Evaluation and Testing
• Determine attainment of objectives
• Check teacher effectiveness
• Diagnose student weaknesses/difficulties
• Reveal need for educational guidance
• To stimulate learning
• As a teaching device
Types of Evaluation
• Compares student to a standard
• Compares student to others taking the
Types of Evaluation
• Periodic assessment to identify
inadequacies in skill, knowledge, or attitude
• Identify mastery of competencies
• Final assessment to determine competency
• Central Tendency
• Mean, Median, Mode
• Percentile, Ranking, Standard Deviation
Forms of Evaluation
• Oral Tests
• Observation of students
• Performance Tests
• Written Tests
Test Construction Guidelines
• Give written instructions for each type of
• Use examples where needed.
• Assign a value to questions based on
their difficulty and importance.
• Provide a definite way to answer the
• Avoid negatives in questions.
Types of Test Items
• Multiple choice • Essay
• Recall • Scenario
• True-False • Performance
• Provide 4 choices for each question.
• Vary the answer location--no pattern.
• Avoid giving the answer in a later
• All options should grammatically agree
with the stem.
• There is only one correct answer.
• Should be a direct question.
• Can be answered briefly.
• Provide space for the answer.
True - False
• Make statement definitely true or false.
• Vary the answers (no set pattern)
• Avoid verbatim quotations from texts.
• Avoid specific determiners:
all none always never etc.
• Avoid opinionated and trivial questions.
Used to test the step by step sequence
of an operation.
• List all steps in a mixed order.
• Use a short blank line preceding each
• Instruct student to number the proper
sequence in the blank space.
• Avoid verbatim quotes from texts.
• Too many blanks looses the meaning of
• Blank out words, not phrases.
• Blanks should all be the same length.
• Scoring key should allow for all correct
• Suggested content:
names against achievements
terms against definitions
labels against charts or diagrams
• Items should be more than 5 and less
• The selection list should be longer than
the question list.
• The selection list should be in an order.
• Items should be homogeneous.
• Avoid grammatical clues.
• Each individual has an identical drawing
and answer sheet.
• Numbered articles are passed from
student to student.
• Articles are numbered and stationary
with students passing by each article.
• Determine necessary performance
elements--accuracy, speed, tool usage, etc.
• Assign points for each element.
• Observe and rate student during
• Rate student upon completion of the job.
• May be used with a variety of formats.
• Good way to test upper level thinking
• Good to test upper level thinking skills.
• Provide space to answer each question.
• Instructor key should list basic elements
of the correct answer.
• Points are assigned to each element.
• Grade tests anonymously and one
question at a time.
Should grades be based on:
• Knowledge of the occupation
• Ability to recognize and solve problems
• Job assignments
• Other students / authority
• Procedure / tool usage
• Skills / Theory
• progress charts
• competency profile folders
• readiness records
Which is more important?
• skill performance vs theory test
• weekly test vs unit test
• daily work vs major project
A Outstanding--future business
owner, contractor, manager
B Above Average--future middle
C Average--skilled worker,
D Needs Improvement--employable,
F Unsatisfactory--unemployable in
the skilled occupation