Prompt gamma ray imaging NSPA by liaoqinmei

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									New methods for dose monitoring in
          ion therapy

Cédric Ray, PhD, Associate professor
Université de Lyon, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1
Institut de physique Nucléaire de Lyon, IN2P3/CNRS
  M. Bajard1, J. Constanzo1, M. Chevallier1, D. Dauvergne1, N. Freud2, P. Henriquet1, S.
                   Karkar3, F. Le Foulher1, J.M. Létang2, R. Plescak4,
            F. Roellinghoff 2, M.-H. Richard2, D. Schardt4, E. Testa1, M. Testa1
                      1Université de Lyon, IPNL, Villeurbanne, France
 2Laboratoire de Contrôles Non Destructifs par Rayonnements Ionisants, INSA-Lyon, France
                     3CPPM, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France
                            4GSI Biophysik, Darmstadt, Germany
                    Outline


          1 . Hadrontherapy



          2. TOF-PET



          3. Prompt gamma imaging



          4. Interaction Vertex Imaging (IVI)



Outline                                         2
                         Hadrontherapy : heal with ions
                                                                    Advantages vs
                                                                     conventional
                                              carbon (270 MeV/u)
                                                                     radiotherapy

                                                                        Physical dose Dphys
Relative dose




                                     Bragg peak                              Bragg peak

                                                                        Relative Biological
                                                                         Efficency
                DBiol = DPhys x RBE                                              DX ray
                                                                         RBE 
                                                                                 Dparticle
                                                                                             same effet

                                 Depth in water (mm)

    Th. Haberer HIT


                 Hadrontherapy                                                                       3
       Hadrontherapy : secondary particles

 electromagnetic interactions
    Dose deposition
                                                      GEANT 4 simulation
 Nuclear fragmentation                              12C 300 MeV/u → H O
                                                                       2

                                                 p
   High Probability
   Influence on dose deposition             n
                                         g
   Secondary particles
     Radioactive isotopes (b+)       dose
     g, n, p, fragments
                                                         Depth (cm)

              Utilisation du rayonnement secondaire pour
              contrôler le traitement en ligne
     Hadrontherapy                                                    4
Hadrontherapy : an outstanding technique
 Hadrontherapy: highly conformational
   precise positioning of the Bragg peak




                                   Hoffmann, PPARC 2005
 Uncertainty sources
    Stochiometric calibration
    Positioning
    Patient anatomic variations
  Hadrontherapy                                           5
             Positrons Emission Tomography
 b+ emitting nuclei
      11C (20 min), 15O (2 min),
       10C (20 s)

 Classic PET
   Low activity (~100 Bq/Gy/cm3)
   Patient repositionning
   Emtting nuclei metabolic
       washout
      (T.Tomitani et al 2003, F.Fiedler et al 2008)

 In Beam PET (IBPET)                                    TEP en ligne installée à GSI

   Easy patient positioning                          Crespo, PhD

   Limited solid angle
      (W. Enghardt et al, 1999)
       TOF-PET                                                                      6
                Time Of Flight – PET




            Dz = c (t2-t1)/2   3cm ↔200ps


 Photon time of flight measurement
   Signal/noise improvement
   Artifacts reduction for IBPET
   Faster reconstruction algorithms
  TOF-PET                                   7
R&D TOF-PET (Lyon-Clermont – ENVISION)
 Beyond actual barrier ( 500 ps)
   Faster and brighter scintillators
     LaBr3(Ce)
   Alternative (TERA) RPC

 Faster photo-detectors
                                          J. Glodo et al. 2005
     SiPMs
     Insensible aux champs magnétique
       IRM
 Fast electronics

 Optimization (beam filling)           3 mm x 3 mm Hamamatsu
                                        MPPC S10362-33-025C SiPMs
  TOF-PET                                                        8
  Prompt gamma-ray imaging: principles
 Detect gamma-rays emitted during target or
  projectile fragmentation
                                            Emitted particles during
                                            fragmentation
                                            • gamma
                                            • neutrons
                                            • protons
                                            • deutons, …

                                          Online detection
                                          Real time ion range
                                          Depth dose profile
                                          Good statistics
                                           (gamma, protons)


  Prompt gamma-ray imaging: principles                                 9
             Prompt gamma-ray imaging
 GANIL
  TOF n/g discrimination
  Energy threshold




  Prompt gamma-ray imaging              10
                         Prompt gamma-ray imaging
Testa et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093506 (2008)




                                                            12C   @ 95 MeV/u
                               Ion count




                                                    Depth (mm)

      Prompt gamma-ray imaging                                                 11
                 Prompt gamma-ray imaging
  PMMA (1.2 g/cm3)       PMMA + Bone eq. (2.3 g/cm3)   PMMA + Lung eq. (0.2 g/cm3)
12C                              12C                         12C
                                        12C   @ 95 MeV/u




                                          12C   @ 95 MeV/u




      Prompt gamma-ray imaging                                              12
             Prompt gamma-ray imaging
 GSI experimental set-up
   Beam trigger
   TOF n/g discrimination
   Energy threshold
                                         Collimating
                              Photon          slit     Water
                             detectors                 target




  Prompt gamma-ray imaging                                  13
                                   Prompt gamma-ray imaging
                                                   12C   @ 305 MeV/u
                                                            Bragg peak
Gamma-ray count / ion




                                                                         M. Bajard et al.
                                                                         GSI Scientific
                                                                         Report 2008




                                     Depth(mm)

                               Counting rate compatible with real time Bragg peak
                               position control
                                       French patent ; FR N° 08 53038
                                       + international patent (PCT)

                        Prompt gamma-ray imaging                                        14
        Prompt gamma-ray imaging: R&D
 Dose control system study
     (PhD F. Le Foulher 07-10, M. Testa 07-10)
                                                 Supports:
   Prototype fabrication                        PRRH, GDR MI2B , ANR, FP7
     Gamma camera (PhD 10-13)
     Compton camera (PhD M.-H. Richard 09-12)
   Hodoscope (dx=1mm; dt=1 ns)
      High counting rate
        Fibers (electronics PhD S. Deng 09-12)
        Diamond detector (CEA/LIST)
   Prontontherapy tests (p @ 200 MeV)
   Dedicated acquisition electronics

   Prompt gamma-ray imaging                                          15
 Protons Interaction Vertex Imaging (IVI)
 Dose control by proton emission               PhD + ATER
                                                P. Henriquet 07-10




                                      Coincidence events
                                         3D imaging
                                      Simulations
                                         Few mm resolution
                                      Detectors
  12C
                                         CMOS pixel Si,
                                          Diamond, RPC
  Position sensitive
     detectors

  Interaction Vertex Imaging (IVI)                              16
Protons Interaction Vertex Imaging (IVI)
               Experiments (GANIL)              GEANT4 simulations


                                                      deutons



                                                         tritons
                                           protons




                                           photons




                                   PMMA (5cm)                      Plastic detector
         12C   @ 95 MeV/u                                   22°



Interaction Vertex Imaging (IVI)                                               17
                     Conclusion
 Few complementary modalities (QA)
   TOF-PET
   Prompt gamma-ray imaging
   Interaction Vertex Imaging (charged particles)
 Numerous topics
   instrumentation, simulation, reconstruction
 Proton et carbon-therapy applicability
 Growing interest in France and in Europe :
   European project ENVISION (2010–2013) inside the
    ENLIGHT++ network
   ANR project GAMHADRON (2009–2013)
   collab. IPNL, INSA/CREATIS, LPC-Clermont, CEA/LIST


  Conclusion                                           18
19
        Prompt gamma monitoring of the dose
            by means of Time-of-Flight
           GANIL 13C - 74 MeV/u



                                                                           GSI 12C - 292 MeV/u
                                                                  -6
                                                           9x10                                           M. Bajard et al.
                                                                                                          GSI Scientific
                                                           6x10
                                                                  -6                                      Report 2008


                                              Counts/Ion
                                                                  -6
                                                                                         1 cm
                                                           3x10
                                                                                          slit

                                                              0
                                                                       0       5    10          15   20
                                                                                   Depth [cm]




E. Testa et al., Appl Phys Lett, 93 (2008) 093506


                                                                                                                     20

								
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