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content: Abstract….………………………………………………………………………… 2 Badkground……………………………………………………………………….. 2 Earth ellipsoid.……………………………………………………………………. 3 The vortex…………………………………………………………………………. 4 The vortex Earth………………………………………………………………….. 5 Panamá……………………………………………………………………………. 6 Oceanogenic Power……………………………………………………………….. 7 The energy does not is created, is transformed...……………………………….. 9 Economic considerations…………………………………………………………12 Marketing…………………………………………………………………………14 1 OCEANOGENIC POWER PANAMA ALSO MEANS ABUNDANCE OF CLEAN ENERGY By Osmand Charpentier EETM Eng. Abstract: We all know that when we rotate a container with liquid is produced the physical phenomenon called vortex, so we have to agree that this is part of the dynamics of oceans on earth. These covering 70% of Earth's surface, rotate the 40.000 kilometers of the equator in 24 hours. Panamá is immersed between the two largest oceans on the planet within 9 degrees north where the absolute speed is greater than 450m/s. An "open sky spillway" of 70 kilometers between them, in one of the two times daily that reach their remarkable difference in tides, would permit to form by simple gravity a flow of seawater that would include a hydraulic pressure gradient against a dam parallel to the rotation of the Earth. Our calculations indicate that it can generate all the clean energy (oceanogenic power) that requires modern civilization; in such small stages that can be served simultaneously base loads, transient and peak loads of each and of all markets. Background: Since 1997 when the Cold War finished, we have access to the database compiled from numerous and simultaneous altimetry measurements1. This database currently continues to grow, both in content and in satellite missions, even with new parameters that in turn generates new analysis. These data are the best measure in the history that defines the ellipsoid that coincides with the earth: Or in a plane, using polar coordinates: a (equatorial radius of the earth)2 = 6,378,136.6 meters b (polar radius of the earth) 2 = 6,356,751.9 meters θ latitude r radius in the given latitude With that we calculate the difference in radius between both axes: 21384.7 meters and expression of r: Because the ocean surface is liquid, this one must coincide almost perfectly with this geometric figure. Any discrepancies are mainly due to gravitational forces outside our planet and were not included in our calculations because they are much smaller compared to Earth's own gravity and its centrifugal force. Altimetry justify us in this. 1 http://earth.esa.int/brat/html/data/product_list_en.html 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Geodetic_System 2 We also consider the widely recognized theory that beneath the crust on which rests the ocean is the Earth's mantle, which has a higher viscosity but ultimately it must comply with the laws of hydraulics and since it is virtually the mass of planet, we can simplify what is lacking to the object of analysis. From the energy point of view we can calculate: Which evaluated with: (water density) (tangential velocity of the earth rotation in Panama) (minimum relative velocity of the water body) We obtain:456.5 Kw/m3 (variation of kinetic energy in reducing by one meter per second to one cubic meter of the ocean in Panama, or the power to cause that speed change to that volume.) Earth ellipsoid: Considering an homogeneous mass, incompressible, of any viscosity and of the size of our planet, spinning, similarly, alone in space. Gravity and centrifugal force are balanced by the hydrostatic force when the fluid surface adopts a slope that generates the necessary tangential force and a vertical (normal) that it is the hydrostatic. So knowing the non-hydrostatic forces, we can determine the equation of the form that the fluid surface acquires, in accordance to some accepted simplifications: G universal gravitational constant M mass of Earth angular velocity with which the Earth spins unit vectors By symmetry we reduce the three-dimensional analysis to any of the planes including the axis of rotation. We also consider the force of gravity directed toward a central point. In a second approach would have to consider the displacement of masses, which would alter the direction of gravity. But also in this case the surface would accommodate to form a curve of constant hydrostatic pressure which ultimately will allow us to demonstrate our conclusions. From Equation 5 and the slope of a geometric figure: 3 Which shows this: Whereas in the pole of this geometric figure r = b: V is the velocity of rotation at any latitude and h is the difference with the radio at the pole. And if we add in Ecuador r = a: The last part of 7 is a more accurate conclusion that infer that equation 8 is almost a perfect ellipsoid, like expressed in 2. Because much of the earth is magma, we conclude, from our theoretical approach, which hydraulic force produces such form because of its ceaseless rotation, which explains why the theoretical gravity equation3 includes the centrifugal force as 5, that corresponds to an ellipsoid. The vortex: Each particle of fluid in a rotating container is subjected to a centrifugal force balanced by hydrostatic pressure, which is caused by the weight of the liquid perpendicular to the turning radius. A gradient of the height of the liquid produces the pressure differential which balances the centrifugal force on the differential of mass of the liquid in the differential volume formed by the differential of the radius of rotation and the differential of the surface that is the same where it exerted the hydrostatic pressure: h surface height of the liquid in the container g gravity r radius from the axis of vortex ω angular velocity Hence it: Where V is the tangential velocity and ho is the height of the liquid in the axis. 3 http://geophysics.ou.edu/solid_earth/notes/potential/igf.htm 4 Now consider the case of a solid sphere with Earth's gravity. This is the case expressed by the Equation 5 but with r = R (constant) + h. We get the same result. Therefore, no matter the form of submerged solid surface, from one plane to a sphere, within any fluid subjected to vortex, the depth gradient with respect to any isobaric surface is the same. Then by its liquid condition, the oceans must demonstrate the depth variation expressed in 7 or 10. The vortex Earth: Mathematically in the previous section we conclude that the ellipsoidal surface of the oceans is preserved although the submerged crust be irregular, which coinciding with the simple observation of our seas, demonstrates our coherence to achieve the practical purposes of our premise. Also infer that: the difference in depth is V2/2g; the surface of the oceans will outline the Geoid of the Earth and that as the Earth's crust isolates the mantle, which also complies with the analysis made, the total difference of the radii on our planet from the pole is: One half of the mantle and the other of oceans. The zero is the result of subtracting two constants likewise corresponding. If we substitute the respective measured values of the equatorial and polar radii of the earth we shall see that this equation predicts the difference of the same and the whole demonstration predicts that while the poles are frozen, the maximum depth of the oceans in any latitude is half of the calculated with this formula. Have also been measured how much and where the points of greatest depth4,5,6 in the oceans. Panamá: Panamá is within 9 degrees north. For these reasons, the derivative of the ocean component of the formula 11 predicts that a variation of the absolute velocity of the Earth on any seawater body it would produce a water head; wave or hydraulic pressure gradient at right angles to water movement and beginning from any point with zero relative speed, which will determine the respective boundary and/or depth reference. 4 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/383165/Milwaukee-Depth 5 http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2004/CuiMiuChin.shtml 6 http://www.eoearth.org/article/Ocean 5 In the case of Panama, considering the properties of vectors and that water is a Newtonian fluid, we get: Where is the radius of curvature, and are unit vectors and is distance, parallel to the meridians from the point = 0 and towards the equator. In an open sky channel is the perpendicular distance to closest wall. The effect is similar to the Coriolis7 acceleration phenomenon in higher latitudes and the tsunamis present it at its source. Be required to produce it artificially, and worse permanent, hydraulic pumps that do not exist, or atomic bombs. 7 http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/currents/05currents3.html 6 However in Panama, the Pacific and Atlantic are 37.5 miles apart and have tides with differences of 2 to 4 meters twice a day every day. The Atlantic, virtually, doesn't have tides, while the Pacific raises twice what was said in the entire Gulf of Panama, which measures about 40,000 square kilometers. Hydraulic and statically means an average of 800 terawatts. The whole world needs 17 terawatts for all kinds of energy. 8 Spilling the Pacific in the Atlantic with an “open sky spillway” and with suitable structures during a high tide and by simple gravity, it's feasible to form a controlled flow and generate the pressure gradient needed to produce the renewable clean energy we need, with the profitability, the reliability and scalability we need. Like any barley hydraulic pump, the low tide does not will stop the operation. Oceanogenic Power: At the mouth of the Bayano river in Panama, almost by one of the routes studied for the Panama Canal in the two previous centuries, we have one of the 60 kilometers between the Pacific and the Atlantic for the first oceanogenic power plant: 8 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_energy_resources_and_consumption 7 The 40 kilometers marked are one of several possible dams and dikes to make a field of 500 to 10.000 hydraulic turbines of low power. This solves the control of demand, even at peak times, a feature ever desired in any hydropower but dismissed as impossible as can not be vary the water head defined exclusively by the the flow rate and the bed of their respective rivers. This also applies to the few tidal plants profitable. In our case, Oceanogenic Power, the three parameters are design variables. Its values shall be determined by the base load, transient and peak loads required by the partner countries or by the selected energy markets. It is definitely a new paradigm. In Darien by another of the routes planned for the Panama Canal there is another possibility that reveals how to further improve the project profitability: The available power will be: Q = flow rate of the spillway in m3/second = specific weight of water10,000 Newton / m3 The turbines will be installed at different heights and might be of different sizes. 8 The energy does not is created, is transformed: The above phenomenon is the result of three well-known hydraulic topics: Hydraulic jump, the vortex and the hydraulic pump. The Oceanogenic Energy is obtained from the tides and the rotation of the earth, the latter most likely produced by the collision of particles and energy from the sun: with the gravities of the Moon and the Earth we change the speed of seawater breaking the balance of our "cosmic vortex" that creates a hydraulic jump perpendicular to the motion, which then pours into the emptiness formed in the same direction. Then the whole planet retrieves the energy of water, a small part of 800 Tw, which allows to keep and control the flow following the initial priming. It’s a true chain reaction but this one is cold. Because the water is poured in the Atlantic, it cannot return to the Pacific until at least go to Cape Horn and driven by the planet recover its initial status in the Gulf of Panama. In the following pages are summarized in maps of the Isthmus of Panama and its seas, the result of the altimeter measurements and, their recognized analysis. Besides showing the huge bulge of power, give us the evidence that in the oceans already occurring "the cosmic prodigy" described as which finally makes its exploitation feasible. 9 Here, currents up to 25 centimeters per second. Is the cause of the change of mean sea surface level that shown on the map of the next page. These have been prepared by AVISO (Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic); DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite); NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration); NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), DEOS (Delft Institute for Earth-Oriented Space research); ESA (European Space Agency) among others, and confirms the formulas derived earlier this document. 10 In dark green it seen the silhouette of the Isthmus of Panama, and the scale shows differences in mean sea level from 10 to 15 meters which corresponds exactly to replace in the formula 12 speeds around 25 centimeters per second as says the map on previous page.. 11 Economic considerations: We have done a picture of alternatives and their estimated costs, fully scalable and proportional to the newly opened Three Gorges hydropower of 22.5 GW9, 417 million monthly charge at a rate of 5 ¢ / kWh and a cost of 40 billion including the 15 billion of environmental damage10. Although it is useful to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, we have chosen exclude this last fact in our calculations. gross Width of Depth of Input Installed hydroelectric Cost monthly spillway spillway speed Capacity 9 income (mts) (mts) (m/s) (Gw) ( 10 $ ) Dam Length 9 (mts) ( 10 $) 1 300 30 45.7 1 4 446 14 0.144 2 300 40 45.7 1 5.4 574 16 0.194 3 300 40 45.7 1 5.5 570 33 0.197 4 2000 40 45.7 1 36.4 2065 98 1.3 5 2000 40 45.7 1 36.5 2065 175 1.3 6 2000 40 228.5 5 914 3624 310 33 7 8000 40 500 10 16,000 14,000 1,500 577 These estimates do not include transit of ships; or deep water ports in the Pacific; or the social and tourist appeal of the offshore long vehicular corridor; nor the economic advantages of an extense coastline with artificial beaches, tideless and surf on demand. The first two rows are smaller projects with earth spillway and reinforced soil where needed. 3 is an estimate equal to 2, except that it includes a spillway made entirely of concrete. The row of red, or 4, it is important for California, USA. Allow supply of the equivalent of 15 nuclear plants they need, but prohibited by environmental requirements of their people. And in this case the spillway is again only of land. From option 5 are required concrete spillways to control erosion caused by water velocity, only way to go to the next levels of energy generation. Row 6 is more that all the electricity currently used by the Americas. The last corresponds to the entire world today, that although the water head of 500 meters and the concrete spillway of 8 km wide and 40 meters deep represent two big challenges is already possible to define scalability using the same barrier for water and the same route to enlarge or build additional spillways in parallel. The absolute costs seem high, even compared to the Three Gorges. But not, doing some comparative calculations we realize two valuable and unique features of Oceanogenic Power suggested by us: the ability to produce and market all the installed capacity (first plant factor 100% of history) and scalability. On the one hand with its plant factor 51% , the plant Three Gorges would charge $417 million monthly to 5 cents per kwh and 22.5 GW installed; while on the other, at the same price, our paradigm in the first case would charge $144 million monthly and 4 GW installed. In China we are talking about 1,111.11 $ invested per installed kilowatt ($i/ikw) and annually 4,448 kwhour per installed kilowatt (kwh/ikw) and cannot grow; while in Panama would be 3.500 $i/ikw and 8.760 kwh/ikw in the project 1; with today's technology it could escalate to the red row, to 2,692.31 $i/ikw and 8.760 kwh/ikw and in the future to 339.17 or 93.75 $i/ikw always at 8.760 kwh/ikw. Until the third row the financial balance is achieved with 5 cents per kilowatt-hour; while the rest to 1 cent per kilowatt-hour. 9 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Gorges_Dam 10 http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSPEK84588 12 PROJECT $ invested/instaled Kw ($i/ikw) Kwhour/instaled kw (kwh/ikw) China 1,111.11 4,448 Panamá 1 3,500.00 8,760 Panamá 4 2,692.31 8,760 Panamá 6 339.17 8,760 If one includes all clean and efficient projects that already exist in America and the world, here is a real solution to energy problems that are causing the current world economic crisis. In any case, but according to other calculations would be more profitable in Darien, the spillway can simply be renamed navigation canal. It wouldn't be a rival to the current Panama Canal, even expanded, as in this case the vessels would be greater than the post-panamax. That is, the world's biggest ships today and tomorrow, that cannot pass through the current nor future Panama Canal. The implied yield of this activity (only the new route that would open to transport crude to China would pay) allows us to remove (or sharing) from equation of project costs, the exaggerated 7 to 70 billion (24 to 147 of concrete) for the construction of the respective spillways of 70 kilometers between the oceans that we need to harness the oceanogenic power. This would improve all of the financial ratios with respect to any current and future hydropower. The final table would be: PROJECT $ invested/instaled Kw ($i/ikw) Kwhour/instaled kw (kwh/ikw) China 1,111.11 4,448 Panamá 1 1,750.00 8,760 Panamá 4 769.23 8,760 Panamá 6 178.33 8,760 13 Marketing: Besides converting to Panama and its neighbors in industrial and commercial clusters, the availability of "lot of clean energy", will make finally practical, all kinds of refining: seawater to produce potable water, hydrogen, oxygen and deuterium ; remains of cheap petroleum to produce plastics and other similar products recyclable; and biomass for fuel we need, but this time, renewable. So, allow a peaceful transition towards a new global infrastructure more environmentally friendly. The new lines UHVDC11 can carry the 35 Gigawatts that needs California12, USA. And what their developers visualized, its suggested global network, shown at right (yellow); is feasible in less time than is needed for this project if we add the advances in superconducting, coaxial lines, and electronics. Of course, the obstacle is that until this discovery, we planned only to distribute, from temperate zones, energy produced by the powerful and dangerous infrastructure based on nuclear fission. 11 http://bravenewclimate.com/2009/03 /03/could-uhvdc-be-a-killer-app-for- solving-climate-change/ 12 http://www.caiso.com/Pages/Todays Outlook.aspx 14

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posted: | 9/26/2012 |

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