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					Evaluation and Testing
                 Why Test?

•   Determine attainment of objectives
•   Check teacher effectiveness
•   Diagnose student weaknesses/difficulties
•   Reveal need for educational guidance
•   To stimulate learning
•   As a teaching device
             Types of Evaluation

•   Criterion-referenced
    •   Compares student to a standard
•   Norm-referenced
    •   Compares student to others taking the
        same test
              Types of Evaluation

•   Formative
    •   Periodic assessment to identify
        inadequacies in skill, knowledge, or attitude
    •   Identify mastery of competencies
•   Summative
    •   Final assessment to determine competency
        level
                      Statistics

•   Central Tendency
    •   Mean, Median, Mode
•   Dispersion
    •   Percentile, Ranking, Standard Deviation
          Forms of Evaluation

•   Oral Tests
•   Observation of students
•   Performance Tests
•   Written Tests
               Good Tests

•   Objective
•   Valid
•   Reliable
•   Non-biased
•   Comprehensive
•   Convenient
Test Construction Guidelines
                General Rules
•   Give written instructions for each type of
    question.
•   Use examples where needed.
•   Assign a value to questions based on
    their difficulty and importance.
•   Provide a definite way to answer the
    question.
•   Avoid negatives in questions.
            Types of Test Items

       Objective           Subjective
•   Multiple choice   •   Essay
•   Recall            •   Scenario
•   True-False        •   Performance
•   Completion
•   Identification
•   Matching
•   Rearrangement
              Multiple Choice

•   Provide 4 choices for each question.
•   Vary the answer location--no pattern.
•   Avoid giving the answer in a later
    question.
•   All options should grammatically agree
    with the stem.
•   There is only one correct answer.
                    Recall

•   Should be a direct question.
•   Can be answered briefly.
•   Provide space for the answer.
                 True - False

•   Make statement definitely true or false.
•   Vary the answers (no set pattern)
•   Avoid verbatim quotations from texts.
•   Avoid specific determiners:
    all   none    always    never   etc.
•   Avoid opinionated and trivial questions.
              Rearrangement

    Used to test the step by step sequence
    of an operation.
•   List all steps in a mixed order.
•   Use a short blank line preceding each
    statement.
•   Instruct student to number the proper
    sequence in the blank space.
                 Completion

•   Avoid verbatim quotes from texts.
•   Too many blanks looses the meaning of
    the question.
•   Blank out words, not phrases.
•   Blanks should all be the same length.
•   Scoring key should allow for all correct
    answers.
                  Matching

•   Suggested content:
      names against achievements
      terms against definitions
      labels against charts or diagrams
                   Matching

•   Items should be more than 5 and less
    than 15.
•   The selection list should be longer than
    the question list.
•   The selection list should be in an order.
•   Items should be homogeneous.
•   Avoid grammatical clues.
              Identification

Methods:
• Each individual has an identical drawing
  and answer sheet.
• Numbered articles are passed from
  student to student.
• Articles are numbered and stationary
  with students passing by each article.
                 Performance

•   Determine necessary performance
    elements--accuracy, speed, tool usage, etc.
•   Assign points for each element.
•   Observe and rate student during
    performance.
                 OR
•   Rate student upon completion of the job.
                   Scenario

•   May be used with a variety of formats.
•   Good way to test upper level thinking
    skills.
                      Essay

•   Good to test upper level thinking skills.
•   Provide space to answer each question.
•   Instructor key should list basic elements
    of the correct answer.
•   Points are assigned to each element.
•   Grade tests anonymously and one
    question at a time.
Grading
            Grading Intervals

•   Daily
•   Weekly
•   Unit
•   Job
•   Term
•   Project
•   Combination
     Should grades be based on:

•   Skill
•   Theory
•   Attitude
                     Skill

•   Accuracy
•   Speed
•   Responsibility
•   Improvement
                    Theory

•   Knowledge of the occupation
•   Ability to recognize and solve problems
                    Attitude

•   Job assignments
•   Other students / authority
•   Safety
•   Responsibility
•   Procedure / tool usage
•   Work
•   Attendance
         Competency Documentation
•   Skills / Theory
    •   progress charts
    •   competency profile folders
    •   readiness records
    •   portfolio
•   Attitudes
    •   recommendation
Which is more important?

          Skills
         Theory
         Attitude
          Weighted evaluations

•   skill performance vs theory test
•   weekly test vs unit test
•   daily work vs major project
                Grades

A   Outstanding--future business
    owner, contractor, manager
B   Above Average--future middle
    management
C   Average--skilled worker,
    journeyman
                Grades

D   Needs Improvement--employable,
    journeyman helper
F   Unsatisfactory--unemployable in
    the skilled occupation

				
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posted:9/26/2012
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