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Migrators and Nomads

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					Migrators and Nomads
Migration: The long term relocation of an
 individual, household, or group to a new
location outside the community of origin.


            Traders are not considered as migrators!
               “Courage Culture”
   Live in harsh environments
   Survival skills
   Physical strength
   Males have strong bonds of loyalty
   Violence between and among clans (worked against unity
    of groups)
   Hospitality
   Only when something bonds them can they unite (Genghis
    Khan or Islam)
   Utilitarian art – portable, has use (pants, tents, saddles)
   Little social differentiation because lack special labor
   Male vs. female roles
       Women – have sons, are a piece of property, marriage alliance
       men – other stuff (important things)
              Nomadic Facts
   Nomads controlled 90% of land, most are shift-
    cultivators (forest) or pastoralists (steppes).
    They are 10% of the population.
   At times they settled and formed new societies
    like Hittites and Aztecs
         Reasons for Migration
   Economic conditions
   Political conditions
   Conflict/War
   Environmental conditions
   Culture/Traditions
   Other Factors:
       Push (forced) vs. pull (voluntary)
       In vs. out
                 Pastoralists
   Kinds of pastoralists:
       Reindeer, horse, camel, cattle
   Live in harmony with nature ,annual
    migrations
   Need large tracts of land to maintain herds
   Highly mobile (horses and camels)
       Develop chariots, bridle, stirrups, pants
   At times could topple settled society
       Huns topple Gupta, Roman and Han
                Early Nomads
   Indo-European Tribes were the first that we
    know (c. 4,000-1000BCE) because of language
   Central Asian nomads – due to environment
       some moved to river valleys (China)
       some became pastoralists others stayed
        nomadic and some became fishermen
       Remained dependant on agricultural societies
        for grains and finished products
       Traded animal products
       Not always peaceful
Indo-European Migrators
               Bantu Migrations
   Began perhaps 3,000 B.C.E.-1000 C.E.
   Spread from Nigerian area south & east
   Led to 500 related Bantu languages
   Bantu were agriculturalists – led to conflict
    over land use
   Spread technology for iron metallurgy
   Diets were supplemented after arrival of
    bananas from southeast Asia – led to
    population growth
   Strained resources led to changes in political
    organization – small chiefdoms created (ex.
    Kongo) but were a stateless society.
Huns
          Oceania -
          migrations
   Travelled in canoes fitted with sails
   Sailed from southeast Asia to New Guinea
    for trade
   Ocean-going outrigger canoes throughout
    Pacific basin
   Arrived in Australia before introduction of
    agriculture –( remained hunter –gatherer
    society until arrival of Europeans)
   Austronesian seafarers introduced yams,
    taro, pigs, chickens to New Guinea
     Significance of Migrators
   Regarded as barbarians by agriculturalists
   Developed long distance trade (silk road)
   Spread religions like Buddhism and Islam
   Spread inventions among societies (paper)
   Attracted to wealth of sedentary life (like
    ravens to shiny things)
   Transmission of disease (plague)
   Demanded tribute
              Comparison
   Mentally visualize a Venn diagram
    comparing nomads to pastoralists in the
    Foundations time period!
   Essay Prompt: Compare the economy of the
    nomads and pastoralists to that of the
    settled people during the Neolithic
    Revolution.

				
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posted:9/26/2012
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