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daily living Life Skills

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									Daily Living Skills &
     Toilet Training
Overview
 What are life skills?
 Selecting a specific skill to teach
 Breaking skills down into smaller steps
    Task analysis
 Best teaching practices
    Teaching sequence (prompting)
    Reinforcement
 Things to consider after learning the skill
 Video example of teaching sequence
 Questions???
Introduction to Life Skills
 What are life skills?

 Goals of teaching life skills
    Increase independence
    Provide a means for individual to care for himself
    Enhance quality of life of individual and caretaker

 Assessing current skills
    Self-Care Checklist
    What skills can the individual already do?
    Recognize skill deficits
Breaking up Complex Skills
 Task Analysis
   This takes a complex skill and breaks it up into steps
   Each step is a teachable behavior
   Benefits
       Smaller steps reduces frustration
       Consistency
       Promotes quicker learning

 How to create a task analysis
   Do the skill yourself
Before You Begin…
 Selecting a skill
   Prioritizing
       Rank life skills in order of importance
       Consider amount of time
   Attainable
   One skill at a time

 Consistency
   Incorporate into daily routine
   Follow task analysis
   Set aside a specific amount of time
   Just do it! (vacation, illness)
Teaching
 Use simple instructions

 What is a prompt?
    Any hint used to increase the chance of an accurate response
    You start with the least then work your way to the most
    Reset prompt level at each step of task analysis

 Prompting Sequence
     1.   Verbal (you say “get soap”)
     2.   Gesture (you point to soap)
     3.   Model (you put soap in your hands)
     4.   Physical Guidance (you guide individual to get soap; hand-over-hand prompt)
Positive Reinforcement
 Reinforcer should:
    Increase the likelihood of the behavior
    Be individualized

 Types:
    Social: praise, hugs, tickles, high-5
    Material: toy, edible, favorite activity

 When to reinforce
    Improvement, compliance, independence

 When not to reinforce
    Problem behavior, needs excessive help
Other Important Information
 Peer or Adult Model
    If you have one available, use them! It cannot hurt.


 Here, there, everywhere (after they can do skill without help)
    Settings (bathing: all bathrooms in house, grandparents, hotel)
    Materials (bathing: different soap, shampoo bottles, nozzles)
    Persons (bathing: mom, dad, grandparents, siblings, babysitter)


 Retaining the skill
    Known as “daily living” skills
    Must be practiced daily
Putting it All Together


Instruction
Teaching individual steps
      &
Reinforcement
Potty Training
Agenda

How do I know if my child is ready?
Setting a Schedule
Potty Routine
Common Problems and solutions
Generalization
Ready, Set, GO!

Behaviorally Ready?
  Shows Awareness of Dirty Diapers
  Physical Abilities
  Compliance
  Ability to hold urine
Diapers or Underwear?
Clothing
Pre-requisite self help skills
Embedded Self-Help Skills

Dressing and Undressing
Wiping
Handwashing
Teach throughout the routine
Essential Components of Potty Training

Scheduled Sits on Potty
Increased Liquids
Rewards
Time Based Sitting Schedule

Take child to potty based on set time schedule
Determining a schedule
  How often does the child go now?
  Stick to your schedule!
     Chart
     Timer
Schedule’s Set, Now What?

Determine reinforcement
  Candy/Food
     Use small pieces
  Favorite toy
     Only allow access for a brief period of time
  Social praise
  SPECIAL TREATS ONLY FOR POTTY!
Fluids
Follow your schedule
What is the potty routine?
 Prompt child to communicate the need to go to the potty
   Prompt to say word or phrase, prompt to get picture,
      prompt to do sign
 Walk to bathroom
 Undress (separate task analysis)
 Sit on potty (5 minutes or until they void)
 Void on potty
 Wipe
 Get off of the potty
 Dress (separate task analysis)
 Flush potty
Fading the Time Schedule

Increase time between successes
Give the child the opportunity to initiate
Utilize alarms (Wet Stop)
Provide a natural consequence for accidents
Common Problems

Difficulty getting child to sit on potty
  Reinforcement, Reinforcement, Reinforcement!
   Reinforce progress toward sitting on the potty
Play with items in bathroom
  Give instruction for next step
  Stop inappropriate behaviors
  Reinforce appropriate behaviors
Train in Multiple Settings

Start early
Continue to implement schedule
Carry reinforcers
Don’t Fret the Set Backs

Identify possible reasons
Continue to implement strategies
  May need to take a few steps back
Don’t give up!
Recap

Determine readiness
Determine steps needed for the routine
Set your schedule
Choose communication method
Choose your reinforcer
Go for it!
Questions????

								
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