Unit13--- Grammar Modal verbs

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Unit13--- Grammar Modal verbs Powered By Docstoc
					  Unit13
 Grammar:
Modal verbs
     兰州五中
      邵君洲
   Mar 25,2011
   情态动词
 (modal verbs)
情态动词有can, may, must,
 ought(to), will ,shall, dare, need
 八个。在众多的英语动词中,情
 态动词有其独特的用法,概述如
 下:
Ⅰ.Revision:
Modal verbs can be used for-
 possibility: can / could, may / might
 certainty: must, will, should
 ability: can / could, be able to
 permission: can / could, may / might
 requests: can / could, will / would
suggestions: could / may /might,
               shall
necessity: must, have to, have got to,
            need
advice: ought to, had better
Ⅱ.Some Special Usages:
1.只用be able to的情况:
 a. 位于助动词后。
 b. 情态动词后。
 c. 表示过去某时刻动作时。
 d. 用于句首表示条件。
 e. 表示成功地做了某事时,只能用
was/ were able to,不能用could。
2.成语:may/might as well,后面接不带
   to 的不定式,意为"不妨"。
e.g. If that is the case, we may as well
    try.
3.情态动词+have+过去分词
1) may (might) have + done sth., can
   (could) have + done sth. 表示过去,推
   测过去时间里可能发生的事情。
e.g. Philip may (might) have been hurt
     seriously in the car accident.
     Philip can (could) have been hurt
     seriously in the car accident.
2) must have+done sth., 表示对过去
  时间里可能发生的事情的推测,语气
  较强,具有“肯定”的意思。
e.g. --- Linda has gone to work, but
       her bicycle is still here.
    --- She must have gone by bus.
3) ought to have done sth.\should have
   done sth.本应该做某事,而事实上并没有
   做; 否定句表示“不该做某事而做
   了”。
e.g. You ought to (should) have been more
     careful in this experiment.
     He ought not to have thrown the old
     clothes away.(事实上已扔了。)
注: ought to 在语气上比should 要强。
4) needn’t have done sth. 本没必要做某事
e.g. I dressed very warmly for the trip,    but I
   needn’t have done so. The weather was
   hot.
5) would like to have done sth. 本打算做某事
e.g. I would like to have read the article, but I
   was very busy then.
(6)would/could/might/should +
  have done 用来表示与过去事实
  相反的虚拟句
•e.g., If I had been free that day, I
  would have gone with you.
4. had better表示“最好”
  had better 相当于一个助动词,它只
 有一种形式,它后面要跟动词原
 形。had better (not) do sth.
e.g. It is pretty cold. You’d better put on my
    coat.
    She’d better not play with the dog.
  had better have done sth.表示与事
实相反的结果,意为“本来最好”。
e.g. You had better have come earlier.
5. would rather表示“宁愿”
  would rather (not) do\would rather(that)sb
  did\had done sth
  would rather…than…宁愿…而不愿
  would sooner\ had rather\ had       sooner
  表示"宁愿"、"宁可"的意思。
e.g. If I have a choice, I had sooner not
     continue my studies at this school.
Ⅲ.Exercises

1. A left-luggage office is a place
   where bags ____be left for a short
                 B
  time, especially at a railway station.
  A. should           B. can
  C. must             D. will
2. My English-Chinese dictionary has
                   ___
  disappeared. Who C have taken it?
  A. should          B. must
  C. could           D. would
3. — Is John coming by train?
   — He should, but he ____ not.
                           D
     He likes driving his car.
 A. must            B. can
 C. need            D. may
4. — I heard they went skiing in the
  mountains last winter.
  — It ____ true because there was
         C
  little snow there.
  A. may not be        B. won’t be
  C. couldn’t be        D. mustn’t be
5. — I hear you’ve got a set of valuable
  Australian coins. ___ I have a look?
                    B
 —Yes, certainly.
 A. Do B. May C. Shall D. Should
6. Oh, I’m not feeling well in the
   stomach, I ___ so much fried
                 C
  chicken just now.
  A. shouldn’t eat
  B. mustn’t have eaten
  C. shouldn’t have eaten
  D. mustn’t eat
7. — Write to me when you get home.
   — ____.C
   A. I must       B. I should
   C. I will       D. I can
8. Sorry, I’m late. I ___ have turned off
                      A
   the alarm clock and gone back to
   sleep again.
   A. might            B. should
   C. can               D. will
9. There was a lot of fun at
    yesterday’s party. You ___ come,
                           D
    but why didn’t you?
   A. must have      B. should
   C. need have       D. ought to have
10. The fire spread through the hotel
                              C get
   very quickly but everyone ___
   out.
   A. had to         B. would
   C. was able to     D. could
11.When he was there, he ___ go to
                          A
   that coffee shop at the corner after
   work everyday.
  A. would          B. should
  C. had better     D. might
12. Sir, you ___ be sitting in this
               A
    waiting room. It is for woman and
    children only.
   A. oughtn’t to    B. can’t
   C. won’t          D. needn’t
13. I wonder how he ___ that to the
                     D
   teacher.
   A. dare to say    B. dare saying
   C. not dare say D. dared say
14. I told Sally how to get here, but
   perhaps I ____ for her.
             C
   A. had to write it out
   B. must have written it out
   C. should have written it out
   D. ought to write it out
15.—When can I come for the photes? I need
them tomorrow afternoom.
       B
--They ___ be ready by by 12:00.
A.can      B.should      C.might
D.need
Ⅳ.Homework

Review and practice Modal verbs.

				
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