The American Revolution and Georgia Statehood

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					The American Revolution and
     Georgia Statehood
          Unit 4
         Chapter 8
         Mr. Lamm
      The Clash of Britain and
          American Ideas
• Britain planned to pay off its debt from the
  French and Indian War by passing new tax
• The Townshend Act placed taxes on such
  items as glass, lead, paper, and paint that
  came into the colonies.
      The Clash of Britain and
          American Ideas
• The Stamp Act required all printed paper
  used in the colonies to have a tax stamp.
      The Clash of Britain and
          American Ideas
• Americans resented British efforts to
  impose new laws and taxes on the colonies
  – Colonists were being taxed by Parliament not
    by elected representatives
  – Colonists’ rights as British citizens were
  – Colonists could not elect representatives to
      The Clash of Britain and
          American Ideas
• The Boston Massacre takes place in 1770.
The Clash of Britain and American
                 • The incident that led
                   to the Boston Tea
                   Party in 1773 was
                   when Parliament gave
                   one British company
                   exclusive rights
                   (monopoly) to sell tea
                   in America.
       The Clash of Britain and
           American Ideas
• The British responded to the Boston Tea Party by
  passing the “Intolerable Acts.”
• The “Intolerable Acts” closed the Boston port, did
  not allow the people of Massachusetts to have
  their own government, and required all colonist to
  feed and house British soldiers.
• In reaction to colonial protests and violence,
  Parliament passed more laws to punish the
  colonists, Britain sent troops to enforce the laws,
  and colonists had to feed and house British
      The Clash of Britain and
          American Ideas
• Georgia was slow in joining the
  revolutionary cause because:
  – Georgia had grown and prospered under royal
    governor Sir James Wright
  – Many Georgians had become wealthy from
    trade with Great Britain
  – The Georgia colony did not have a long history
    of self-government
      The Clash of Britain and
          American Ideas
• Nancy Hart was known for her loyalty to
  the Whig cause.
• Whigs (patriots) did not support the king.
• Tories (loyalists) and citizens in England
  did support the king.
 The Independence Movement in
• The war for American
  Independence began at
  Lexington and
  Concord, in
 The Independence Movement in
• Georgia’s first legislature was called the
  Provincial Congress.
• When the Whigs took over Georgia’s
  Government, Governor Wright escaped.
• Georgia’s first constitution, a temporary
  one, was called the Rules and Regulations.
The Independence Movement in
• The signers of the Declaration of
  Independence from Georgia were Button
  Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton.
• The Declaration of Independence was
  signed and adopted on July 4, 1776.
Lyman Hall
George Walton
   The Independence Movement in
• Georgia’s state constitution of 1777
  provided for:
  – Eight counties
  – A governor with a one-year term of office
  – Three branches of government
The Independence Movement in
              • John Adam Treutlen
                was Georgia’s first
      War Comes to Georgia
• Austin Dabney was a slave who fought for
  the patriots (Whigs.)
War Comes to Georgia
          • Elijah Clarke was the
            commander at Kettle
          • The Battle of Kettle
            Creek was a moral
            victory for Georgia
       War Comes to Georgia
• Count Casimir Pulaski
  fought for the
  Americans in the
  Siege of Savannah.
       Building a New Nation
• The Articles of Confederation (a formal
  basis for the union) set up a unicameral
  legislature, did not allow Congress to levy
  (impose) taxes, and each state had an equal
  vote in Congress.
Building a New Nation
      Building a New Nation
• William Few and Abraham Baldwin were
  the only delegates from Georgia who signed
  the U. S. Constitution.
• Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the
  constitution of the U. S.
       Building a New Nation
• There are two concepts that are a part of the
  Georgia and U. S. Constitution:
  – Three branches of government
  – Separation of powers
  Checks and Balances are only a part of the U. S.
       Building a New Nation
• The compromise that resulted in the U. S.
  Congress consisting of two houses – the
  House of Representatives and the Senate –
  was called the Great Compromise which
  was prompted by Abraham Baldwin’s vote
  at the Constitutional Convention.
Growth and Prosperity

      Chapter 9
      Mr. Lamm
  Georgia’s Land Area Expands
• Alabama and Mississippi were carved out
  of Georgia’s western territory.
Georgia’s Land Area

• The first U.S. census
  was taken in 1790.
• A census is an official
  count of the
Georgia’s Land Area Expands
Georgia’s Land Area Expands
Georgia’s Land Area Expands

              • Eli Whitney invented
                the cotton gin.
  Georgia’s Land Area Expands
• By 1773, the Creeks and Cherokees gave up
  over 2 million acres of their land in order to
  repay their debt to white traders.
  Georgia’s Land Area Expands
• The first way the Georgia’s government
  distributed land was by the headright
• The headright system was one method used.
  Under this system, the head of a family
  received 200 acres of land plus 50 acres for
  each of his family members.
• Plats were drawn to show maps of the land
  Georgia’s Land Area Expands
• Georgia’s capital moved many times in
  order to stay in the center of the state’s
Georgia’s Land Area Expands
       State Capital Sequence





 Georgia’s Land Area Expands

• The first state-
  chartered university in
  the United States was
  The University of
  Georgia’s Land Area Expands
• The Yazoo Land Fraud occurred when land
  speculators bribed members of the General
  Assembly to sell public land to them for
  low prices.
• Later the law authorizing the Yazoo Land
  sale was repealed (abolished) and burned at
  Georgia’s capital in Louisville.
  Georgia’s Land Area Expands
• The final result of the Yazoo Land Fraud
  was the national government took over the
  Yazoo lands, paid $1,250,000 to Georgia,
  and agreed to remove all Indians from
• After 1802, Georgia’s boundaries were
  pretty much what they are today.
  Georgia’s Land Area Expands
• Land lotteries are going to become the way that
  government distributes land.
• The land lots issued under the headright system
  were larger than those lots issued under the lottery
• A lottery is a drawing for a prize.
• Not everyone who participated in the land lottery
  received land.
• People who won land in the lottery were known as
  fortunate drawers.
  Government Encourages Economic
• 3 factors that encouraged economic growth
  were the invention of the cotton gin, the
  plantation system, and the building of
• The river that linked the backcountry to the
  ocean was the Savannah.
• There were 4 important trade centers built
  along the Fall Line: Milledgeville, Augusta,
  Macon, and Columbus.
  Government Encourages Economic
• Steamboats were very important because they could
  travel up and down rivers.
 Government Encourages Economic
• Georgia needed railroads because:
  – Better and cheaper transportation
  – Goods could be received even in the west
  – Inland cotton delivered to market at profit
• The state became involved in railroad
  building because: 1. it was very expensive
  2. money for construction was limited.
 Government Encourages Economic
• The Georgia Railroad connected Augusta
  and Atlanta.
    Government Encourages Economic
•   Atlanta was not a planned city.
•   The first name of Atlanta was Terminus.
•   Terminus means end.
•   Atlanta was called the “Gate City” because
    it was the main link between the Atlantic
    coast and the Midwest.
Conflict Over Indian Lands

         Chapter 10
         Mr. Lamm
          Conflicting Views
• European settlers who came to America
  were looking for land.
• Indians believed land could be used but
  never owned.
• Many Indian leaders had Indian mothers
  and white fathers.
          Conflicting Views
• Cherokees lived mostly in Georgia.
                The Creeks

• The Creeks were
  sometimes referred to
  as Muscogees.
               The Creeks
• A Creek chief was    Alexander McGillivray was
  known as the mico.   a Creek chief who fought for
                       Creek land.
                The Creeks
• Most of the lands Georgians got from the Creeks
  were acquired through cessions.
• The Lower Creeks supported the United States
  during the War of 1812.
• Even though the Lower Creeks helped during the
  Creek War, Andrew Jackson forced them to give
  up their land in south Georgia.
              The Creeks
• After the Creek War, Creeks could only
  stay in Georgia if they abolished their
  government and nation.
• The whites wanted the Creeks removed for
  their fertile land.
• Creek lands are ceded up to the Oconee
  River and later are ceded up to the
  Ocmulgee River.
               The Creeks

• William McIntosh – the Creek chief who was
  bribed to sign a treaty giving up all Creek lands.
  He is later killed for this.
            The Cherokees
• The Cherokees occupied more land in
  Georgia than in any other state.
• The Cherokee capital was New Echota.
• The Indians that were most influenced by
  the white man were the Cherokees.
The Cherokees

       • Sequoyah (George
         Guess) developed a
         written form of the
         Cherokee language
         also known as a
       • The Cherokees
         became farmers,
         teachers, and lawyers.
                  The Cherokees
• The U.S. government recognized the Cherokee nation.
• Georgia leaders based their decision of not recognizing
  the Cherokee government on the fact that the U.S.
  Constitution prohibited the creation of a nation within a
• The Cherokee Constitution was similar to the U.S.
• The Cherokee newspaper was called the Cherokee
• The Georgia General Assembly declared all Cherokee
  laws null and void.
            The Cherokees
• The U.S. Supreme Court decided in
  Worcester v. Georgia that Georgia laws did
  not apply in the Cherokee nation and the
  missionaries should be freed.
The Cherokees
       • Andrew Jackson was a
         U.S. general and
       • He asked Congress to
         pass an Indian removal
            The Cherokees
• The first gold rush took place in Dahlonega,
  Georgia in 1829.
• Georgia officials objected to U.S. troops
  protecting Cherokee lands from gold miners
  because the federal government was
  interfering in state affairs.
• The finding of gold assured the removal of
  the Cherokees.
             The Cherokees

• John Marshall – the chief justice of the
  Supreme Court during this time.
The Cherokees

       • Major Ridge – the
         Cherokee chief who
         was in favor of Indian
         removal signed the
         Treaty of New Echota.
             The Cherokees
• John Ross – the
  Cherokee chief who
  was not in favor of
  Indian removal.
            The Cherokees
• Most of the Creeks, who were removed
  before the Cherokees, and Cherokees
  moved to Oklahoma.
• The removal of the Cherokees was called
  The Trail of Tears. This name came from
  the suffering experienced by the Cherokees
  in the removal.
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