Sanitation in Grain Storage and Handling

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					Sanitation in Grain Storage and

    Material taken from the book chapter by

    Michael Toews and Bhadriraju
      Benefits of clean storage
• Safety hazards of dirty grain
• Aeration savings
• Insect management
      Grain grading definitions
• Recall from week 3            • All of these contribute
  the definitions of              to “filth” which is
  dockage                         commonly called:
• Common constituents             dockage, BCFM,
  – Weed seeds, weed              broken kernels, dust,
    stems, chaff, straw,          and fine material
    sand , dirt, dust, grains
    other than the specified
            Sources of dockage
• Harvesting machinery         • Cropping system (3-
   – Age, condition, setting     year vs 2-year
• Weeds
                               • Climatic conditions
   – Seeds and stems
                               • Maturity of crop at
• Seed (not certified)           specific time of year
• No chemical control          • Machine threshing,
  of weeds                       general grain
• Lack of cultivation            movement
         Sources of dockage
• Insect feeding
• Grain turning
• Moisture content of the grain (especially
  corn) low moisture = more breakage
     Dockage in bulk-stored grain
•   Spout line               • Few operators clean
•   Segregation in-transit     wheat before storage
•   Location in steel bins
•   Under false floors
      Sanitation outside of bins
• Dust accumulation on      • Piles of grain on the
  and near grain              ground and in the
  movement equipment          headhouse serve as
• This dust contains          reservoir sites
  immature insects
  – Result in population
    ready for grain after
      Problems associated with
• Moisture distribution   • Safety and health
• Insect infestation        hazards
• Reduced efficiency of   • Economic penalties
• Improper aeration
• Problems during
         Moisture distribution
• Moisture transfer        • Temperature
• See week 4 notes           distribution
• More of a problem in     • Could result in high
  unaerated than aerated     moisture, high
  grain                      temperature, high
                             insect populations,
                             high mold, fungus,
                           • Fungus feeders
            Insect infestations
• Internal pests don’t      • Pesticide efficacy
  need dockage              • Absorption by fines
• External pests require    • Degradation increases
  fines for optimal           at higher moisture
  growth                      content
• Proportion of eggs that   • Distribution of
  survive to adults is        fumigants (Douglas
  related to dockage          example)
 Aeration, drying, and unloading
• Definition (pg 17)          • Unloading problems
• Problems with fines in        – Separation of fines in
  interstitial spaces offer       transit
  resistance                    – May not meet
• Longer aeration                 specifications set forth
  cycles, more power,             in contract
  more expensive
• Same can be stated for
  grain drying
               Safety and health
• Grain dust                    • Explosions
  – Human health                  – Containment, ignition
  – Occupations                     source, oxygen,
    respiratory diseases            suspended dust
  – Irritation to eyes, ears,     – Anatomy of explosion
    nose throat, skin                • Smaller primary
                                       explosion (fire wave
  – Impair visibility                  and pressure wave)
  – Odors                            • Larger secondary
  – Decrease productivity              explosions (pg 20)
          Economic penalties
• Price or weight
• Not part of GIPSA
  guidelines but can be
  specified in contract
              Grain cleaning
• Grain processed over     • Domestic mills don’t
  sieves or an aspirator     pay a premium
• Cleanings themselves     • Potential savings on
  can be sold for animal     pesticide applications
  feed                       and the issue of
• Certain export markets     durability
  pay a premium for less
        Correcting for dockage
• Evenly distribute      • Use of engineering or
  materials in the bin     oils in facilities (pg24)
  with spreader             – Cyclone and dust
• Coring                      ventilation systems.
                              Disposal can be
                            – Oils-i.e. mineral oil is
                              approved by the
             Overall benefits
• See page 27 from text

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