综合英语4Unit3

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综合英语4Unit3 Powered By Docstoc
					             Teaching aims
• 1. to discuss the issue of gender differences
• 2. to read the article Gender Roles from a
     Cutural Perspective intensively
• 3. to focus on the related langugae points
• 4. to further explore this issue through
     writing task:
  Who Are Teachers’ Pets, Boys or Girls?
Part One
            Preparation
  1. How Is It Possible?
    2. Differences Between Men and Women
      3. The Gender Survey
           4. Proverbs and Quotations
    Part One: Preparation >> How Is It Possible?


  1. How Is It Possible?
STEP ONE
Direction: Fill in the blanks with appropriate
words.
    A father and son are driving along the highway
    when                                      control
1)______ suddenly their car goes out of 2)______ and
   crashes/smashes/bumps
3)____________________ into a tree. The father dies
                                      hospital
instantly; his son is rushed to the 4)______. He needs an
                                doctor/surgeon
emergency operation. The 5)____________ comes into the
operating room, looks at the boy and says, “I cannot
    operate
6)__________ on that boy. That boy is my son.”
    Part One: Preparation >> The Gender Survey

STEP TWO
Direction: Work in groups to discuss the following
question based on your opinions in the survey. In what
ways do people see women and men as different?
     Most people think that women are more
emotional and more compassionate than men.
They are also viewed as better listeners and
better able to do many things at once. Most
of us believe women have better “people
skills”.
      We all think that men have a more
aggressive nature. They are also more willing
to take risks than women. All of the girls in
our group believe that men are self-centered.
  Part One: Preparation >> Proverbs and Quotations


 4. Proverbs and Quotations
Direction: According to relationship counselor John
Gray, difficulties in relationships between a man and a
woman lie in the lack of understanding and acceptance
of the differences between the two sexes. Gray’s
famous book “Men Are From Mars, Women Are From
Venus” turned out to be a phenomenal best seller.
In-Class Reading

      Gender Roles from a
         Cultural Perspective
     Background Information

        Global Reading

           Detailed Reading

               Post-Reading
Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading




        Global Reading
        Organization Analysis
           Understanding Specific Information
              Group Discussion
    Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading

Organization Analysis
1) Introduction (Para. 1)
   It has been proven repeatedly that the various types of
 behavior, emotions, and interests that constitute being masculine
 and feminine are patterned by both heredity and culture.
2) There is a cultural bias in education that favors boys
   over girls. (Para. 2-4)
              A. Teachers called on males in class far more than
                 on female students. (Para. 2)    >> More details
Supporting
evidence:     B. Teachers assigned boys and girls different tasks
                 according to stereotyped gender roles. (Para. 3)
                                                   >> More details
              C. Gender-biased education is also reflected in the
                 typical American teacher’s assumption. (Para. 4)
                                                   >> More details
    Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading


3) The educational bias begins at home. (Para. 5)

   A. Supporting evidence: >> More details

   B. The consequence when these lessons carry over from
      the home to the classroom:
          Girls are generally observed to be more dependent
      on the teacher, more anxious about being “right” in their
      answers than in being intellectually independent,
      analytical, or original.
   C. Conclusion: Through the educational process that occupies
      most of the child’s waking hours, society reinforces its
      established values and turns out each sex in its traditional
      and expected mold.
      Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading


>> details   2) A:
       i) Its consequence: This has a tremendous impact on
           the learning process.
      ii) The reason for this: Active classroom participants develop
           more positive attitudes and go on to higher achievement.
     iii) Two examples:
         a. In many of the former all-women’s colleges, the boys
            were “taking over” the classroom discussions and
            active participation by women students had diminished
            noticeably.
         b. A similar subordination of female to male students
            has also been observed in law and medical school
            classrooms in recent years.
                                                     Back
Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading




        >> details
        2) B:
             i) Its consequence: This prevented girls from
             participating as actively as boys in class.
             ii) An example: A teacher had the little boys
             perform the scientific “experiment” while the
             girls were given the task of putting the
             materials away.

                                               Back
      Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading


>> details   2) C:

       i) The assumption: Boys will do better in the “hard”,
          “masculine” subjects of math and science while girls are
          expected to have better verbal and reading skills.

       ii) Three examples:
         a. American boys do develop reading problems, while
            girls, who are superior to boys in math up to the age of
            nine, fall behind from then on.
         b. In Germany, all studies are considered “masculine”,
            and it is girls who develop reading problems.
         c. In Japan, where early education appears to be nonsexist,
            both girls and boys do equally well in reading.
                                                     Back
Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading



                >> details   3) A:




i) Boy preschoolers were permitted to go away from home
   in a much wider area than girl preschoolers.

ii) Boys were encouraged to develop intellectual curiosity
    and physical skills, while girls are filled with fears of the
    world outside the home and with the desire to be
    approved of for their “goodness” and obedience to rules.


                                               Back
   Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading


Group Discussion
  Direction: Work in groups to answer the following
  questions.

  Question 1:
     Is it true with Chinese students that boys
  do better in math and science, while girls
  have better verbal and reading skills?
  Explain your answer.
  Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Global Reading




Sample
    Yes, I think so. As far as I know, most boy
students in China do better in math and science. It
is fully demonstrated by the number of boy students
who have won prizes in the Olympic Science
Contests and by the ratio of boy students to girl
students in science departments in colleges and
universities.                    Go to Sample 2
Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading




           Detailed Reading
            Passage Reading
              Understanding Sentences
                 Word Study
     Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                  Understanding Sentences

1. Over the past few decades, it has been proven
  innumerable times that the various types of behavior,
  emotions, and interests that constitute being masculine
  and feminine are patterned by both heredity and culture.
  (ll. 1-3)
               在过去的几十年里,已经无数次地证实了这样一个事实:
Translation    构成男子阳刚之气和女子阴柔之气的各种不同类型的行
               为、情感和兴趣都既是遗传又是文化熏陶的结果。




                                                Back to the text
       Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                    Understanding Sentences
  2. “… those students who become active classroom
    participants develop more positive attitudes and go on
     to higher achievement.” (ll. 24-26)

Translation    那些积极的课堂活动参与者对学习更加乐观有信心,并
               能在今后取得更大的成就。


Comments       The word “develop” is used four times in the
               passage. The other three sentences are:
               “… American boys do, indeed, develop reading
               problems…”(ll. 44-45)


                                                To be continued
Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

             Understanding Sentences


“… and it is girls who develop reading problems.” (ll.
47-48)
“Instead of being encouraged to develop intellectual
curiosity and physical skills that are useful in dealing
with the outside world…” (ll. 54-56)




                                         Back to the text
    Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                 Understanding Sentences

3. … it was observed by professors and women students
  alike that the boys were “taking over” the classroom
  discussions and that active participation by women
  students had diminished noticeably. (ll. 28-30)

Translation 教授们和女生们都发现男孩们正在接管课堂讨论,而女
            生们积极参与的程度则明显下降。

Comments    You use “alike” after mentioning two
            or more people, groups, or things in
            order to emphasize that you are
            referring to both or all of them.

                                             To be continued
     Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                    Understanding Sentences

Comments    alike
             1. similar
             2. We use “alike” after mentioning two or more
             people, groups, or things in order to emphasize
             that we are referring to both or all of them.

Example 1) Friends and family alike were shocked by the
           news of her suicide.
           2) It caused confusion among allies and
              adversaries alike.



                                              Back to the text
    Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                 Understanding Sentences

4. As an example of a self-fulfilling prophecy, American
   boys do, indeed, develop reading problems, while girls,
   who are superior to boys in math up to the age of
   nine, fall behind from then on. (ll. 43-46)

Translation 结果,美国的男孩们确实在阅读上
            出了问题,而在数学方面女孩尽管
            在九岁以前一直比男孩强,但此后
            却落在了他们后面。这成了预言自
            我应验的一个例子。




                                             Back to the text
      Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                   Understanding Sentences
 5. “…girls are filled with fears of the world outside the
   home and with the desire to be approved of for their
   ‘goodness’ and obedience to rules.” (ll. 56-58)
              对女孩的教育使她们对自己家外面的世界充满了恐惧,
Translation
              而且期望别人对自己的优良品格和循规蹈矩加以认可。

              The verb phrase “approve of somebody/something”
Comments      means “feel or believe that somebody/something is
              good, acceptable or satisfactory”. So in the sentence,
              “with the desire to be approved of” means “girls have
              the desire that other people will approve of them”.
              And “for their ‘goodness’ and obedience to rules”
              indicates the reasons for other people’s approval.

                                               Back to the text
     Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                  Understanding Sentences

6. These lessons carry over from the home to the
  classroom, where girls are generally observed to be
  more dependent on the teacher, more concerned with
  the form and neatness of their work than with its
  content, and more anxious about being ‘right’ in their
  answers than in being intellectually independent,
   analytical, or original. (ll. 28-30)
              这类教诲从家庭一直延续到课堂。于是,在课堂里我们常
Translation
              常可以看到女孩们更依赖教师,更注重的是作业的形式和
              整洁而不是内容,更在乎他们所给的答案是否“正确”
              而不在乎智力方面的独立自主以及分析能力或创造能力的
              提高。
                                              To be continued
     Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                  Understanding Sentences


Comments 句中“where… or original”是非限定性定语从句,修
         饰前面句中的名词classroom。

          The phrase “carry over” means “to continue to
          exist or apply in a new situation”.


Example   His rational outlook on science carried over to
          child rearing.




                                              Back to the text
  Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                        Word Study
constitute v.
1. to form or make up; be 组成,构成;形成,成为
 1) the 50 states that constitute USA
 2) Your attitude constitutes a direct challenge to my
    authority.
2. to formally establish or appoint 制定,设立;任命
     Governments should be constituted by the will of
     the people.


 辨析        comprise

                                           To be continued
 Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                       Word Study
辨析      comprise
1. [+n.] to consist of (parts) 包含,包括
1) The United Kingdom comprises England, Wales,
     Scotland, and Northern Ireland.
2) a commission of inquiry comprising three
   eminent judges and three members of the public
2. (of parts) to form 组成

   Fifteen separate publics comprised the Soviet Union.



                                          To be continued
 Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                       Word Study

试比较下列用法:
1) The United Kingdom consists of / is composed
   of / comprises England, Wales, Scotland, and
   Northern Ireland.

2) England, Wales, Scotland,
   and Northern Ireland
   constitute/comprise the
   United Kingdom.




                       Back to the text
     Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                           Word Study
 incorporate…
into… (one thing) with something else already in
   to unite
  existence 结合;合并;收编
    1) incorporate the letter into her diary
    2) incorporate your suggestion into the new plan
    3) The small company is incorporated into Haier Group.

 其他用法        incorporate… with… 合并

     Mr. Smith’s company is incorporated with other
     small companies.

                                              Back to the text
   Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                         Word Study

aspiration n.
aspire v.
 to direct one’s hopes and efforts to some important
 aim 追求,渴望;有志于
 1) an aspiring young actress
 2) [+to, after] He aspired after a political career / to
    the leadership of the party; aspire after truth,
    aspire to fame
 3) [+to-v.] She aspires to become president.


                                            Back to the text
   Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                         Word Study
develop      v.
 1. grow, increase, or become larger or more complete
    培育,发展
    Their friendship developed through their shared
    interest in the arts.
    Warm rains and summer suns develop the crops.
2. to cause gradually to acquire a specific role, function,
   or form (逐步)产生,显现
    She’s developed some strange habits since she
    started living on her own.



                                            Back to the text
 Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                       Word Study

open the door to
 make… possible or available, offer opportunity to…
 向······开门


The establishment of joint
ventures open the door to
wider international
cooperation.




                                          Back to the text
  Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                        Word Study

subordination n.

subordinate v.
[与to连用] to put in a position of less importance 使处于
次要地位,使从属于······, 放在······之下
He subordinated his wishes to the general good of the
group.




                                           To be continued
  Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                        Word Study
subordinate adj.
[to] of a lower rank or position; less important 下级的,
次级的,从属的;不太重要的
All other considerations are subordinate to our need
for steady profits.
subordinate n.
someone who is of a lower rank in a job, and takes
orders from his or her SUPERIOR (= the person higher
in rank) 部属,部下,下级
He treats his subordinates very badly.


                            Back to the text
  Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                        Word Study
dimension n.
1. factor, element 范围,方面
 1) different dimensions to that problem
 2) He’s a good newsman and he has that extra
    dimension.
2. a measure of spatial extent, especially, height,
   width, and length 维,度,元
 1) of one dimension 一维的,线性的
     of two dimension 二维的,平面的
     of three dimension 三维的,立体的
 2) Time is sometimes called the fourth dimension.
                                           Back to the text
  Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Detailed Reading

                          Word Study
turn out
1. to shut off 关,熄灭(灯、煤气等)
     turn out the light

2. to produce or make something 生产,制造
    1) The factory turns out 300 units a day.
   2) The school has turned out some good
      scholars.
3. to be found to be 最后结果是,最终成为
  The rookie turned out to be the best hitter on the team.


                                           Back to the text
Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading




    Post-Reading
     Vocabulary
        Writing Down the Antonyms
          Finding the Right Definition
              Filling in the Blanks
     Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading

Vocabulary
Directions: Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word
from the box. Change the form in necessary.

  assign       noticeably    bias                   constitute
  genetic     postgraduate approve                participation
  deprive      unintentional

1) New      genetic tests for other dread diseases are
   appearing almost every day.
2) When teachers        assign homework, students
    usually feel an obligation to do it.
3) After her illness, she had become noticeably thinner.
4) I cannot support a policy of which I have
   never     approved        .
    Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading

 assign        noticeably   bias                   constitute
 genetic     postgraduate approve                participation
 deprive      unintentional

5) “ Bias against girls in not something new; it has existed
    for a long time in our history,” she argued.

6) No one can function properly if they are deprived of
   adequate sleep.
7) The local authority decided that the present housing
    conditions constituted a risk for the mother and baby.
8) The president’s participation        in the economic
    summit (首脑会议) is seen as vital to its success.
     Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading


  assign        noticeably   bias                   constitute
  genetic     postgraduate approve                participation
  deprive      unintentional

9) Perhaps he had slightly misled them, but it was
   quite unintentional .
10) Funding a course is one of the most challenging
    things people face when considering
      postgraduate study.
     Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading

Writing Down the Antonyms
Directions: Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate word
from the box. Change the form in necessary.

 conscious— unconscious positive— negative
 encourage— discourage    superior— inferior
           indirectly
 directly— indirectly   biased— fair
 sexist— nonsexist      limited— unlimited
 dependent— independent appropriately— inappropriately
                                          inappropriately
    Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading

Filling in the Blanks
Directions: Complete each of the sentences with one phrase
from the box. Change the form if necessary.

  fall behind        carry over         take over
  turn out           put away           call on

1) I’m sure it will turn out   all right in the end.
2) Their study shows that sports skills carry over into
   personal life.
3) I find myself calling on the boys more often, because
   they tend to be the ones having trouble staying on task.
    Part Two: In-Class Reading >> Post-Reading


     fall behind          carry over        take over
     turn out             put away         call on
4) I used to have trouble getting all the laundry
     put away before it was time to do the next batch.
5) After her time in hospital, Jenny’s parents are afraid
    she has fallen behind educationally.
                                            take over
6) People are wondering who’s going to __________
    when the old president dies.




End of In-Class Reading            Go to After-Class Reading
Part Two: After-Class Reading >>


After-Class Reading

    Passage 1


  Boys Are Teachers’ Pets
    Passage 2

  What Kind of Brain Do
  You Have?
     Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage I

                  Words and Expressions
critic n.
1. a person who gives judgments about the good and bad
  qualities of something, esp. art, music, films, etc., esp.
  someone who does this as a job [尤指文学/艺术] 评论家,
  批评家
   She’s the music critic for “The times”.
2. a person who dislikes and expresses strong disapproval
   of something or someone 吹毛求疵的人,爱挑剔者
1) An outspoken critic of the government’s defence policy.
2) Its’ easy to be an armchair critic. (=do nothing oneself
   but express disapproval of others)
     Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage I

                  Words and Expressions
critical adj.
1. of or being a moment of great danger, difficulty, or
  uncertainty, when a sudden change to a better or worse
  condition is likely; of or being a crisis 危急的;紧要关头的;
  关键时刻的
   1) a critical stage in his illness / in the negotiations
   2) We arrived at the critical moment.
   3) The next two weeks will be critical (for the company).
2. providing a careful judgment of the good and bad
   qualities of something 判断审慎的;评判性的
   Her new book received critical acclaim. (=was praised
   by the critics)
      Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage I

                   Words and Expressions
criticize/criticize v.
1. [for] to judge with disapproval; point out the faults of
  批评指责
    The report strongly criticizes the police for failing to
     deal with this problem.
2. to make a judgments about the good and bad points of
   评论

     It’s hard to criticize one’s own work.
     Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage I

                  Words and Expressions
criticism n.
1. (an) unfavorable judgment or expression of disapproval
  批评;指责

   1) Criticism doesn’t worry me.
   2) This decision has come in for (=received) a great
       deal of criticism.
2. (an example of) the forming and expressing of judgments
   about the good or bad qualities of anything, esp. artistic
   work; work of a critic 评论; 批评文
      literary criticism
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage I

                 Words and Expressions
disregard v.
to pay no attention to; treat as unimportant or unworthy
of notice 不顾,不理会;无视,漠视
  1) Mark totally disregarded my advice.
  2) He told us to disregard everything we’d learned so
     far and start again.
  3) She completely disregarded all our objections.

辨析     ignore overlook neglect
       Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage I

                     Words and Expressions
Ignore v. [T] to take no notice of; refuse to pay attention to 不顾;不理;忽视
     1) My advice was completely ignored.
     2) The government would be unwise to ignore the
        growing dissatisfaction with its economic policies.

overlook
  1. to have or give a view of from above 俯视, 俯瞰
    1) Our room / We overlooked the sea.
    2) We’re overlooked here. (= the neighbours can see into our house)
  2. not to notice; miss 没有注意到,忽视
     These little details are easily overlooked.
  3. to pretend not to see; forgive 假装没有看见;宽恕
      I’ll overlook your mistake this time.

neglect to give too little attention or care to 忽视,忽略
    a neglected garden 无人照管的花园
  Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II


Passage 2

What Kind of Brain Do You Have?
    1. Pre-Reading Questions
       2. Organization Analysis
         3. Words and Expressions
            4. Key Sentences
               5. Main Points
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                 Words and Expressions

drive    n.
 1. [C] an important natural human need which must be
   fulfilled 人类的基本欲求,本能的需求
   Hunger, thirst, and sex are among the strongest
   human drives.
 2. [U] a forceful active quality of mind that gets things
    done; Initiative 动力;魄力;能动性
   He’s clever but he won’t succeed because he lacks
   drive.

辨析      urge initiative motive motivation
   Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                Words and Expressions

辨析     urge initiative motive motivation

urge    n.

  a strong wish or need

  1) powerful sexual urges
  2) [+to-v] I had a sudden urge to tell the boss what I
     thought of him.
     Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                  Words and Expressions
initiative      n.
 1. [U] the ability to make decisions and take actions without
    asking for the help or advice of others【褒】自主决断及行
    事的能力;主动性
  1) I wish my son would show a bit more initiative.
  2) Don’t keep asking me for advice; use your (own) initiative.
 2. the first movement or action which starts something
     happening 创始;发端,率先,带头;主动的行动
  1) He took the initiative in organizing a party after his
     brother’s wedding.
  2) The government is making some fresh initiatives to
     try to resolve the dispute.
                                                   To be continued
   Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                Words and Expressions

3. [the+S] the position of being able to take action or
  influence events 能够采取行动或影响事态发展的地位;主动权

  Because of a stupid mistake, we lost the initiative in
  the negotiations; the other side has the initiative now.

4. on one’s own initiative (done) according to one’s own
   plan and without help; not suggested by someone
   else 主动地;自主地
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                  Words and Expressions
motive       n.
 1. reason for action; that which urges a person to act in
   a certain way 动机,目的

  1) Jealousy was the motive for the murder / the murder
     motive.
  2) What do you think his motives were in helping us?
  3) We had begun to suspect his motives. (= to think that
     he had acted for bad reasons)
   Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                Words and Expressions

motivation        n.
   [U] the state of being motivated; need or purpose
   动力;动机;诱因

  1) The stronger the motivation, the more quickly a
     person will learn a foreign language.
  2) [+to-v] His parents give him so much that he’s got no
     motivation to get a job.
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                 Words and Expressions
claim     v.
 1. (on, for) to ask for, take, or state that one should have
   (something to which one has a right) (根据权利而)
   对······提出要求;索取;认领;声称有······的权利
 1) Did you claim on the insurance after your car accident?
 2) Old people are entitled to claim a special heating
    allowance from the government.
 3) If no one claims the lost umbrella, the person who
    found it can keep it.
 4) A small terrorist group has claimed responsibility for the
    bombing in London.


                                                  To be continued
     Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                  Words and Expressions
2. to declare to be true; state, esp. in the face of opposition;
  MAINTAIN (尤指面对反对意见)断言;声称;主张;认定
     They claim to have discovered / claim that they have
     discovered a cure for the disease, but this had not
     yet been proved.

3. to deserve or need 值得,需要(关注或花时间)
      This problem claims our undivided
      attention.

辨析      announce denounce                    declare
        assert maintain
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                 Words and Expressions
announce        vt.
1. to make known publicly 通告,公诸于众,宣布
 1) They announced the date of their wedding in the paper.
 2) (that) The government has announced that electricity
    charges will go up in the spring.
  3) (fig.喻) The bright flowers announced that spring was
      here.
2. to state in a loud voice (大声) 宣布
     Everyone was silent as he announced the winner of
     the competition.
3. to read (news) or introduce (a person or act ) on the radio,
   television, etc.(在电台、电视台)报告(新闻),主持(节目)
   Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                Words and Expressions
denounce          v.
to express strong disapproval of, esp. publicly;
CONDEMN (尤指公开) 指责,谴责;告发


1) The minister’s action was
   denounced in all the
   newspapers.
2) She was denounced as a traitor.
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                  Words and Expressions
declare      v.
1. to make known publicly or officially, according to
  rules, custom, etc. 宣布,宣告,声明
1) Britain declared war on Germany in 1914.
2) Jones was declared the winner of the fight.
3) I now declare this meeting open.
4) The medical examiner declared me fit.




                                                  To be continued
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                 Words and Expressions
2. to state or show with great force so that there is no
   doubt about the meaning 断言,宣称
 1) He declared his loyalty to the government / his total
     opposition to the plan.
 2) She declared (that) she knew nothing about the robbery.
 3) She declared herself (to be) a supporter of the cause.
 4) The police declared themselves (to be) completely
    puzzled by the lack of evidence.
3. to make a full statement of (property for which tax may
  be owed to the government) 申报(纳税)
   The customs officer asked me if I had anything to declare.
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                 Words and Expressions

assert     vt.
1. to state or declare forcefully 断言,宣称,声明,力陈
 1) She asserted her opinions.
 2) Although she was found guilty, she
    continued to assert her innocence.
 3) The government repeatedly asserted
    that it will not change its policy.
 2. to make a claim to; defend (a right or claim) by forceful
    action(坚决)主张,坚持;维护
     1) to assert one’s rights/independence


                                                  To be continued
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                 Words and Expressions

 2) He asserted his authority by making them be quiet.


3. assert oneself to show one’s power, control, importance,
   etc. 显示自己的权力(权威,地位等);出风头
    Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                 Words and Expressions
maintain v.
 1. to continue to have, do, etc., as before; Keep up
   维持;保持

  1) He took the lead, and maintained it until the end of
     the race.
  2) I hope you will maintain your recent improvement.
  3) Part of her job is to maintain good relations with our
     suppliers.




                                                  To be continued
   Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                Words and Expressions

2. to keep (something) in good condition by making
   repairs to it and taking care of it 维修,保养
 1) The railway lines have to be constantly maintained.
 2) a well-maintained house

3. to (continue to) argue in favour of or declare to be
   true; assert 坚决主张;(继续)为······辩护

 1) Throughout the trial he maintained his innocence.
 2) Some people still maintain that the Earth is flat.



                                                 To be continued
   Part Two: After-Class Reading >> Passage II

                Words and Expressions

4. to support with money 赡养; to keep in existence 维
  持······的存在,使继续存在

  He is too poor to maintain his family.

5. to continue in one’s present state or course of action
  维持现状
  The supplies of food were scarcely enough to
  maintain life.
Part Three
       Further Development
1. Interpreting Opinions
 2. Avoiding Sexist Language
  3. Avoiding Gender Bias in the
     Classroom
    4. Single-Sex or Co-Educational ?
      5. Ideal Wife and Ideal Husband
    Part Three: Further Development >> Interpreting Opinions


Interpreting Opinions
Step One
Directions: Read the poem by Alfred
Tennyson (1809-1892) carefully. Work in
groups and answer the questions below.

Man for the field and woman for the hearth (炉边,喻家庭)
Man for the sword and for the needle she
Man with the head and woman with the heart
Man to command and woman to obey;
All else confusion.
                               —from The Princess (1847)
       Part Three: Further Development >> Interpreting Opinions

  Sample

The poem can be paraphrased as follows:
Men should work in the field and women in the house;
Men should be trained to fight and women to mend and sew;
Men are motivated by the intellect and women by the heart;
Men are meant to give orders and women to obey orders;
If the roles aren’t divided this way, there will be confusion.
     Part Three: Further Development >> Interpreting Opinions

 Step Two
 Directions: Read the following sentences quoted
 from The Feminine Mystique (《女性的奥秘》) by
 Betty Friedan. Work in groups to answer the
 questions below.

  “A girl should not expect special privileges
because of her sex, but neither should she
‘adjust’ to prejudice and discriminations.
She must learn to compete not as a
woman, but as a human being.”

What would Friedan say about Tennyson’s
ideas? Who do you agree with?
                                                         Sample
   Part Three: Further Development >> Avoiding Sexist Language

Avoiding Sexist Language
Directions: Sexist language assigns roles or
characteristics to people on the basis of gender. One of
the most widespread occurrences of sexist language is
the use of the pronoun he to refer to someone of
unidentified sex. Work in groups and suggest ways of
avoiding sexist language.

     Sexist Language                  Nonsexist Language
policeman                          police officer
businessman                        businessperson
fireman                            firefighter
chairman                           chairperson, chair, head
workman                            worker, laborer
salesman                           salesperson, salesclerk
   Part Three: Further Development >> Avoiding Sexist Language


  Sexist Language                      Nonsexist Language


Sample:                          A doctor has little time to read
A doctor has little time to      outside his or her speciality.
read outside his speciality.     Or: Doctors have little time to
                                 read outside their sepcialities.


1) A good surgeon                A good surgeon explains
    explains procedures          procedures to his or her
    to his patients.             patients.
                                 Or: Good surgeons explain
                                 procedures to their patients.
   Part Three: Further Development >> Avoiding Sexist Language


  Sexist Language                      Nonsexist Language


2) A journalist has to           Journalists have to respect their
    respect his deadline.        deadlines.
                                 Or: A journalist has to respect
                                 his or her deadline.


3) Anyone who knows              Anyone who knows the answer
    the answer should            should raise his or her hand.
   raise his hand.               Or: Anyone who knows the
                                 answer should raise their hand.
    Part Three: Further Development >> Avoiding Sexist Language


    Sexist Language                    Nonsexist Language


4) Everyone should admit          Everyone should admit his or
   his mistakes.                  her mistakes.
                                  Or: Anyone should admit their
                                  mistakes.

5) None of the students had       None of the students had the
   the books he deeded.           books he or she needed.
    Part Three: Further Development >> Avoiding Sexist Language


    Sexist Language                     Nonsexist Language

6) Everyone hopes that            Everyone hopes that he or she
    he will win the               will win the scholarship.
    scholarship (奖学金).            Or: Everyone hopes to win the
                                  scholarship.
                                  Or: Everyone hopes that they
                                  will win the scholarship.
Part Three: Further Development >> Avoiding Gender Bias…

Avoiding Gender Bias in the Classroom
Directions: Work in groups to work out for your teacher a
list of suggestions for avoiding gender bias in the classroom.
Two sample suggestions are provided below for your reference.

Sample suggestions:

— Make sure your expectations are the same for all of
  your students. Both genders can succeed at math,
  science, language, arts and reading.

— Avoid stereotyping jobs for students such as
   having girls clean up and boys carry things.
   Part Three: Further Development >> Avoiding Gender Bias…

     Here are some suggestions for avoiding gender
     bias in the classroom:
 Sample

— Use inclusive language. “You guys” may be a popular way of addressing
  groups, but it’s an example of gender bias.
— Use examples that are gender balanced. If there are none in your
  textbooks, do some research to find some.
— Search books, posters and other instructional materials for gender
  balance.
— Try to put girls and boys in non-traditional situations, such as the
  placement of girls first in this sentence. Isn’t it normally boys, then girls?

— Make the classroom atmosphere one where both girls and boys are
  encouraged, questioned and reinforced.
— Actively integrate groups by not allowing self-segregation.
— Never use gender to group students.
 Part Three: Further Development >> Ideal Wife and Ideal Husband




3) rich                             3) capable of understanding
                                       her husband
4) educated and with a
                                    4) intelligent and educated
   good career
                                    5) having the same interests
5) kind, generous and loyal            as her husband
6) reliable and supportive          6) a good cook
7) sharing interests with           7) able to care about and
   his wife                            educate her child
 Part Three: Further Development >> Ideal Wife and Ideal Husband


Sample                 Yes. In my grandparents’ generation,
                   people, especially women, didn’t have to be
                   well educated so long as their husbands
                   could support the family. A preferred virtue
                   of women was being loyal and good at
                   house-keeping. Of course, a woman would
                   like to marry a rich man, but at that time,
                   rich men were hard to find in China.
                   Families were considered to be living a
                   decent life if they could manage to make
                   ends meet. The living standard was very
                   low.
Part Three: Further Development >> Ideal Wife and Ideal Husband


Sample              In my parents’ generation, knowledge
                and money were even less important than
                family background. The ideal husband and
                the ideal wife would be both workers. Salary
                was low for most people and they rarely had
                a raise. There were no private cars and the
                great majority of city inhabitants had no
                private houses or apartments. The ideal
                husband was the one who had a job in the
                factory with a steady income and ideal wife
                was the one who was thrifty and able to take
                good care of her children. Fortunately the
                divorce rate was low.

End of Part 3                              Go to Part 4
Part Four
    Writing and Translation
  1. Translation
      Knowing About Translation
      Translation Practice
  2. Writing
      Writing Practice
   Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Translation


Translation Practice

 Reference:
   教室是男生的天下;即使在他们
 人数并不占多数时,他们仍占据老师
 三分之二的注意力。他们被允许取笑
 女生,他们作业做得马虎却受表扬,
 要是女生做这样的作业就得不到宽容。
 男生们已经习惯于做老师的宠儿。如
 果女生也受到相同的待遇,男生就会
 抗议,甚至扰乱课堂。
    Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Writing

Writing Practice
Directions: Follow the procedure to conduct a survey
to find out the students’ view of the following topic:

        Who are Teachers’ Pets, Boys or Girls?
Procedure:
1) Design a written questionnaire.
2) Interview at least 30 students.
3) Write a report of your survey, analyzing the answers
   of the respondents to your questions both in the questionnaire
   and the interview. Use at least 6 words or phrases in your
   composition from the list below. Remember to write neatly,
   whether you are male or female.
Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Writing


                   Reference Words



   questionnaire       statement                survey

   comment             correspond to            analyze

   be likely to        natural                  fair

   prefer              perform                  in addition
     Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Writing

Sample 1
           Who are Teachers’ Pets, Boys or Girls?
   This is a difficult question that I can’t really answer on my own,
so I made a survey among 30 other students for their opinions.
There were 9 boys and 21 girls among them. I gave them each
two statements and asked them whether they agreed or
disagreed and why. I have chosen some of the interesting
comments.
    “The teachers’ pets are the top students. That’s fair.”
Seventeen students agreed with this opinion. They said it was
natural because people always like the best things or the best
people. In addition, it is easy for the top students to draw the
teachers’ attention. Average students have fewer chances to
have close contact with teachers, let alone to be their pets.
   Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Writing


  “Male teachers tend to like girls better and female
teachers tend to like boys better.” Five students agreed
with this statement. They said that which gender will be
the teacher’s pets depends on the teacher’s gender.
Obviously, it is all because of the attraction between the
sexes.
  Four students didn’t agree with either statement
because teachers like boys more than girls. They said
that teachers always think boys are smarter than girls.
Teachers are used to asking boys to answer questions
and letting them do hands-on work. One person said it
was not because teachers liked boys better, but because
they think girls are afraid of losing face.
    Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Writing

    Finally, there were four students who thought
teachers like girls more than boys because girls
are more obedient and neat. They can, and will,
help teachers do things. They also said that
girls generally got higher marks.
    I think teachers in China are fairer than those
in the West. When I read “Boys Are Teachers’
Pets” I was surprised. I never thought girls
would be ignored even if they were good
students. Perhaps some teachers prefer girls in
primary school and boys in middle school. But,
all in all, I think the top students are always
teachers’ pets.
       Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Writing

 Sample 2
             Who are Teachers’ Pets, Boys or Girls?
     To answer this question, we designed a questionnaire
  and gave it to 30 students. They just had to put a mark in
  the square that corresponded to their opinion. We then
  analyzed the results of our survey. The results of the
  survey are shown in the following table:
Who are teachers’ pets?    boys   girls neither   It depends on the teacher

In primary school          6      20    2         2

In junior middle school    10     11    3         6

In senior middle school    15     6     5         4

In college                 4      4     16        6
   Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Writing


   According to the results of the survey, we can see
that in primary school girls are thought of as teachers’
pets. When they are very young, boys are naughtier
than girls, and the latter are generally very well-
behaved.
    As they get older, boys are more likely to be
teachers’ pets. In middle school, boys perform better in
subjects like math and physics. Boys are thought to be
cleverer than girls. As teenagers, both girls and boys
are well-behaved. Since boys are no longer naughty, it
is easier for them to become teachers’ pets.
   Part Four: Writing and Translation >> Writing



    Most students feel that neither boys nor girls
become teachers’ pets in college. Teachers don’t
know their students as well as teachers in junior or
senior middle school, so they don’t have pets.
    According to the results of our survey, we can
conclude that whether boys or girls are teachers’
pets depends on their age.




End of Part 4                              Go to Part 5
Part Five Quiz
      Part Five: Quiz >> Filling in the Blanks

     Filling in the Blanks
Direction: Fill in each of the blanks with an appropriate
word from the box. Change the form if necessary.

 in the minority    light up    call on   up to      carry over
 for ages    put together      make a thing of       go beyond
 burn to death/ be burnt to death

1. Model aeroplanes come in pieces which you have to
     put together
    _____________.
2. A horrific incident took place in the small town, in which 58 boys
             burnt to death
    were ______________.
                                          up to
3. She continued to care for her father ________ now.
                               carry over
4. Attitudes learned at home ____________ onto the playground.
      Part Five: Quiz >> Filling in the Blanks

 in the minority     light up    call on  up to   carry over
 for ages    put together      make a thing of    go beyond
 burn to death / be burnt to death

        goes beyond
5. This ___________ all kinds of acceptable behavior.
                   lit up
6. As the screen ________, he typed in his password.
                    for ages
7. Don’t lie awake ________ wondering why you are not
   sleeping.
                     make a thing of
8. My parents always _____________ my getting good grades.
                                       call on
9. One male teacher says he tends to ________ the girls more
   because they’re more focused.
                       in the minority
10. Boys are very much ______________ at the dance class.
       Part Five: Quiz >> Synonyms

      Synonyms
Direction: Fill in the blanks with the words listed above. Change the
form if necessary.
 1. drive initiative motive motivation urge


                                             initiative
1) Because of a stupid mistake, we lost the _________ in the
    negotiations; the other side has the initiative now.
                   urge
2) I had a sudden _______ to tell the boss what I thought of him.
                                                         drives
3) Hunger, thirst, and sex are among the strongest human ______.
                    motivation
4) The stronger the _________, the more quickly a person will learn
    a foreign language.
                          motives
5) What do you think his ________ were in helping us?
     Part Five: Quiz >> Synonyms



2. critic critical   criticize/criticise
   criticism



                     critical
6) We arrived at the _______ moment.
7) This decision has come in for (=received) a great deal of
     criticism
   ________.
                    critic
8) She’s the music _______ for “The times”.
                        criticizes
9) The report strongly _________ the police for failing to
   deal with this problem.
     Part Five: Quiz >> Synonyms



3. disregard       ignore
   overlook        neglect



                  disregard
10. He told us to _________ everything we’d learned so
   far and start again.
                 neglecting
11. You’ve been _________ your work.
                                       ignore
12. The government would be unwise to _______ the
   growing dissatisfaction with its economic policies.
         overlook
13. I’ll _______ your mistake this time.
        Part Five: Quiz >> Synonyms

 4. claim announce denounce declare assert maintain

                              announced
14. Everyone was silent as he _________ the winner of the
   competition.
                               asserted
15. The government repeatedly _________ that it will not
   change its policy.
                                                  maintain
16. The supplies of food were scarcely enough to ________
   life.
        declared
17. She _______ herself (to be) a supporter of the cause.
18. The minister’s action was denouncedin all the newspapers.
                              ________
              claims
19. If no one _______ the lost umbrella, the person who found
   it can keep it.
  End of Part 5

				
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