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Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country in Southern Europe

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									                 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered
by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast,
Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for 26 kilometres (16 miles) of Adriatic
Sea coastline, centered on the town of Neum. The interior of the country is mountainous
centrally and to the south, hilly in the northwest, and flatland in the northeast. Inland is the
larger geographic region with a moderate continental climate, marked by hot summers and
cold, snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plane
topography.

The country is home to three ethnic groups, or so-called "constituent people", a term unique
for Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosniaks are the largest population group of the three, with Serbs in
second and Croats in third. Regardless of ethnicity, a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina is
often identified in English as either Bosnian or Herzegovinian. The terms Herzegovinian and
Bosnian are maintained as a regional rather than ethnic distinction and Herzegovina has no
precisely defined borders of its own.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a parliamentary republic, which has a bicameral legislature and a
three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the
central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and
comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika
Srpska, with a third region, the Brčko District, governed under local government.

Formerly one of the six federal units constituting the Socialist Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina gained its independence during the Yugoslav Wars of
the 1990s. Bosnia and Herzegovina can be described as a parliamentary democracy that is
transforming its economy into a market-oriented system, and it is a potential candidate for
membership in the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since
April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan at the summit in Tallinn.
Additionally, the nation has been a member of the Council of Europe since 24 April 2002 and
a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment on 13 July 2008.

Bosnia has been inhabited since at least the Neolithic age. The earliest Neolithic population
became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians.

Modern knowledge of the political situation in the west Balkans during the Early Middle
Ages is unclear. Upon their arrival, the Slavs brought with them a tribal social structure which
probably fell apart and gave way to Feudalism only with Frankish penetration into the region
in the late 9th century. It was also around this time that the Illyrians were Christianized.

The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia marked a new era in the country's history and introduced
drastic changes in the political and cultural landscape of the region

The Bosnian Christian communities also experienced major changes. The Bosnian
Franciscans (and the Catholic population as a whole) were to some minor extent protected by
official imperial decree.
At the Congress of Berlin in 1878, the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Gyula Andrássy
obtained the occupation and administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and he also obtained
the right to station garrisons in the Sanjak of Novi Pazar, which remained under Ottoman
administration.

Following the war, Bosnia and Herzegovina joined the South Slav kingdom of Serbs, Croats
and Slovenes (soon re Once the kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in
World War II, all of Bosnia was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia. The Croat leaders
embarked on a campaign of extermination of Serbs, Jews, Roma, communist and large
numbers of Josip Broz Tito's Partisans by setting up a number of death camps named
Yugoslavia). Because of its central geographic position within the Yugoslavian federation,
post-war Bosnia was strategically selected as a base for the development of the military
defense industry.

The distribution of the three main ethnic groups in 1991 prior to the Bosnian War.
Bosniaks
Croats
 Serbs
The 1990 parliamentary elections led to a national assembly dominated by three ethnically
based parties, which had formed a loose coalition to oust the communists from powerry.

The major cities are the capital Sarajevo, Banja Luka in the northwest region known as
Bosanska Krajina, Bijeljina and Tuzla in the northeast, Zenica and Doboj in the central part of
Bosnia and Mostar, the capital of Herzegovina.

    Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH),
       Republika Srpska (RS), and Brčko District (BD).
    Bosnia and Herzegovina has several levels of political structuring, according to the
       Dayton accord. Most important of these levels is the division of the country into two
       entities: Republika Srps Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of Federation of Bosnia and
       Herzegovina (FBiH), Republika Srpska (RS), and Brčko District (BD).
Bosnia and Herzegovina has several levels of political structuring, according to the Dayton
accord. Most important of these levels is the division of the country into two entities:
Republika Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovinaka and the Federation of
Bosnia and Herzegovina

More recently Sarajevo was nominated one of Top 10 cities to visit in 2010 in the 2010
edition of Lonely Planet's BEST IN TRAVEL.[68]

Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes. Many of them were famous in the
Yugoslav national teams before Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence

Bosnia and Herzegovina has produced many athletes. Many of them were famous in the
Yugoslav national teams before Bosnia and Herzegovina's independence.

Some local specialties are ćevapi, burek, dolma, sarma, pilaf, goulash, ajvar and a whole
range of Eastern sweets
Leisure activities

Coffeehouses, where Bosnian coffee is served in džezva with rahat lokum and sugar cubes,
proliferate Sarajevo and every city in the country. Coffee drinking is a favorite Bosnian
pastime and part of the culture. Bosnians are believed to be the heaviest coffee drinkers in the
world.[72]

								
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