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Earth's Layers _ Rocks _ Minerals

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Earth's Layers _ Rocks _ Minerals Powered By Docstoc
					 Earth’s Layers
       &
Rocks & Minerals
       By:
 Brianna Shields
January 27, 2005
DO NOW
 1. Name one “force” that is absent in
  the middle of outer space.
 2. Name the “force” that causes the
  objects in space to move forward in a
  straight line.
 3. Why do meteors burn as they
  approach earth’s surface?
GOAL
 To draw and label the layers of the
  Earth
 To learn how to identify different rocks
  and minerals by describing their
  characteristics
     The “Spheres” or Layers
   Lithosphere      Solid, rock, minerals and soil
                      layer of the Earth
     The “Spheres” or Layers
   Hydrosphere      Liquid part of the earth’s
                      surface
                        Oceans, rivers, lakes
    The “Spheres” or Layers
   Atmosphere      Layers of gas that surround
                     the earth
                                         What is it like inside
                                          the Earth?
                                         What layers are
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                                          there?
     The lithosphere
   Earth’s inner      1. Crust- loose rock on
    layers              surface
     The lithosphere
   Earth’s inner      2. Mantle- flexible, dense,
    layers              molten rock
Inner and Outer Core



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     The lithosphere
   Earth’s inner      3. Outer core- liquid metal,
    layers              magnetic
     The lithosphere
   Earth’s inner      4. Inner core- solid metal
    layers                High pressure due to gravity

                          Liquid particles squeezed

                          Extreme heat
     The lithosphere
   Earth’s inner      Why are the layers in this
    layers              order?
                          Ordered: Most dense (core)
                           on bottom, to least dense
                           (crust) floating on top
     The atmosphere
   Earth’s         Made up of
    atmosphere        78% Nitrogen

                      21% Oxygen

                      .03% Carbon dioxide

                      .01% Hydrogen
     The atmosphere
   Earth’s         Layers (outer to inner)
    atmosphere         A. Exosphere

                       B.
                        Thermosphere/Ionosphere
                       C. Mesosphere
     The atmosphere
   Earth’s         Layers (outer to inner)
    atmosphere         D. Stratosphere- ozone

                        here blocks UV radiation
                        that causes skin cancer
     The atmosphere
   Earth’s         Layers (outer to inner)
    atmosphere         E. Troposphere- weather
                        occurs
     The atmosphere
   Earth’s         Trends: farther from earth-
    atmosphere         Atm pressure decreases

                       Temp. decreases
     The atmosphere
   Earth’s         Problems:
    atmosphere        Greenhouse effect

                      Ozone depletion
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     The atmosphere
   Problems          A. Greenhouse Effext
    with Earth’s        Excess pollution (carbon
    atmosphere           dioxide) from burning fossil
                         fuels forms blanket around
                         Earth
                        Allows sunlight through, but

                         traps heat
                        Causes global warming
     The atmosphere
   Problems          B. Ozone depletion
    with Earth’s        CFC’s used in refrigerants
    atmosphere           and aerosol cans break
                         down this layer
                        Allows harmful uv rays to
                         reach Earth
    The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Rock        Hard substance made of one or
                 more minerals
      The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Mineral       Occurs in nature
                  Solid
                  Definite chemical structure
                  Crystal shape
      The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Color         DEF: observed coloration
                  DETERMINED BY:
                    Look at mineral

                    Not always reliable
      The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Luster        DEF: way it reflects light off its
                   surface
                  DETERMINED BY:
                     Observe mineral

                     Metallic or nonmetallic
      The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Hardness      DEF: ability to resist being
                   scratched
                  DETERMINED BY:
                     Rub against other minerals on

                      hardness scale
                     Rub on glass, steel nail or

                      penny
   MOH’s HARDNESS
    SCALE
      The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Streak        DEF: color of powder scraped off
                  DETERMINED BY:
                    Rub on a porcelain tile
       The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Density          DEF: number of particles in a
                      space
                     DETERMINED BY:
   Click here          Mass / volume

    for Density         Never changes for a mineral
    Simulator
       The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Crystal        DEF: shape of atoms in mineral
    Shape           when formed
                   DETERMINED BY:
                     Look at small bits of mineral
Crystal
Shapes
      The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Cleavage      DEF: how mineral breaks (layers,
    or             jagged, smooth)
    Fracture      DETERMINED BY:
                     Break mineral (hammer or

                      hands)
         The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Other            Magnetic
    mineral            Magnetite
    properties
         The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Other            Glows under UV light
    mineral            Fluorite, Calcite
    properties
         The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Other            Tastes salty
    mineral             Halite
    properties
         The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Other            Smells like rotten eggs
    mineral            Sulfur
    properties
         The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Other            Fizzes in acid
    mineral             Calcite
    properties
         The lithosphere: Rocks vs. Minerals

   Other            Radioactive
    mineral            Uraninite
    properties
Assessment
   Name the
    atmospheric layers
    from outer to inner
Assessment
   Explain the
    significance of the
    atmospheric layers
Assessment
   Compare the
    lithosphere,
    atmosphere and
    hydrosphere
Assessment
   Describe the inside
    of the Earth
Assessment
   Compare and
    contrast the
    greenhouse effect
    and ozone depletion
Assessment
   Explain how you would go about identifying
    a mineral- what tests would you perform?
Assessment
   Compare and
    contrast luster,
    streak and cleavage
Assessment
   Reiterate how to use
    Moh’s hardness
    scale
Assessment
   How could you tell
    apart two yellow
    minerals- if one was
    quartzite and the
    other was citrine?
Assessment
   Which method of
    mineral identification
    do you find most
    useful? Explain

				
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posted:9/25/2012
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