Daily Living Skills & Toilet Training Overview What are life skills? Selecting a specific skill to teach Breaking skills down into smaller steps Task analysis Best teaching practices Teaching sequence (prompting) Reinforcement Things to consider after learning the skill Video example of teaching sequence Questions??? Introduction to Life Skills What are life skills? Goals of teaching life skills Increase independence Provide a means for individual to care for himself Enhance quality of life of individual and caretaker Assessing current skills Self-Care Checklist What skills can the individual already do? Recognize skill deficits Breaking up Complex Skills Task Analysis This takes a complex skill and breaks it up into steps Each step is a teachable behavior Benefits Smaller steps reduces frustration Consistency Promotes quicker learning How to create a task analysis Do the skill yourself Before You Begin… Selecting a skill Prioritizing Rank life skills in order of importance Consider amount of time Attainable One skill at a time Consistency Incorporate into daily routine Follow task analysis Set aside a specific amount of time Just do it! (vacation, illness) Teaching Use simple instructions What is a prompt? Any hint used to increase the chance of an accurate response You start with the least then work your way to the most Reset prompt level at each step of task analysis Prompting Sequence 1. Verbal (you say “get soap”) 2. Gesture (you point to soap) 3. Model (you put soap in your hands) 4. Physical Guidance (you guide individual to get soap; hand-over-hand prompt) Positive Reinforcement Reinforcer should: Increase the likelihood of the behavior Be individualized Types: Social: praise, hugs, tickles, high-5 Material: toy, edible, favorite activity When to reinforce Improvement, compliance, independence When not to reinforce Problem behavior, needs excessive help Other Important Information Peer or Adult Model If you have one available, use them! It cannot hurt. Here, there, everywhere (after they can do skill without help) Settings (bathing: all bathrooms in house, grandparents, hotel) Materials (bathing: different soap, shampoo bottles, nozzles) Persons (bathing: mom, dad, grandparents, siblings, babysitter) Retaining the skill Known as “daily living” skills Must be practiced daily Putting it All Together Instruction Teaching individual steps & Reinforcement Potty Training Agenda How do I know if my child is ready? Setting a Schedule Potty Routine Common Problems and solutions Generalization Ready, Set, GO! Behaviorally Ready? Shows Awareness of Dirty Diapers Physical Abilities Compliance Ability to hold urine Diapers or Underwear? Clothing Pre-requisite self help skills Embedded Self-Help Skills Dressing and Undressing Wiping Handwashing Teach throughout the routine Essential Components of Potty Training Scheduled Sits on Potty Increased Liquids Rewards Time Based Sitting Schedule Take child to potty based on set time schedule Determining a schedule How often does the child go now? Stick to your schedule! Chart Timer Schedule’s Set, Now What? Determine reinforcement Candy/Food Use small pieces Favorite toy Only allow access for a brief period of time Social praise SPECIAL TREATS ONLY FOR POTTY! Fluids Follow your schedule What is the potty routine? Prompt child to communicate the need to go to the potty Prompt to say word or phrase, prompt to get picture, prompt to do sign Walk to bathroom Undress (separate task analysis) Sit on potty (5 minutes or until they void) Void on potty Wipe Get off of the potty Dress (separate task analysis) Flush potty Fading the Time Schedule Increase time between successes Give the child the opportunity to initiate Utilize alarms (Wet Stop) Provide a natural consequence for accidents Common Problems Difficulty getting child to sit on potty Reinforcement, Reinforcement, Reinforcement! Reinforce progress toward sitting on the potty Play with items in bathroom Give instruction for next step Stop inappropriate behaviors Reinforce appropriate behaviors Train in Multiple Settings Start early Continue to implement schedule Carry reinforcers Don’t Fret the Set Backs Identify possible reasons Continue to implement strategies May need to take a few steps back Don’t give up! Recap Determine readiness Determine steps needed for the routine Set your schedule Choose communication method Choose your reinforcer Go for it! Questions????
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