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					Chest radiology
  flashcard
    medsns.com
Patients with Sjogren syndrome are at increased risk
     for developing what diffuse lung diseases
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP). Non-
      Hodgkin pulmonary lymphoma.
Ankylosing spondylitis lung involvement
   Young to middle-aged man with spine changes
(kyphosis, spinal ankylosis). Increased lung volumes.
     Upper lobe fibrobullous disease. Simulates
 postprimary fibrocavitary Tb or mycetoma formation.
These histologic terms provide the most precise
 method of classifying the idiopathic interstitial
                  pneumonias
  UIP. Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP). COP.
Respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung
  disease (RB-ILD). DIP. Nonspecific interstitial
               pneumonia (NSIP).
Usual Interstitial Pneumonia
Most common of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.
  Most cases are sporadic. 30% of cases associated
   with collagen vascular or immunologic disorder.
  Findings: Irregular septal or subpleural thickening.
      Intralobular lines. Honeycombing. Traction
bronchiectasis. Typically most severe in peripheral and
                       basal lungs.
Acute Interstitial Pneumonia
Diffuse ground-glass opacity and consolidation with air
bronchograms. Linear opacities, honeycombing, and
        traction bronchiectasis are uncommon.
Conditions associated with BOOP, organizing
                pneumonia.
 Viral infection (influenza, adenovirus, measles). Toxic
  fume inhalation (sulfur dioxide, chlorine). Collagen
vascular disease (rheumatoid arthritis and SLE). Organ
 transplantation (bone marrow, lung, and heart-lung).
           Drug reactions. Chronic aspiration.
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia
   Idiopathic form of organizing pneumonia. Most
common finding: Patchy consolidation or ground-glass
 opacity with subpleural or peribronchial distribution.
     Scattered nodular opacities may be present.
Respiratory Bronchiolitis-Associated Interstitial Lung
                      Disease
  Typically young, heavy smokers. Scattered ground-
glass opacities. Small centrilobular nodules with upper
                  lobe predominance.
Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia
95% are cigarette smokers. Cannot be radiologically
distinguished from UIP. Bibasilar reticular opacities.
Normal or midly decreased lung volumes. May have
   ground-glass opacities. Honeycombing is rare.
Neurofibromatosis ILD
Generally asymmetric upper lung bullae. Generally
    symmetric lower lung interstitial fibrosis.
Tuberous Sclerosis (TS) ILD
  Indistinguishable from LAM. Symmetric bilateral
reticular or reticulonodular opacities. Scattered lung
      cysts. Normal to increased lung volumes.
              Pneumothorax is common
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
   Exclusively in women. Lung cysts separated by
interlacing bundles of smooth muscle. May obstruct
  lymphatics causing chylothorax. Poor prognosis.
Alveolar Septal Amyloidosis
Simulates silicosis or lung sarcoidosis. Upper lung
             reticulonodular opacities.
Chronic Aspiration Pneumonia
Irregular reticular interstitial opacities.
3 major pneumoconioses
Asbestosis. Silicosis. CWP.
Asbestosis
    Pleura: Parietal pleural plaques. Pleural effusion.
    Localized visceral pleural fibrosis. Diffuse pleural
fibrosis. Mesothelioma. Lung parenchyma: Interlobular
   septal thickening. Interstitial fibrosis (asbestosis).
Rounded atelectasis. Bronchogenic carcinoma. Lower
                   lung predominance.
Silicosis
 Mining, ceramic work, and sandblasting. Upper lobe
and parahilar nodules. Nodule calcification may occur.
      Egg shell calcification of hilar lymph nodes.
Silicoproteinosis like alveolar proteinosis has increased
                    susceptibility to TB.
Coal Worker's Pneumoconiosis
Predominantly upper lung reticulonodular or small
               nodular opacities.
Rare Pneumoconioses
Berylliosis. Aluminum. Hard metal (cobalt, tungsten).
Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
 Inhaled antigenic organic dusts: Farmer's lung (moldy
   hay). Humidifier lung (thermophilic bacteria). Bird-
fancier's lung (avian proteins). Acute and chronic forms.
 Chronic disease findings: Interlobular and intralobular
     interstitial thickening. Honeycombing, Traction
    bronchiectasis. May spare costophrenic angles.
Lung Sarcoidosis staging
0 Normal chest radiograph. 1 Bilateral hilar lymph node
enlargement. 2 Bilateral hilar lymph node enlargement
and parenchymal disease 3. Parenchymal disease only.
                4 Pulmonary fibrosis.
Sarcoidosis ILD
Common findings: Symmetric hilar adenopathy allows
 distinction from malignancy and TB. Symmetric mid
       and upper lung reticulonodular opacities.
    Perilymphatic interstitial nodules, 3 to 10 mm.
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of Lung
Very high association with cigarette smoking. Mid and
 upper lung centrilobular small nodules. In late stages
 may develop cysts or bullae. Risk of pneumothorax.
 Nodule-cyst evolution: Nodule to Cavitated nodule to
         Thick-walled cyst to Thin-walled cyst.
Wegener Granulomatosis
 Necrotizing granulomatous vasculitis involving upper
   and lower respiratory tracts and kidneys. Discrete
nodules or masses with central necrosis and cavitation.
  May mimic Goodpasture syndrome and idiopathic
 pulmonary hemorrhage. Tracheal or bronchial lesions
          may be present. c-ANCA positive.
Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia
Symptoms and radiographic abnormalities last longer
 than 1 month. Predilection for women. Responds to
 corticosteroid therapy, improving within 4 to 7 days.
    Peripheral, homogeneous, ill-defined areas of
    consolidation that may parallel the chest wall
Hypereosinophilic syndrome
Male predominance. Blood eosinophilia. Cardiomegaly.
   Pulmonary edema. Pleural effusions. Pulmonary
parenchymal infiltration with eosinophils may produce
          interstitial or airspace opacities.
Eosinophilic Lung Disease Associated With
          Autoimmune Diseases
  Wegener granulomatosis. Sarcoidosis. Rheumatoid
lung disease. Polyarteritis nodosa. Allergic angiitis and
                   granulomatosis.
Eosinophilic Lung Disease of Identifiable Etiology
 Drugs (Nitrofurantoin and Penicillins). Parasites
(Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercoralis).
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
 Lipoproteinaceous material deposits within alveoli.
  Predilection for males in their 20s to 40s. Bilateral
  symmetric perihilar airspace opacification. Crazy
paving CT finding: Geographic ground-glass opacities
  with thickened interlobular and intralobular septa.
 Prone to superinfection with Nocardia, Aspergillus,
      Cryptococcus, and atypical mycobacteria.
Alveolar microlithiasis
 Deposition of minute calculi within alveolar spaces.
Confluent bilateral dense micronodular opacities. So-
 called black pleura sign. Apical bullous disease is
                      common.
Diffuse pulmonary ossification
  Formation of bone within lung parenchyma.
Associations: Mitral stenosis. UIP. Amyloidosis.
Tracheocele
 Paratracheal air cysts. True diverticula. Occur at
weakened posterior membrane of cervical trachea.
Tracheal bronchus
Bronchus suis. Accessory bronchus to all or a portion
 of right upper lobe. Arises from right lateral tracheal
 wall within 2 cm of tracheal carina. Associated with
     congenital tracheal stenosis and aberrant left
                   pulmonary artery.
Primary neoplasms of trachea
Malignant: Squamous cell carcinoma. Adenoid cystic
          carcinoma (cylindroma). Benign:
      Chondroma.?Fibroma.?Squamous cell
             papilloma.?Hemangioma.
Tracheal Narrowing
       Saber-sheath trachea. Amyloidosis.
   Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica.
Relapsing polychondritis. Wegener granulomatosis.
               Tracheal scleroma.
Tracheal dilation
Tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn syndrome).
  Tracheomalacia. Interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.
Saber-sheath trachea
 Coronal diameter is less than two thirds of sagittal
diameter. Affects older men with chronic obstructive
            pulmonary disease (COPD).
Tracheobronchopathia osteochondroplastica
  Multiple submucosal osseous and cartilaginous
deposits within trachea and central bronchi of elderly
men. Spares membranous posterior wall of trachea.
Relapsing polychondritis
Systemic autoimmune disorder. Affects cartilage of
earlobes, nose, larynx, tracheobronchial tree, joints,
    and large elastic arteries. Diffuse smooth wall
thickening of the wall of trachea and central bronchi
               with luminal narrowing.
Tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn syndrome)
Congenital. Associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
  Men under age 50. Trachea and central bronchi
     measure greater than 3.0 cm and 2.5 cm.
Tracheobronchomalacia
  Diffuse tracheal and central bronchial dilation.
Congenital or acquired (COPD, Chronic bronchitis,
    Cystic fibrosis, Relapsing polychondritis).
Fallen lung sign
 Subtended lung remains collapsed against lateral
chest wall. Secondary to bronchial injury. Responds
          poorly to chest tube evacuation.
Broncholithiasis
   Calcified material within bronchus. Usually from
eroding calcified lymph nodes (Histoplasmosis or TB).
Asthma
Transient bronchial narrowing. Peribronchial cuffing
  and tram tracking. Air trapping: Hyperinflation,
Flattening or inversion of diaphragm, Attenuation of
 peripheral vascular markings. Prominence of the
        retrosternal airspace. Complications:
 Pneumomediastinum. Pneumothorax, Subpleural
         blebs from expiratory air dissection.
Chronic bronchitis
Excess production of sputum on most days for at least
 3 months in 2 consecutive years. 50% have normal
chest radiographs. Some patients show peribronchial
               cuffing or tram tracks.
Bronchiectasis
Permanent dilation of bronchi. Cylindric bronchiectasis:
  mild diffuse dilation. Varicose bronchiectasis: cystic
dilation interrupted by focal areas of narrowing. Cystic
 bronchiectasis: localized saccular dilation. Caused by
    chronic inflammation with cartilage damage and
dilation. Localized bronchiectasis is most commonly a
 result of prior TB. Generalized bronchiectasis is seen
   in cystic fibrosis. Central bronchiectasis: Allergic
    bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Cystic fibrosis.
      Bronchial atresia. Acquired central bronchial
                        obstruction.
Cystic fibrosis
Production of abnormally thick, tenacious mucus.
Recurrent infection commonly with Pseudomonas
 aeruginosa or Staphylococcus aureus. Severe
bronchiectasis. Hyperinflation with predominantly
 upper lobe bronchiectasis and mucus plugging.
Dysmotile cilia syndrome
 May result in Rhinitis. Sinusitis. Bronchiectasis.
Dysmotile spermatozoa and sterility. Situs inversus.
                  Dextrocardia.
Kartagener syndrome triad
Sinusitis. Situs inversus.. Bronchiectasis.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Hypersensitivity reaction to Aspergillus. Asthma, blood
eosinophilia, bronchiectasis with mucus plugging, and
circulating antibodies to Aspergillus antigen. Proximal
   upper lobe bronchiectasis with mucoid impaction.
             Finger in glove appearance.
Emphysema
Permanent enlargement of airspaces distal to terminal
  bronchiole. Destruction of alveolar walls without
                 obvious fibrosis.
Centrilobular emphysema
Airspace distention in central portion of lobule. Spares
distal portions of the lobule. Upper lobe predominance.
            Associated with cigarette smoking.
Panlobular emphysema
Distention of airspaces throughout lobule. Destruction
   of central respiratory bronchioles and peripheral
alveolar sacs and alveoli. Predilection of lower lobes.
    Associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
Paraseptal emphysema
   Distention of peripheral airspaces adjacent to
  interlobular septa. Spares centrilobular region.
Generally involves subpleural regions of upper lobes.
Paracicatricial or irregular emphysema
    Lung destruction associated with fibrosis. No
consistent relationship to a given portion of the lobule.
   Commonly associated with old granulomatous
                     inflammation.
Emphysema findings
   Diffuse hyperlucency (panlobular). Flattening and
depression of hemidiaphragms. Increased retrosternal
 airspace (panlobular > centrilobular). Bulla. Enlarged
 central pulmonary arteries. Right heart enlargement
    (centrilobular). Loss of pulmonary capillary bed.
Arterial deficiency emphysema versus increased
               markings emphysema.
   Arterial deficiency: Predominantly panlobular
 emphysema. Hyperinflated lungs with peripheral
   vascular attenuation and bullae. Pink Puffers.
Increased markings: Increased linear parenchymal
   markings. Small airways thickening of chronic
   bronchitis. Bullae uncommon. Blue Bloaters.
Bulla defined
Thin-walled cystic space > 1 cm in diameter. Found
             within lung parenchyma.
Bullae may be seen in diseases that cause chronic
           upper lobe fibrosis, such as
Sarcoidosis. Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
               Ankylosing spondylitis.
Primary bullous disease
  Isolated bullae without intervening emphysema or
 interstitial lung disease. Associated with: Marfan or
Ehlers-Danlos syndromes. Intravenous drug use. HIV
           infection. Vanishing lung syndrome.
CT findings and associations of infectious bronchiolitis
Tree-in-bud opacities. Generally due to infection: Viral.
               Atypical. Mycobacterial.
CT findings of diffuse panbronchiolitis
Tree-in-bud opacities. Bronchial dilation and thickening.
  CT findings and associations of Respiratory
bronchiolitis–associated interstitial lung disease
Centrilobular and geographic ground-glass opacities.
                 Cigarette smoking.
CT findings and associations of Hypersensitivity
            pneumonitis (subacute)
Centrilobular ground-glass nodules. Air trapping on
    expiratory scans. Inhaled organic antigen.
CT findings and associations of Follicular bronchiolitis
Centrilobular ground-glass nodules. Rheumatoid
          arthritis. Sj?gren syndrome.
CT findings and associations of Constrictive
               bronchiolitis
 Mosaic attenuation with air trapping on expiratory
scans. Bronchial dilation (late). Transplant patients.
         Drug reactions. Inhalation injury.
Transudative pleural effusion lab values
Pleural/serum protein ratio less than 0.5. Pleural/serum
  LDH ratio less than 0.6. Pleural LDH less than 200
                          IU/L.
Infectious causes of pleural effusion?
Bacterial/mycobacterial. Viral. Fungal. Parasitic.
Cardiovascular causes of pleural effusion?
    Heart failure. Pericarditis. Superior vena cava
obstruction. Postcardiac surgery. Myocardial infarction.
                 Pulmonary embolism.
Neoplastic causes of pleural effusion?
Bronchogenic carcinoma. Metastases. Lymphoma.
 Pleural or chest wall neoplasms (mesothelioma).
Immunologic causes of pleural effusion?
Systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheumatoid arthritis.
   Sarcoidosis (rare). Wegener granulomatosis.
Inhalational cause of pleural effusion?
Asbestosis.
Trauma causes of pleural effusion?
Blunt or penetrating chest trauma.
Abdominal disease causes of pleural effusion?
  Cirrhosis (hepatic hydrothorax). Pancreatitis.
Subphrenic abscess. Acute pyelonephritis. Ascites
   (from any cause). Splenic vein thrombosis.
Miscellaneous causes of pleural effusion?
Drugs. Myxedema. Ovarian tumor.
Pleural effusion from congestive heart failure features
  Transudative. Bilateral, right larger than left. Isolated
right effusion twice as common as isolated left effusion.
Findings on CT that are fairly specific for the presence
           of an exudative pleural effusion
  Thickening and enhancement of parietal pleura.
Loculations. Soft tissue lesions along parietal pleura
              outlined by pleural fluid.
Tumors most commonly associated with pleural
     effusion are, in order of frequency,
Lung carcinoma. Breast carcinoma. Pelvic tumors
  (ovarian fibroma = Meigs syndrome). Gastric
              carcinoma. Lymphoma.
Lung abscess versus empyema?
Empyema: Oval. Oriented longitudinally. Thin. Smooth
     (split pleura sign). Obtuse chest wall angle.
  Compresses lung. Requires drainage. Abscess:
Round. Thick and irregular wall. Acute chest wall angle.
 Consumes lung. Antibiotics and postural drainage to
                          treat.
Most common intrathoracic manifestation of
         rheumatoid arthritis
Pleural effusion.
Most common causes of chylothorax are
Malignancy. Iatrogenic trauma. TB
Left chylothorax versus right chylothorax?
Left chylothorax: Injury to upper duct. Right
      chylothorax: Injury to lower duct.
Bronchopleural Fistula
 Communication between lung and pleural space. If
    bronchus involved, may result in empyema. If
peripheral airspace (bronchiole) involved, may result
             in intractable pneumothorax.
Primary spontaneous pneumothorax
    Often occurs in young or middle-aged men.
Predilection of taller individuals. Results from bleb or
      bulla rupture, usually within upper lungs.
Secondary Spontaneous Pneumothorax
COPD. Asthma. Valsalva (cocaine, marijuana, labor).
    Sarcoidosis. Langerhans cell histiocytosis.
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Necrotizing pneumonia.
    Abscess. Mechanically ventilated patients.
Catamenial pneumothorax
Rare recurrent pneumothoraces. Occurs with menses.
  Pleural endometrial implants. Treated with OCPs.
Most common cause of tension pneumothorax
Iatragenic trauma in mechanically ventilated patients.
Causes of pleural thickening
Pneumonia. Pulmonary infarct. Trauma. Asbestos
             exposure (bilateral).
Causes of pleural calcification
      Visceral pleura:?Hemothorax,?Empyema
(tuberculosis). Parietal pleura:??Asbestos exposure
                      (bilateral).
Causes of pleural/extrapleural masses
Benign:?Fibroma.?Lipoma.?Neurofibroma.?Malignant:
   ?Metastases (usually multiple).??Mesothelioma
 (usually diffuse pleural thickening). Other: Loculated
        pleural effusion/empyema. Hematoma.
Fluid within calcified pleural layers seen on CT
                     suggests
Active empyema. Most commonly within patients with
                   prior TB.
Fibrothorax
Pleural thickening extending over more than one fourth
 of the costal pleural surface. Commonly results from
 resolution of an exudative pleural effusion (including
asbestos-related effusions), Empyema, or Hemothorax.
   Pleurectomy (decortication) may be necessary to
                    restore function.
Malignant pleural disease is most often caused by one
                  of four conditions:
Metastatic adenocarcinoma (lung, breast, ovary, kidney,
  GI tract). Invasive thymoma or thymic carcinoma.
   Mesothelioma. Rarely non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Benign and malignant Asbestos-Related Pleural
                 Diseases
Benign: Pleural plaques. Pleural effusions. Diffuse
   pleural fibrosis. Malignant: Mesothelioma.
When viewed en face, calcified pleural plaques appear
                        as
Geographic opacities. Llikened to a holly leaf.
Poland syndrome
Autosomal recessive disorder. Unilateral absence of
 sternocostal head of pectoralis major. Ipsilateral
            syndactyly. Rib anomalies.
Most common benign neoplasm of chest wall
Lipoma
Most common malignant soft tissue neoplasms of the
             chest wall in adults.
Fibrosarcomas. Liposarcomas.
A rare malignant neoplasm arising from the chest wall
            of children and young adults
Askin tumor. Arises from primitive neuroectodermal
  rests. Very aggressive with a poor prognosis.
Benign chest wall lesions
Abscess. Hematoma. Lipoma. Hemangioma. Desmoid
                     tumor.
Inferior rib notching causes
Coarctation of aorta. Aortic thrombus. Takayasu
 arteritis. SVC syndrome. Neurofibromatosis.
Suprior rib notching cause
Paralysis.
Benign rib neoplasms, most common first
Osteochondroma. Enchondroma. Osteoblastoma.
Most common primary rib malignancy
Chondrosarcoma.
Rib malignancies
   Most common: Myeloma. Metastatic carcinoma.
Primary malignancies: Chondrosarcoma. Osteogenic
             sarcoma. Fibrosarcoma.
Most common metastatic lesions to ribs
Breast cancer. Lung cancer.
Expansile lytic rib metastases are seen most
               commonly from
Renal cell carcinoma. Thyroid carcinoma.
Sclerotic rib metastases are most commonly seen in
Breast cancer. Prostate cancer.
Pleuropulmonary infections that may traverse the
pleural space and produce a chest wall infection
                    include
TB. Actinomycosis. Nocardiosis.
Sprengel deformity
Congenital hypoplastic and elevated scapula.
Klippel-Feil syndrome.
Sprengel deformity (hypoplastic, elevated scapula).
  Omovertebral bone. Fused cervical vertebrae.
 Hemivertebrae. Kyphoscoliosis. Rib anomalies.
Erosion of the distal clavicles
 Rheumatoid arthritis: Well-defined pointed distal
clavicle. Hyperparathyroidism: Irregular and wide
                  distal clavicle.
H-shaped or Lincoln log vertebrae on lateral chest
                  radiographs
Sickle cell anemia.
Rugger jersey appearance to thoracic spine on lateral
                 chest radiographs
Renal osteosclerosis.
Pectus excavatum is commonly associated with
congenital connective tissue disorders, such as
Marfan syndrome. Poland syndrome. Osteogenesis
         imperfecta. Congenital scoliosis.
Pectus carinatum
Outward bowing of sternum. May be congenital or
                   acquired.
Eventration of the diaphragm
   Congenital absence or underdevelopment of
diaphragmatic musculature. Localized elevation of
anteromedial hemidiaphragm in older individuals.
Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is usually caused by
Surgical injury or neoplastic involvement of phrenic
                       nerve.
Bilateral Diaphragmatic Elevation that is not effort
             related may be caused by
Neuromuscular disturbance. Intrathoracic or intra-
             abdominal disease.
Bochdalek Hernia
 Herniation through embryonic pleuroperitoneal canal.
    Neonates present with large hernias with lung
hypoplasia and respiratory distress. Adults present with
 small hernias, mostly on the left side (liver thought to
                    be protective).
Morgagni Hernia
Parasternal diaphragm defect. Invariably right sided.
     Asymptomatic cardiophrenic angle mass.
Primary diaphragmatic tumors
     Benign: Lipomas. Fibromas. Schwannomas.
Neurofibromas. Leiomyomas. Echinococcal cysts and
  extralobar sequestrations may be found within the
 diaphragm. Metastatic invasion more common than
   primary malignancy (Fibrosarcoma): Lower lobe
       bronchogenic carcinoma. Mesothelioma.
Cystic adenomatoid malformation
   Usually seen in infancy. One or several large cysts
lined with respiratory epithelium with scattered mucous
glands, smooth muscle, and elastic tissue. Round, air-
     filled masses that compress adjacent lung and
                      mediastinum.
Bronchial atresia presentation
  Central bronchial mucocele with peripheral
hyperlucency in a young, asymptomatic patient.
Intralobar and extralobar sequestration blood supply
                    and drainage
    Intralobar sequestration: Single large artery from
  infradiaphragmatic aorta. Pulmonary vein drainage.
  Extralobar sequestration: Small branches systemic
arteries and occasionally pulmonary arteries. Systemic
     venous drainage (inferior vena cava, azygos, or
                   hemiazygos veins).
Hypogenetic lung-scimitar syndrome
   Variant of hypoplastic lung with abnormal venous
     drainage to the IVC just above or below right
     hemidiaphragm. Small right hemithorax with
diaphragmatic elevation or eventration. Dextroposition
  of heart. Herniation of left lung anteriorly into right
                      hemithorax.
Three radiographic patterns of aspiration pneumonitis
 Extensive bilateral airspace opacification. Diffuse but
     discrete airspace nodular opacities. Irregular
parenchymal opacities that are not obviously airspace.
Exogenous lipoid pneumonia
     Older patients with swallowing disorders or
gastroesophageal reflux. Use mineral oil as a laxative
    or inhale oily nose drops. Fat density opacity.
Drug that cause drug induced chest diseases
   Lupus-like syndrome (procainamide, isoniazid,
hydralazine). Nitrofurantoin. Bleomycin. Methotrexate.
                     Amiodarone.
A confident diagnosis of hamartoma can be made
               when HRCT shows
Nodule less than 2.5 cm with a smooth or lobulated
border and containing focal fat. May have popcorn
                   calcification.
Benign neoplasm arising from neural elements in the
central airways or lung parenchyma. The skin is the
        most common site for these tumors.
Granular cell myoblastoma.
Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma features
Most common type of lung cancer (nonsmokers, too).
Arise from bronchiolar or alveolar epithelium. Irregular
or spiculated appearance. ccur in the lung periphery.
Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma (BAC)
  Grows along bronchiolar and alveolar walls (lepidic
growth). May appear as: Solitary nodule. Focal ground-
   glass opacity. May mimic pneumonia or bilateral
             nodular airpsace processes.
Squamous cell carcinoma features
Arises centrally within lobar or segmental bronchi.
  Central necrosis with cavitation may be seen.
Generally presents as hilar mass and atelectasis.
Small cell carcinoma features
  Arises centrally within main or lobar bronchi from
     bronchial neuroendocrine (Kulchitsky) cells.
Hematogenous dissemination. Hilar/mediastinal mass.
Large cell bronchogenic carcinoma radiographic
                    feature
Large peripheral mass.
  In addition to cigarette smoke, well-recognized risk
factors for the development of bronchogenic carcinoma
                          include
 Asbestos exposure. Previous Hodgkin lymphoma.
Radon exposure. Viral infection. Diffuse interstitial or
             localized lung fibrosis.
Most common radiographic findings from
   endobronchial tumor obstruction.
Resorptive atelectasis. Obstructive pneumonitis.
Majority of pancoast tumors, histology type
SCC. Adenocarcinoma.
Pancoast tumor symptoms
Arm pain and muscular atrophy due to brachial plexus
 involvement. Horner syndrome (ptosis, anhydrosis,
   miosis) from involvement of sympathetic chain.
       Shoulder pain from chest wall invasion.
CT angiogram sign and BAC
 Filling of airspaces with mucoid material produced by
       malignant cells creates low-density airspace
opacification surrounding enhanced pulmonary arteries.
Typical radiologic findings of lymphangitic
              carcinomatosis
Linear and reticulonodular opacities. Peribronchial
  cuffing. Subpleural edema or pleural effusion.
Helps distinguish lymphangitic carcinomatosis due to
         lung cancer from other metastases
Unilateral or asymmetric involvement of lungs suggests
    lung cancer rather than an extrapulmonary site.
Two patient groups of small cell lung cancer
Disease limited to one hemithorax (limited disease).
Contralateral lung or extrathoracic spread (extensive
                      disease).
Two most common primary tracheal malignancies
SCC > Adenoid cystic carcinoma
Tracheal mass size and malignancy
Masses > 2 cm are likely to be malignant. Less than 2
            cm are more likely benign.
Other, less common primary tracheal malignancies
   Mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Carcinoid tumor.
Adenocarcinoma. Lymphoma. Small cell carcinoma.
Leiomyosarcoma. Fibrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma.
Primary malignant neoplasms of the central bronchi
                     include
Squamous cell carcinoma. Small cell carcinoma.
Carcinoid tumor. Bronchial gland tumors (adenoid
 cystic carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma).
Carcinoid radiologic features
  Prefers right upper and middle lobes. Well-defined
smooth or lobulated nodules or masses. Iceberg tumor:
 small intrabronchial and large extraluminal soft tissue
                      component.
    A benign neoplasm comprised of disorganized
epithelial and mesenchymal elements normally found
               in the bronchus or lung.
Pulmonary hamartoma.
A feature that helps distinguish lymphangitic
   carcinomatosis from interstitial fibrosis,
Thickened septal lines of lymphangiti carcinomatosis
        do not distort the pulmonary lobule.
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis
    Infiltration of pulmonary interstitium by mature
lymphocytes. CT findings: Diffuse ground-glass opacity.
Poorly defined centrilobular nodules. Thin-walled cysts.
            Associations: Sjogren syndrome.
   Hypogammaglobulinemia. Multicentric Castleman
                      disease. AIDS.
Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)
Spectrum of entities. Ranging from benign polyclonal
 lymphoid proliferation to aggressive non-Hodgkin
                      lymphoma.
Pulmonary blastoma
  Rare malignant tumor affecting children and young
adults. Histology simulates fetal lung at 10 to 16 weeks’
 gestation. Tend to be extremely large at presentation.
Lobar pneumonia features
     Typical of pneumococcal pulmonary infection.
Inflammatory process spreads via pores of Kohn and
      canals of Lambert to produce nonsegmental
    consolidation. Air bronchograms are common.
Bronchopneumonia features
   Most common pattern of pneumonia. Typical of
 staphylococcal pneumonia. Inflammation centered
around lobular bronchi. Multifocal opacities produce
  patchwork quilt of scattered normal and diseased
lobules. No air bronchograms due to exudate within
                       bronchi.
Interstitial pneumonia features
  Viral and mycoplasma infection. Inflammatory
thickening of bronchial and bronchiolar walls and
pulmonary interstitium. Peribronchial cuffing and
            reticulonodular opacities.
Pneumatoceles may be distinguished from abscesses
                       by
Thin walls. Rapid change in size. Generally develop
            during late phase of infection.
Ranke complex
Calcified parenchymal focus (Ghon lesion) and lymph
            nodel calcification. Primary TB.
Postprimary TB
Reactivation occurs in apical and posterior segments
of upper lobes and superior segments of lower lobes.
 Ill-defined patchy and nodular opacities. Cavitation
 usually indicates active and transmissible disease.
Rasmussen aneurysm
Erosion of cavitary focus into pulmonary artery branch
             can produce an aneurysm.
Miliary TB
  May complicate primary or reactivation disease.
Hematogenous dissemination. Diffuse bilateral 2- to 3-
            mm pulmonary nodules.
Opportunistic fungal lung pathogens
Aspergillus. Candida. Cryptococcus.
Aspergillus lung involvement
Aspergilloma or mycetoma within preexisting cavities.
 Semi-invasive (chronic necrotizing) aspergillosis in
   mildly impaired immunity. Invasive pulmonary
         aspergillosis in neutropenia. Allergic
 bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in hyperimmunity.
Pulmonary echinococcal cysts are composed of three
                     layers:
Inside out: Endocyst, produces daughter cyts. Exocyst
   (chitinous layer), protective membrane. Pericyst,
         surrounding compressed, fibrotic lung.
CT halo sign
Decreased attenuation surrounding a dense, mass-like
opacity. Relatively specific for invasive aspergillosis in
                 a neutropenic patient.
Most common AIDS-defining opportunistic infection.
PCP
Interlobular (Septal) Lines
Thin, short, 1- to 2-cm lines oriented perpendicular to
            and intersecting costal pleura.
Interlobular (septal) lines DDx:
Interstitial edema. ? Lymphangitic carcinomatosis. ?
  Sarcoidosis. ? Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)
  (other forms of usual interstitial pneumonia UIP).
Intralobular lines ILD DDx
IPF (UIP). Asbestosis. Alveolar proteinosis.
       Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
Thickened fissures ILD DDx
Pulmonary edema. ? Sarcoidosis. ? Lymphangitic
              carcinomatosis.
Peribronchovascular interstitial thickening
Pulmonary edema (smooth). ? Sarcoidosis (nodular). ?
  Lymphangitic carcinomatosis (smooth or nodular).
Centrilobular nodules ILD DDx
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.? Bronchiolitis obliterans
  with organizing pneumonia (BOOP)/cryptogenic
    organizing pneumonia (COP).? Respiratory
bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-
                        ILD).
Subpleural lines ILD DDx
Asbestosis. ? IPF (UIP).
Parenchymal bands ILD DDx
Asbestosis. ? IPF (UIP). ? Sarcoidosis.
Honeycombing
IPF (UIP). ? Asbestosis.? Hypersensitivity pneumonitis
               (chronic).? Sarcoidosis.
Thin-walled cysts ILD DDx
          Eosinophilic granuloma (EG).
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.? Tuberous sclerosis.?
Neurofibromatosis (pneumatocele). (emphysema).
Micronodules, random distribution ILD DDx
Miliary tuberculosis or histoplasmosis.? Hematogenous
 metastases.? Silicosis/coal worker's pneumoconiosis
                      (CWP).? EG.
Micronodules, perilymphatic distribution ILD DDx
Sarcoidosis. ? Lymphangitic carcinomatosis.?
                Silicosis/CWP.
Ground-glass opacities ILD DDx
Desquamative interstitial pneumonia.? Acute interstitial
    pneumonia (AIP).? Hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
BOOP/COP.? RB-ILD.? Hemorrhage.? Pneumocystis
 jiroveci pneumonia.? Cytomegalovirus pneumonia.?
                Alveolar proteinosis.
Traction bronchiectasis ILD DDx
Sarcoidosis. ? Silicosis/CWP.
Conglomerate mass ILD DDx
Sarcoidosis.? Silicosis.? CWP.? Radiation fibrosis.
Subpleural Lines
5- to 10-cm-long curvilinear opacities are found within
 1 cm of the pleura and parallel the chest wall. Most
    often seen in patients with asbestosis and, less
                    commonly, IPF.
Parenchymal bands
   Nontapering linear opacities, 2 to 5 cm in length.
Extend from lung to contact pleural surface. Asbestosis.
                   IPF. Sarcoidosis.
Honeycombing
Small (6 to 10 mm) cystic spaces with thick (1 to 3 mm)
 walls. usually have shared walls . Usually in posterior
subpleural regions. End-stage pulmonary fibrosis: IPF
      (UIP). Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
                Occasionally sarcoidosis.
Thin-walled cysts
Slightly larger in diameter (10 mm) than honeycomb
 cysts. Uniform in size. Thinner walls. Do not share
walls with adjacent cysts. Cysts of LCH and LAM are
 usually evenly distributed from central to peripheral
                portions of upper lobes
Micronodules
1- to 3-mm. Sharply marginated. Round opacities seen
on HRCT. Represent conglomerates of granulomas or
          tumor cells within the interstitium.
Ground-Glass or Hazy Increased Density
   Granular appearance with maintained visibility of
  pulmonary vessels. Absence of air bronchograms.
     Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP).
Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly P carinii) pneumonia.
   Acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Nonspecific
 interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Interstitial pulmonary
                        edema.
Traction bronchiectasis
Fibrosis causes traction on the walls of bronchi,
          resulting in irregular dilation.
ILDs Upper zone distribution
 Tuberculosis (postprimary). Chronic fungal infection
(Histoplasmosis,?Coccidioidomycosis). ?Sarcoidosis. ?
    Eosinophilic granuloma.? Silicosis.? Ankylosing
  spondylitis.? Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (chronic).
  Radiation fibrosis from treatment of head and neck
                       malignancy.
ILDs Lower zone distribution
    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.? Asbestosis.?
Rheumatoid lung.? Scleroderma.? Neurofibromatosis.?
 Dermatomyositis/polymyositis.? Chronic aspiration.
ILDs normal or increased lung volumes
       Sarcoidosis.? Eosinophilic granuloma.?
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis.? Tuberous sclerosis.?
 Interstitial disease superimposed on emphysema.
ILDs Honeycombing
   Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.? Sarcoidosis.?
   Eosinophilic granuloma.? Rheumatoid lung.?
 Scleroderma.? Pneumoconiosis.? Hypersensitivity
pneumonitis.? Chronic aspiration.? Radiation fibrosis.
ILDs miliary nodules
                     Tuberculosis.? Fungi
(Histoplasmosis,?Coccidioidomycosis,?Cryptococcosis
  ). Silicosis.? Metastases (Thyroid carcinoma, Renal
               cell carcinoma,?Bronchogenic
      carcinoma,?Melanoma,?Choriocarcinoma).?
          Sarcoidosis.? Eosinophilic granuloma.
Hilar/mediastinal lymph node enlargement
Sarcoidosis.? Lymphangitic carcinomatosis.?
 Lymphoma.? Hematogenous metastases.?
  Tuberculosis. Fungal infection.? Silicosis.
ILDs Pleural disease
Asbestosis (plaques).? Lymphangitic carcinomatosis
        (effusion).? Rheumatoid lung disease
 (effusion/thickening).? Lymphangioleiomyomatosis
                  (chylous effusion).
Manifestations of Rheumatoid Lung Disease
 Pleural effusion. Pleural thickening. Pericarditis.
  Pericardial effusion. Pulmonary fibrosis (basilar
  predominance). Necrobiotic nodules (peripheral
cavitating nodules, Caplan syndrome). Bronchiolitis
   obliterans (Hyperinflation) Pulmonary arteritis.
    Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Right heart
        enlargement. Pulmonary hemorrhage
Caplan syndrome
 Thick walled cavitating lung nodules. Rheumatoid
arthritis patients with hypersensitivity to inhaled dust
            particles (coal, silica, asbestos).
Scleroderma ILD findings
Interlobular septal thickening. Ground-glass opacities.
Honeycombing. Lower lung predominance. Patulous
                       esophagus.
Interstitial pulmonary edema CXR findings?
Intrapulmonary vascular shadows. Peribronchial
            cuffing. Tram tracking.
Kerley A and B lines?
Kerley A lines thickening of central connective tissue
    septa. Kerley B lines thickening of peripheral
                   interlobular septa.
Alveolar pulmonary edema localized to the right upper
          lung may be seen in patients with
Severe mitral regurgitation.
Causes of Pulmonary Venous Hypertension and
             Pulmonary Edema
 LV failure. Mitral valve disease (Mitral stenosis, Mitral
insufficiency). LA myxoma. Cor triatriatum. Obstruction
  of central pulmonary veins (fibrosing mediastinitis,
      pulmonary vein stenosis, pulmonary venous
   thrombosis). Obstruction of intrapulmonary veins
          (pulmonary venoocclusive disease).
Radiographic findings of pulmonary venous
            hypertension are
Enlargement of pulmonary veins (progressive dilation
      of horizontally oriented pulmonary veins).
Redistribution of pulmonary blood flow to upper lungs.
ARDS
   Respiratory failure due to increased capillary
permeability edema. Associated with increased lung
             stiffness (noncompliance).
Common causes of ARDS
Shock. Severe trauma. Burns. Sepsis. Narcotic
           overdose. Pancreatitis.
ARDS radiographic findings
  Patchy peripheral airspace opacities (12-24 hrs).
    Confluent bilateral airspace opacities with air
bronchograms (days). Coarse reticulonodular pattern
              (week) that may resolve.
Causes of neurogenic pulmonary edema
Head trauma. Seizure. Increased intracranial pressure.
Hemorrhage or hemorrhagic edema of the lung can
                 result from
   Trauma. Bleeding diathesis. Infections (invasive
aspergillosis, mucormycosis, Pseudomonas, influenza).
   Drugs (penicillamine). Pulmonary embolism. Fat
       embolism. ARDS. Autoimmune diseases
    (Goodpasture syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary
hemorrhage, Wegener granulomatosis, systemic lupus
 erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and polyarteritis
                      nodosa).
Goodpasture syndrome
Damage to alveolar and renal glomerular basement
      membranes by cytotoxic antibody.
Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemorrhage
 Indistinguishable from Goodpasture syndrome.
Pulmonary hemorrhage and anemia in patient with
     normal renal function and urinalysis. No
 antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies.
Vasculitides that can cause pulmonary hemorrhage
    Wegener granulomatosis. Systemic lupus
erythematosus. Rheumatoid arthritis. Polyarteritis
                   nodosa.
D-dimer
Sensitive, but not specific marker of venous
                thrombosis.
Most common radiographic findings in PE without
               infarction are
Localized peripheral oligemia with or without distended
   proximal vessels (Westermark sign). Peripheral
       airspace opacification. Linear atelectasis.
Radiographic features that suggest infarction in PE
Small pleural effusion and pleura-based wedge-
       shaped opacity (Hampton hump).
Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism causes
    Air embolism. Macroscopic fat embolism.
Methylmethacrlate embolization from vertebroplasty.
   Radioactive seed embolization from prostate
                 brachytherapy.
PAH is defined as a systolic pressure in the pulmonary
                  artery exceeding
30 mm Hg.
Typical radiographic findings of PAH are
Enlarged main and hilar pulmonary arteries that taper
   rapidly toward lung periphery. RV enlargement.
PAH measurements of proximal interlobar pulmonary
   artery (CXR) and main pulmonary artery (CT)
Interlobar pulmonary artery > 16 mm. Main pulmonary
                 artery > 28.6 mm.
In addition to PAH, enlargement of the central
     pulmonary arteries may be seen in
High cardiac output (anemia, thyrotoxicosis). Left-to-
      right shunts (ASD, VSD, PDA, PAPVR).
Shunt vascularity on chest radiographs
Enlargement of both central and peripheral pulmonary
                      arteries.
Disorders of the pulmonary arteries that produce PAH
                      include
 Chronic PEs. Vasculitis. Pulmonary arteriopathy
resulting from long-standing increased pulmonary
         blood flow from left-to-right shunt.
Multiple pulmonary nodules of similar size and
        appearance are almost always
Metastases. Granulomas.
Pulmonary nodule is defined as
Round or oval opacity 4 to 30 mm in diameter.
Pulmonary mass is defined as
Round opacity greater than 3 cm.
Differential in a patient under the age of 35, particularly
     a nonsmoker without a history of malignancy,
Granuloma. Hamartoma, Inflammatory lesion.
An SPN in a patient over 35 years of age should never
be followed radiographically without tissue confirmation
              unless the lesion contains
Benign pattern of calcification. Presence of
             intralesional fat.
Studies have shown that bronchogenic carcinoma has
                 a doubling time of
Between 1 month and 2 years.
   Presence of small satellite nodules around the
periphery of a dominant pulmonary nodule is strongly
                   suggestive of
Benign disease, particularly granulomatous infection.
Presence of a halo of ground-glass opacity encircling
  an SPN in an immunocompromised, neutropenic
      patient should suggest the diagnosis of
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.
 Comet tail of bronchi and vessels entering the hilar
aspect of the mass, and associated with lobar volume
                loss is characteristic of
Round atelectasis.
Complete or central calcification within an SPN is
                  specific for
Healed granuloma from tuberculosis or histoplasmosis.
Concentric or laminated calcification of an SPN
Granuloma and allows confident exclusion of
               neoplasm.
Popcorn calcification within a pulmonary nodule is
                   diagnostic of
Pulmonary hamartoma.
Fat within an SPN is diagnostic of a
Pulmonary hamartoma.
Enhancement of malignant SPNs
15 H.
Most common thoracic inlet masses?
Thyroid masses. Lymphomatous nodes.
          Lymphangiomas.
Intrathoracic thyroid goiter CT findings?
Well-defined margins. Continuity of mass with cervical
thyroid. Coarse calcifications. Cystic or necrotic areas.
Baseline high CT attenuation (intrinsic iodine content).
            Intense enhancement (>25 H).
Lymphangioma?
  Tumor of dilated lymphatic channels. Cystic or
   cavernous form (cystic hygroma) is commonly
discovered in infancy and is often associated with :
  Turner syndrome and trisomies 13, 18, and 21.
Anterior mediastinal masses?
Thymic neoplasms. Lymphoma. Germ cell neoplasms.
          Primary mesenchymal tumors.
Thymoma versus thymic carcinoma
 Thymomas may be encapsulated (noninvasive) or
invasive. Thymic carcinomas, epithelial component
         shows signs of frank malignancy.
Thymoma-associated autoimmune diseases
   Myasthenia gravis. Pure red cell aplasia. Graves
disease. Sjogren syndrome. Hypogammaglobulinemia.
Thymic cysts
    Congenital: Remnants of thymopharyngeal duct.
       Contain thin or gelatinous fluid. Acquired:
 Postinflammatory. Associations: AIDS, Prior radiation
or surgery, Autoimmune conditions (Sj?gren syndrome,
          Myasthenia gravis, Aplastic anemia).
Thymic masses
  Thymoma. Thymic cyst. Thymolipoma. Thymic
hyperplasia. Thymic neuroendocrine tumors. Thymic
          carcinoma. Thymic lymphoma.
Germ cell neoplasms
  Teratoma (benign and malignant). Seminoma.
Embryonal cell carcinoma. Endodermal sinus tumor.
                 Choriocarcinoma.
Mesenchymal anterior mediastinal tumors
Lipoma. Hemangioma. Leiomyoma. Liposarcoma.
              Angiosarcoma.
_________ is the most frequent site of a localized
  nodal mass in patients with Hodgkin disease.
Anterior mediastinum.
 A key in distinguishing primary from metastatic
mediastinal germ cell neoplasm is the presence of
Retroperitoneal lymph node involvement in metastatic
                   gonadal tumors.
Benign and malignant teratoma features on CT
  Benign: round or oval and smooth in contour.
Malignant: irregular, lobulated, or ill-defined margin.
Middle mediastinal masses
 Foregut and mesothelial cysts. Tracheal and central
bronchial neoplasms. Diaphragmatic hernias. Vascular
                      lesions.
Differential for central calcification of mediastinal/hilar
                  lymph nodes on CT?
Mycobacteria. Fungus.
Differential for peripheral (eggshell)l calcification of
       mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes on CT?
Silicosis. Sarcoidosis.
Differential for hypervascular mediastinal/hilar lymph
                     nodes on CT?
Carcinoid tumor/small cell carcinoma. Kaposi sarcoma.
  Metastases (RCC. Thyroid carcinoma). Castleman
                       disease.
Differential for necrotic mediastinal/hilar lymph nodes
                         on CT?
Mycobacteria. Fungus. Metastases (SCC. Seminoma.
                   Lymphoma).
Differences in lymph nodes of sarcoidosis and
           lymphoma/metastases?
   Sarcoidosis: Lobular lymph nodes that do not
coalesce. Lymphoma/mets: May form conglomerate
             enlarged nodal masses.
Castleman disease also known as
Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia.
Pericardial cysts most commonly arise in the
Anterior cardiophrenic angles. Right-sided lesions
  being twice as common as left-sided lesions.
Three groups of neurogenic tumors of the posterior
                  mediastinum.
Intercostal nerves: Neurofibroma. Schwannoma.
     Sympathetic ganglia: Ganglioneuroma.
     Ganglioneuroblastoma. Neuroblastoma.
      Paraganglionic cells: Chemodectoma.
              Pheochromocytoma.
Most common posterior mediastinal neurogenic tumors
                    in children
Neuroblastoma. Ganglioneuroma.
Most common posterior mediastinal neurogenic tumors
                     in adults
Neurofibroma. Schwannoma.
    Multiple lesions in the mediastinum, particularly
bilateral apicoposterior masses, are virtually diagnostic
                            of
Neurofibromatosis.
Posterior mediastinal masses
 Esophageal lesions. Foregut cysts. Vertebral lesion.
Lateral thoracic meningocele. Pancreatic pseudocyst.
Causes of chronic sclerosing (fibrosing) mediastinitis
Histoplasmosis (most common). TB. Radiation therapy.
    Drugs (methysergide). Idiopathic (autoimmune).
SVC syndrome manifestations
Headache. Epistaxis. Cyanosis. Jugular venous
            distention. Edema.
Ludwig angina describes
Substernal chest pain caused by intramediastinal
             extension of infection.
Causes of unilateral pulmonary artery enlargement
                      incluce
  Poststenotic dilation from valvular or postvalvular
  pulmonic stenosis. Pulmonary artery aneurysms.
Distension of pulmonary artery by thrombus or tumor.
Rare vasculitides that may present with pulmonary
                artery aneurysms
Beh?et disease and Hughes-Stovins syndrome
Sarcoidosis 1-2-3 sign
1: Right paratracheal. 2. Right hilar. 3. Left hilar lymph
                  node enlargement
Coronary calcification is detected at angiography in
 ____% of patients with 50% diameter stenosis.
75%
A_____% diameter narrowing is the physiologic point
at which flow is restricted enough to result in ischemia
                under stress conditions.
50% diameter narrowing. Roughly predicts a 75%
        cross-sectional area reduction.
Cardiac MR uses?
    Define location and size of previous myocardial
  infarctions. Demonstrate complications of previous
 infarctions. Establish presence of viable myocardium
   for possible revascularization. Differentiate acute
versus chronic myocardial infarction. Evaluate regional
  myocardial wall motion and systolic wall thickening.
   Demonstrate global myocardial function with right
    ventricular and left ventricular ejection fractions.
 Demonstrate regional myocardial perfusion. Evaluate
      papillary muscle and valvular abnormalities.
Myocardial rupture (may occur ______ days after
                    infarction.
3 to 14 days.
Dressler syndrome
Onset is typically 1 week to 3 months postinjury. Fever,
   chest pain, pericarditis, pericardial effusion, and
pleuritis, with pleural effusion usually more prominent
 on the left. Dressler syndrome responds well to anti-
                inflammatory medications.
Hibernating myocardium versus stunned myocardium?
     Hibernating: High-grade stenosis resulting in
    chronically ischemic myocardium. May act like
      postinfarction scar. Improved function with
revascularization. At risk for acute infarction. Stunned
myocardium: Postischemic, dysfunctional myocardium
  without complete necrosis. Potentially salvageable.
Causes of dilated cardiomyopathies
   Ischemic cardiomyopathy (most common cause):
Chronic ischemia. Prior infarction. Anomalous coronary
arteries. Long-term sequelae of myocarditis: Coxsackie
    virus. Toxins: Ethanol, Adriamycin, Doxorubicin.
           Metabolic conditions: Mucolipidosis.
  Mucopolysaccharidosis. Glycogen storage disease.
 Nutritional deficiencies: Thiamin. Selenium). Infants of
         diabetic mothers. Muscular dystrophies.
Ventricular Wall. Ventricular Cavity. Contractility.
Compliance features of dilated cardiomyopathy?
LV thin. LV dilated. Decreased contractility. Normal to
                decreased compliance.
  Ventricular Wall. Ventricular Cavity. Contractility.
Compliance features of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
LV thick. LV normal to decreased. Increased
    contractility. Decreased compliance.
 Ventricular Wall. Ventricular Cavity. Contractility.
Compliance features of restrivice cardiomyopathy?
Normal LV wall. Normal LV cavity. Normal to
decreased contractility. Severely decreased
                compliance.
Ventricular Wall. Ventricular Cavity. Contractility.
     Compliance features of Uhl anomaly?
RV thin. RV dilated. Decreased contractility. Normal to
                decreased compliance.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathies are divided into two
                   basic types:
Concentric hypertrophy: may be diffuse, midventricular,
    or apical in distribution. Asymmetrical septal
    hypertrophy (ASH), also known as idiopathic
       hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS).
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy causes?
  May be familial (60%). Autosomal dominant with
         variable penetrance. Associated with
neurofibromatosis and Noonan syndrome. Secondary
                 to pressure overload.
Features of ASH (asymmetric septal hypertrophy)?
 Hypertrophy of the interventricular septum (>12 to 13
  mm). Abnormal ratio of thickness of interventricular
   septum to left ventricular posterior wall (>1.3:1).
Narrowing of left ventricular outflow tract during systole.
Restrictive cardiomyopathy causes
   Infiltrative disorders: Amyloid. Glycogen storage
disease. Mucopolysaccharidosis. Hemochromatosis.
        Sarcoidosis. Myocardial tumor infiltration.
What other disease should be ruled out when
  considering restrictive cardiomyopathy?
Constrictive pericarditis.
MR finding in restrictive cardiomyopathy caused by
            amyloidosis or sarcoidosis?
high signal in the myocardium on T2WIs.
   Defined as right ventricular failure secondary to
pulmonary parenchymal or pulmonary arterial disease.
Cor pulmonale.
Etiologies of cor pulmonale include
destructive pulmonary disease (pulmonary fibrosis and
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). hypoxic
   pulmonary vasoconstriction resulting from chronic
     bronchitis, asthma, CNS hypoxia, upper airway
 obstruction. Acute and chronic pulmonary embolism.
  Idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. Extrapulmonary
diseases affecting pulmonary mechanics such as chest
  deformities, morbid obesity (pickwickian syndrome),
                 neuromuscular diseases.
Uhl anomaly
   Acquired disorder in infants or adults. Also called
arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Dilation of
 RV with marked thinning of anterior right ventricular
wall. MR may show fatty infiltration of anterior RV free
wall. Premature death from early congestive failure or
                     arrhythmias.
Enlargement of pulmonary outflow tract causes
Left-to-right shunts. Poststenotic dilation secondary to
pulmonary stenosis. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Marfan syndrome. Takayasu arteritis. Idiopathic dilation
                  of pulmonary artery.
Differential diagnosis for pulmonary arterial
            hypertension includes
Long-standing pulmonary venous hypertension (mitral
stenosis). Eisenmenger physiology (long-standing left-
    to-right shunts). Pulmonary emboli. Vasculitides
 (rheumatoid arthritis or polyarteritis nodosa). Primary
                pulmonary hypertension.
Increased pulmonary blood flow is caused by
Left-to-right shunts. High output states: Volume loading.
  Pregnancy. Peripheral shunt lesions (arteriovenous
 malformations). Hyperthyroidism. Anemia. Leukemia.
Decreased pulmonary blood flow with a small heart is
                   caused by
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Hypovolemia.
         Malnourishment. Addison disease.
Mitral stenosis in the adult is usually caused by
Rheumatic heart disease.
Causes of Pulmonary Venous Hypertension
    Left ventricular failure. Mitral stenosis. Mitral
 regurgitation. Aortic stenosis. Aortic regurgitation.
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Congenital heart
                        disease.
Left atrial enlargement, left ventricular enlargement,
    and bulging of the atrial septum to the right.
Mitral regurgitation.
Cardiac thrombus features
   Intra-atrial thrombi are usually associated with atrial
fibrillation, often secondary to rheumatic heart disease.
     Commonly occurs along posterior wall of LA. Left
    ventricular thrombi are usually secondary to recent
 infarction or ventricular aneurysm. Clots typically have
        low MR GRE signal, whereas tumors have
        intermediate signal. Clots will not enhance.
Intracardiac lipomas or lipomatous hypertrophy
                   features
High T1 signal and fat suppression. Second most
         common benign cardiac tumor.
Atrial myxoma features
50% of primary cardiac tumors. Most common primary
 benign cardiac tumor. Most (75% to 80%) are in LA.
   May mimic rheumatic valvular disease clinically.
Benign cardiac tumors
Atrial myxoma. Lipoma. Rhabdomyoma (50% to 85%
 of tuberous sclerosis). Fibromas (12% may calcify).
                   Rare teratoma.
Metastatic cardiac tumor features
10 to 20 times more common than primary cardiac
  tumors. Breast. Lung. Melanoma. Lymphoma.
Primary malignant cardiac tumors
Angiosarcoma (most common). Rhabdosarcoma.
        Liposarcoma. Other sarcomas.
Constrictive pericardial disease features
      Fibrous or calcific thickening of pericardium.
 Compromises ventricular filling through restriction of
         cardiac motion. Most common cause is
    postpericardiotomy. Other causes: Coxsackie B.
    Tuberculosis. Chronic renal failure. Rheumatoid
arthritis. Neoplastic involvement. Radiation pericarditis.
Differential diagnosis for a cardiophrenic angle mass
                        includes
 Pericardial cyst. Fat pad. Lipoma. Enlarged lymph
nodes. Diaphragmatic hernia. Ventricular aneurysm.
Congenital absence of pericardium features
Complete left-sided absence (55%). Foraminal defects
(35%). Total absence (10%). M > F. Complete absence:
Heart is shifted toward the left, with prominent bulge of
  right ventricular outflow tract, main pulmonary artery,
     and left atrial appendage. Partial absence of the
  pericardium risks strangulation of cardiac structures.
       Surgical closure of partial defects is usually
                       recommended.
Noninfectious causes of miliary pattern
Pneumoconioises (silicosis). Eosinophilic granuloma.
  Sarcoidosis. Metastases (Thyroid. Melanoma.)
Minimal pleural effusion volume visible on frontal,
    lateral, and decubitus chest radiographs
Frontal (200 mL). Lateral (75 mL). Decubitus (5 mL)
Which junction line, anterior or posterior, extends
              above the clavicles
Posterior junction line.
Define pulmonary cavity
Refers to a lucency located wtihin a nodule, mass, or
                focus of consolidation.
Order of the left lower lobe basilar segments (from
    lateral to medial) on a frontal radiograph
Anteromedial, Lateral, Posterior (ALP).
DDx of subcarinal mass on radiograph
Lymph node enlargement. Bronchogenic cyst. Left
              atrial enlargement.
Classic primary TB chest radiograph findings
Parenchymal consolidation with mediastinal and hilar
            lymph node enlargement.
Ranke complex
Combination of calcified lung nodule and calcified
                 lymph nodes.
Ghon lesion
Lung nodule that is a residum of primary TB. Usually is
                       calcified.
At what pulmonary venous wedge pressures do Kerley
    lines, effusions, and airspace opacities occur?
Normal 12 mm Hg. Kerley lines 17 mm Hg. Effusion 20
        mm Hg. Airspace opacity 25 mm Hg.
Complications of bronchiectasis
Recurrent infections. Hemoptysis. Mucoid impaction.
                     Atelectasis.
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Osler-Weber-
                 Rendu disease)
Telangiectasias. AVMs. Aneurysms in multiple organ
    systems (Pulmonary. GI. Cutaneous. CNS)
Parenchymal findings associated with acute PE
Wedge-shaped peripheral foci of consolidation. Linear
                    bands.
Focal areas of chronic consolidation may be seen in
Lipoid pneumonia. Bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma.
                  Lymphoma.
Diffuse chronic consolidation can be seen in
Bronchoalveolar cell carcinoma. Alveolar proteinosis.
           Sarcoid. Lipoid pneumonia.
Kartagener's syndrome (dyskinetic cilia syndrome)
                     triad
Situs invertus. Bronchiectasis. Sinusitis.
Wegener's granulomatosis lung findings
  Multiple lung nodules or masses. Cavitation occurs
50%. Local or diffuse consolidation due to hemorrhage.
Help distinguish LCH from LAM
LCH: Usually associated with nodules and variable
  appearing cysts. Spares costophrenic angles.
PCP findings
  Extensive ground glass opacities in a patchy or
geographic pattern. 1/3 have upper lobe predominant
    cysts of varying sizes and wall thicknesses
Bronchopleural fistula, postpneumonectomy should be
                     considered if
  Pneumonectomy space fails to fill with fluid. Abrupt
decrease in air-fluid level in the pneumonectomy space.
     New collection of air in previously opacified
 pneumectomy space. Contralateral mediastinal shift.
Superior sulcus tumor symptoms
 Shoulder pain. Horner's syndrome (ptosis, miosis,
anhidrosis). Weakness and atrophy of hand muscles.
Deems a superior sulcus tumor unresectable
Any involvement of vertebral body, brachial plexus,
               subclavian artery.
Satellite nodules
Smaller nodules adjacent to a lung mass. Suggests an
                 infectious etiology.
Mediastinal lipomatosis causes
Cushing's syndrome. Steroid therapy. Obesity.
Rounded atelectasis
Form of peripheral lobar atelectasis that develops with
pleural disease (commonly asbestosis). Volume loss.
  Comet tail (whorled bronchovascular structures).
Diameter of ascending aorta aneurysm
4 cm. 6 cm significant risk of rupture.
Bulla versus bleb
Bulla, sharply demarcated area of emphysema greater
than 1 cm. Bleb, gas-containing space within visceral
                       pleura.
Chest radiograph finding in healed varicella pneumonia
Diffuse discrete pulmonary calcifications.
Nodal status and stage in NSCLC
    N0, No metastatic lymph nodes. N1, Metastatic
ipsilateral hilar lymph nodes. N2, Metastatic ipsilateral
     mediastinal and subcarinal lymph nodes. N3,
  Metastatic contralateral mediastinal or hilar lymph
                         nodes.
Causes of SVC syndrome
     Neoplastic: Lung cancer (especially small cell
carcinoma). Lymphoma. Metastatic carcinoma. Benign:
    Long-term IV devices (catheters. pacemakers).
       Fibrosing mediastinitis (Histoplasmosis).
Neoplastic and nonneoplastic causes of hypertrophic
            pulmonary osteoarthropathy
90% Malignant lung neoplasms. Nonneoplastic: Cystic
 fibrosis. IPF. Localized fibrous lesions of the pleura
Epicardial fat pad sign
Double lucency sign. Displacement (>4 mm) of anterior
 and posterior (epicardial) pericardial fat by pericardial
                          fluid.
What obvious structures should be avoided while
 planning a TTNB (transthoracic needle biopsy)
Interlobar fissures. Pulmonary vessels. Bullae. Areas
                of severe emphysema.
Peripheral consolidation (photographic negative of
               pulmonary edema)
Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia.
Sloughed lung within a cavity
Pulmonary gangrene. Closely associated with
               Klebsiella.
Mosaic lung attenuation causes
Small airways disease. Chronic pulmonary embolism.
Distinguishes small airways disease of chronic PE in
            setting of mosaic attenuation
Expiratory images demonstrate air-trapping in small
                airways disease.
Congenital tracheobronchomegaly
Mounier-Kuhn syndrome.
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis radiographic
                     findings
Central bronchiectasis. Mucous plugging (finger-in-
   glove). Atelectasis. Patchy migratory foci of
                  consolidation.
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis susceptible infections
Nocardia. Aspergillus. Mucormycetes.
Localized fibrous tumor of the pleura enhancement
                     pattern
Intense and homogeneous contrast enhancement.
Calcified fine lung nodules differential
Healed varicella. Healed histoplasmosis. Silicosis.
              Calcified metastases.
CT findings of Swyer-James syndrome
Areas of decreased lung attenuation with associated
     reducting in number and size of vessels.
 Bronchiectasis. Air trapping on expiratory images.
Cardiac bronchus
 Blind-ending diverticulum arising from medial wall of
bronchus intermedius. Rarely presents with recurrent
    infections, hemoptysis, cough, and or dyspnea.
Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia CT
                      findings
Patchy bilateral airspace consolidation with peripheral,
subpleural distribution. Poorly defined lung nodules in
             a peribronchiolar distribution.
Triad of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease
Severe pulmonary artery hypertension. Evidence of
   pulmonary edema. Normal wedge pressure.
Water lily sign
Echinococcus cysts: Endocyst ruptures its contents
 within the ectocyst, floating on top of debris, like a
                       water lily.
Differential diagnosis for wall-to-wall heart?
Tricuspid regurgitation. Pericardial effusion. Dilated
                  cardiomyopathy.
Common predisposing factors for aortic dissection
Hypertension. Annuloaortic ectasia: Marfan or Ehlers-
  Danlos syndrome. Bicuspid aortic valve. Aortic
               aneurysm. Arteritis.
Anatomic structure separating Type A from Type B
          (Stanford) aortic dissections
Left subclavian artery. Distal type B. Proximal type A.
Chest bone findings associated with Marfan syndrome
Pectus excavatum. Scoliosis.
Pectus excavatum associations
Marfan syndrome. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Mitral
 valve prolapse. Homocystinuria. Hunter-Hurler
                  syndromes.
4 life threatening complications of type A aortic
                    dissection
 Coronary artery dissection (myocardial infarction).
   Carotid artery dissection (stroke). Pericardial
hemorrhage (tamponade). Aortic valve rupture (aortic
                   regurgitation).
Helps distinguish ventricle true aneurysms from
               pseudoaneurysms
Pseudoaneurysm: Inferoposterior location. Narrow
 neck (less than 50%). Aneurysm: Anteroapical
               location. Wide neck.
Which aberrant subclavian artery (right or left) is a
                 vascular ring
 Right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery.
Left-sided ligamentum arteriosum completes the ring.
Causes of SVC syndrome
Neoplastic: Bronchogenic carcinoma. Metastases.
    Lymphoma. Infectious: Fungal infection
     (histoplasmosis, fibrosing mediastinitis).
Persistent left superior vena cava associations
ASD. Tetralogy of Fallot. P(T)APVR.
Tetralogy of Fallot. 4 primary lesions
Overriding aorta. VSD. Pulmonar infundibular stenosis.
            Right ventricular hypertrophy.
Thoracic vessels. Takayasu arteritis involvement
Aorta. Right common carotid.Subclavian arteries.
               Pulmonary arteries.
Causes of constritive pericarditis
     Cardiac surgery. Radiation therapy. Uremic
pericarditis. Viral pericarditis (coxsackie). Tuberculous
                        pericarditis.
Treatment of intramural hematoma of aorta
Similar to aorta dissections: type A (surgically) type B
                      (medically).
Sinus of valsalva aneurysm versus aortic root dilation
Sinus of valsalva aneurysm is focal dilation of one
         sinus of Valsalva, not entire root.
TAPVR types
Type I: Supracardiac drainage. Snowman heart. Type
 II: Cardiac. Coronary sinus or right atrium drainage.
   Type III: Infracardiac. Portal vein, hepatic vein, or
 ductus venosus drainage (pulmonary edema due to
                       obstruction).
Aortic pseudoaneurysm causes
Atherosclerosis (penetrating ulcer). Infection. Trauma.
                      Iatrogenic.
Mirror-image right aortic arch congential heart disease
                     associations
Tetralogy of Fallot. Truncus arteriosus.
4 components of scimitar syndrome
Right lung hypoplasia. Hypoplastic right pulmonary
 artery. Right lower lobe systemic arterial supply.
              PAPVR from right lung.
Partial congenital absence of the pericardium findings:
  Leftward deviation of the heart without deviation of
mediastinum. Prominent left atrial appendage. Lung
located between aorta and pulmonary artery confirms
                      diagnosis.
Heterotaxy syndrome associated with interruption of
          IVC with Azygous continuation
Bilateral left-sidedness/polysplenia syndrome.
Features that suggest a primary malignant cardiac
                      tumor
Invasiveness. Extension outside of heart. Involvement
    of more than one chamber. Central necrosis or
        cavitation. Large pericardial effusion.
Pulmonary sling aberrant course
  Left pulmonary artery arises from right pulmonary
artery and courses between esophagus and trachea.

				
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