge limit (with
                    high injection current);
             instability with low injection current
A schematic a storage ring for resonance reaction
  production by the interaction of a Superintense
   circulating ion beam with a thin internal target

                                                 1- beam line for transport of injected H-
                                                 beam: RFQ, cyclotron or DC accelerator;
                                                 2- injected H- beam ; 3-bending
                                                 magnets; 4-vacuum chamber ; 5-
                                                 generator of supersonic jet- stripping,
                                                 reaction target; 6- supersonic jet,
                                                 stripping-reaction target; 7- pump-
                                                 recirculator of target jet; 8- cone of
                                                 resonant gamma rays; 9- iron core for
                                                 inductor for compensation of beam
                                                 energy loss in first target; 10-circulating
                                                 proton beam; 11- magnetic coil; 12- yoke
                                                 of bending magnet; 13-16 electron
                                                 cooling

  Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                          2 June 2006
                            Memo from: Bruno Zotter
                 www.aps.anl.gov/conferences/icfa/twoo-stream/


• Subject: Summary of my own conclusions of the
  workshop
• 1) Go on with your plans to coat the most sensitive
  locations in the PSR (Al stripper chamber, sections with
  ceramics and with high losses) with Ti nitride - make
  sure that the deposition technique avoids rapid flaking
  off;
• 2) If this is not sufficiently successful, install a transverse
  feedback system based on the wide-band split cylinder
  pickups - Dudnikov showed an example where a
  feedback seemed to work fine on e-p. If the oscillations
  are kept sufficiently small by it, there may be no need for
  high power;

   Self-stabilization of e-p instability    BNL          V.Dudnikov
                                           2 June 2006
       Instrumentation for observation and damping of
                        e-p instability
•   1. Observation of plasma (electrons) generation and correlation with an instability
    development. Any insulated clearing electrodes could be used for detection of
    sufficient increase of the electron density. More sophisticated diagnostics (as from
    ANL) is used for this application in the LANL PSR. These electrodes in different
    location could be used for observation of distribution of the electron generation.
•   2. For determination an importance compensating particles it is possible to use a
    controlled triggering a surface breakdown by high voltage pulse on the beam pipe
    wall or initiation unipolar arc. Any high voltage feedthrough could be used for
    triggering of controlled discharge. Could this break down initiate an instability?
•   3. For suppression of plasma production could be used an improving of surface
    properties around the proton beam. Cleaning of the surface from a dust and
    insulating films for decrease a probability of the arc discharge triggering. Deposition
    of the films with a low secondary emission as TiN, NEG. Transparent mesh near the
    wall could be used for decrease an efficient secondary electron emission and
    suppression of the multipactor discharge. Biased electrodes could be used for
    suppressing of the multipactor discharge, as in a high voltage RF cavity.
•   4. Diagnostics of the circulating beam oscillation by fast magnetic beam position
    monitors (MBPM). This signal can be used for feedback damping.
•   5. Local beam loss monitor with fast time resolution. Fast scintillator, pin diodes.
•   6. Transverse beam instability is sensitive to the RF voltage. Increase of the RF
    voltage is increase a delay time for instability development and smaller part of the
    beam is involved in the unstable oscillation development.
•   7. Instability sensitive to sextuple and octupole component of magnetic field,
    chromaticity (Landau Damping), …
    References for first observation of e-p instability
•     V.Dudnikov, “The intense proton beam accumulation in storage ring by charge- exchange
      injection method”, Ph.D.Thesis, Novosibirsk INP,1966.
•     G. Budker, G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, “Experiments on production of intense proton beam by
      charge exchange injection method” in Proceedings of International Symposium on Electron and
      Positron Storage Ring, France, Sakley,1966, rep. VIII, 6.1 (1966).
•     G. Budker, G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, “Experimental investigation of the intense proton beam
      accumulation in storage ring by charge- exchange injection method”, Soviet Atomic Energy, 22,
      384 (1967).
•     G.Budker, G.Dimov, V. Dudnikov, V. Shamovsky, “Experiments on electron compensation of
      proton beam in ring accelerator”, Proc.VI Intern. Conf. On High energy accelerators, 1967, MIT
      & HU,A-104, CEAL-2000, (1967).
•     G.I.Dimov, V.G.Dudnikov, V.G.Shamovsky, ” Transverse instability of a proton beam due to
      coherent interaction with a plasma in a circular accelerator” Soviet Conference on Charge-
      particle accelerators”, Moscow,1968, translation from Russian, 1, 1973 108565 8.
•     G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, V. Shamovsky, “Investigation of the secondary charged particles
      influence on the proton beam dynamic in betatron mode ”, Soviet Atomic Energy, 29,353
      (1969).
•     H.A. Grunder and G.R. Lambertson, ‘Transverse Beam Instabilities at the Bevatron,’ Proc. 8th
      Int. Conference High Energy Acc., Geneva (1971).
•     Yu.Belchenko, G.Budker, G.Dimov, V. Dudnikov, et al. X PAC,1977.
•     O.Grobner, X PAC,1977.
•     E. Colton, D. Nuffer, G. Swain, R.Macek, et al., Particle Accelerators, 23,133 (1988).




    Self-stabilization of e-p instability      BNL           V.Dudnikov
                                             2 June 2006
        Development of Charge Exchange Injection, observation and
       damping of e-p instability and Production of Superitense Beam
•V.Dudnikov. “Production of an intense proton beam in storage ring by a charge- exchange injection method”,
Novosibirsk, Ph.D.Thesis,INP, 1966.
•Development of a Charge- Exchange Injection; Accumulation of proton beam up to space charge limit; Observation and damping
of synchrotron oscillation; Observation and damping of the coherent transverse instability of the bunched beam. Observation of the
e-p instability of coasting beam in storage ring.
•G. Budker, G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, “Experiments on production of intense proton beam by charge exchange injection method” in
Proceedings of International Symposium on Electron and Positron Storage Ring, France,Sakley,1966, rep. VIII, 6.1 (1966).
•G. Budker, G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, “Experimental investigation of the intense proton beam accumulation in storage ring by
charge- exchange injection method”, Soviet Atomic Energy, 22, 384 (1967).
•G.Dimov, V.Dudnikov, “Determination of circulating proton current and current density distribution (residual gas ionization profile
monotor)”, Instrum. Experimental Techniques, 5, 15 (1967).
•Dimov. “Charge- exchange injection of protons into accelerators and storage rings”, Novosibirsk, INP, 1968.
Development of a Charge- Exchange Injection; Accumulation of a proton beam up to the space charge limit; Observation and
damping of synchrotron oscillations; Observation and damping of the coherent transverse instability of the bunched beam;.
•Shamovsky. “Investigation of the Interaction of the circulating proton beam with a residual gas”, Novosibirsk, INP, 1972.
Observation of transverse e-p coherent instability of the coasting beam in the storage ring, Observation of a transverse Herward’s
instability, Damping of instabilities, Accumulation of a proton beam with a space charge limit.
•G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, V. Shamovsky, “Transverse instability of the proton beam induced by coherent interaction with plasma in
cyclic accelerators”, Trudy Vsesousnogo soveschaniya po uskoritelyam, Moskva, 1968, v. 2, 258 (1969).
•G. Dimov, V. Dudnikov, V. Shamovsky, “Investigation of the secondary charged particles influence on the proton beam dynamic in
betatron mode ”, Soviet Atomic Energy, 29,353 (1969).
•G.Budker, G.Dimov, V. Dudnikov, V. Shamovsky, “Experiments on electron compensation of proton beam in ring accelerator”,
Proc.VI Intern. Conf. On High energy accelerators, 1967, MIT & HU,A-104, CEAL-2000, (1967).
• Chupriyanov. “Production of intense compensated proton beam in an accelerating ring”, Novosibirsk, INP, 1982.
Observation and damping transverse coherent e-p instability of coasting proton beam and production of the proton beam with an
intensity up to 9.2 time above a space charge limit.
•G.Dimov, V.Chupriyanov, “Compensated proton beam production in an accelerating ring at a current above the space charge limit”,

Particle accelerators, 14, 155- 184 (1984).
•G.Budker, G.Dimov, V.Dudnikov, et al. X PAC,1977.

								
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