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Migrators and Nomads Migration: The long term relocation of an individual, household, or group to a new location outside the community of origin. Traders are not considered as migrators! “Courage Culture” Live in harsh environments Survival skills Physical strength Males have strong bonds of loyalty Violence between and among clans (worked against unity of groups) Hospitality Only when something bonds them can they unite (Genghis Khan or Islam) Utilitarian art – portable, has use (pants, tents, saddles) Little social differentiation because lack special labor Male vs. female roles Women – have sons, are a piece of property, marriage alliance men – other stuff (important things) Nomadic Facts Nomads controlled 90% of land, most are shift- cultivators (forest) or pastoralists (steppes). They are 10% of the population. At times they settled and formed new societies like Hittites and Aztecs Reasons for Migration Economic conditions Political conditions Conflict/War Environmental conditions Culture/Traditions Other Factors: Push (forced) vs. pull (voluntary) In vs. out Pastoralists Kinds of pastoralists: Reindeer, horse, camel, cattle Live in harmony with nature ,annual migrations Need large tracts of land to maintain herds Highly mobile (horses and camels) Develop chariots, bridle, stirrups, pants At times could topple settled society Huns topple Gupta, Roman and Han Early Nomads Indo-European Tribes were the first that we know (c. 4,000-1000BCE) because of language Central Asian nomads – due to environment some moved to river valleys (China) some became pastoralists others stayed nomadic and some became fishermen Remained dependant on agricultural societies for grains and finished products Traded animal products Not always peaceful Indo-European Migrators Bantu Migrations Began perhaps 3,000 B.C.E.-1000 C.E. Spread from Nigerian area south & east Led to 500 related Bantu languages Bantu were agriculturalists – led to conflict over land use Spread technology for iron metallurgy Diets were supplemented after arrival of bananas from southeast Asia – led to population growth Strained resources led to changes in political organization – small chiefdoms created (ex. Kongo) but were a stateless society. Huns Oceania - migrations Travelled in canoes fitted with sails Sailed from southeast Asia to New Guinea for trade Ocean-going outrigger canoes throughout Pacific basin Arrived in Australia before introduction of agriculture –( remained hunter –gatherer society until arrival of Europeans) Austronesian seafarers introduced yams, taro, pigs, chickens to New Guinea Significance of Migrators Regarded as barbarians by agriculturalists Developed long distance trade (silk road) Spread religions like Buddhism and Islam Spread inventions among societies (paper) Attracted to wealth of sedentary life (like ravens to shiny things) Transmission of disease (plague) Demanded tribute Comparison Mentally visualize a Venn diagram comparing nomads to pastoralists in the Foundations time period! Essay Prompt: Compare the economy of the nomads and pastoralists to that of the settled people during the Neolithic Revolution.
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