Public Health by yurtgc548


									Public Health

                Colin Mayfield 2012
Public Health 2

     Public Health

     Definition of Public Health 1:

     • The approach to medicine that is concerned with the health of the
       community as a whole. Public health is community health. It has been
       said that: "Health care is vital to all of us some of the time, but public
       health is vital to all of us all of the time."
     • The mission of public health is to "fulfill society's interest in assuring
       conditions in which people can be healthy." The three core public health
       functions are:
                  – The assessment and monitoring of the health of communities and
                    populations at risk to identify health problems and priorities;
                  – The formulation of public policies designed to solve identified local and
                    national health problems and priorities;
                  – To assure that all populations have access to appropriate and cost-effective
                    care, including health promotion and disease prevention services, and
                    evaluation of the effectiveness of that care

Public Health 3

    Definition of Public Health 2:

    1. Public Health is "the science and art of preventing disease,
       prolonging life and promoting health through the organised
       efforts and informed choices of society, organisations,
       public and private, communities and individuals." It is
       concerned with threats to the overall health of a community
       based on population health analysis. The population in
       question can be as small as a handful of people or as large
       as all the inhabitants of several continents (for instance, in
       the case of a pandemic). Public health is typically divided
       into epidemiology, biostatistics and health services.
       Environmental, social, behavioral, and occupational health
       are also important subfields.
2. The focus of public health intervention is to prevent rather than treat a
   disease through surveillance of cases and the promotion of healthy
   behaviors. In addition to these activities, in many cases treating a disease
   may be vital to preventing it in others, such as during an outbreak of an
   infectious disease. Hand washing, vaccination programs and distribution of
   condoms are examples of public health measures.

3. The goal of public health is to improve lives through the prevention and
   treatment of disease. The United Nations' World Health Organization defines
   health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not
   merely the absence of disease or infirmity."

4. In 1920, C.E.A. Winslow defined public health as "the science and art of
   preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the
   organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and
   private, communities and individuals.“

From: Wikipedia December 28 2008
Public Health 4

     In the United Kingdom, public health functions include:

     1. Health surveillance, monitoring and analysis
     2. Investigation of disease outbreaks, epidemics and risk to health
     3. Establishing, designing and managing health promotion and disease
         prevention programmes
     4. Enabling and empowering communities to promote health and reduce
     5. Creating and sustaining cross-Government and intersectoral
         partnerships to improve health and reduce inequalities
     6. Ensuring compliance with regulations and laws to protect and promote
     7. Developing and maintaining a well-educated and trained, multi-
         disciplinary public health workforce
     8. Ensuring the effective performance of NHS services to meet goals in
         improving health, preventing disease and reducing inequalities
     9. Research, development, evaluation and innovation
     10. Quality assuring the public health function

     From: Wikipedia December 28 2008
Public Health 5

  See also:

  •       Wikipedia - Population Health

  •       Public Health Agency of Canada

  •       Canadian Journal of Public Health

  •       Google Books - The Future of Public Health

  •       Google Scholar Search for "Public Health" in article titles (first 500
          references of 232,000)

  •       Google Scholar search for Public Health with "microbiology", "bacteria" or
          "microbial" in title (477 references)
Public Health 6
Public Health 7
Public Health 7

                  Figure illustrates the
                      individuals and
                      groups that may
                      play a role in the
                      public health
Overview – Environmental Health - WHO,,enableDHL:TRUE~m
Environmental Health

1. Public Health is viewed differently in Developed and Developing nations:

    • Developed - Social Change, education, social engineering,
        immunization, etc
    • Developing – Hygiene, disease prevention, education, basic changes in

2. Funds available are different in Developed and Developing Nations:
        (See Details from WHO 1995-2008 – PDF file)
                                     Details of Health
                                     Expenditures by
                                     Country - WHO
from WHO on
on health
  Data fields from Excel Spreadsheets

                                    General government                                         General government expenditure External resources for health as
Total expenditure on health as                                Private expenditure on health as
                               expenditure on health as % of                                       on health as % of total    % of total expenditure on health
% of Gross domestic product b                                 % of total expenditure on health
                                total expenditure on health b                                     government expenditure                      c

  Social Security expenditure on
                                     Out-of-Pocket expenditure as % of      Private prepaid plans as % of      Per capita total expenditure on health at
 health as % General government
                                       private expenditure on health        private expenditure on health           average exchange rate (US$)
      expenditure on health

                                                         Per capita government expenditure on health at      Per capita government expenditure on health
   Per capita total expenditure on health (PPP int.$)
                                                                  average exchange rate (US$)                                 (PPP int.$)
Seems to be an upper boundary on life expectancy no matter how much is spent!
But… quality of life and freedom from disease is directly correlated
with income (and expenditure on health care?)

                 Why this reversal?
People from High Income Countries have more DALYs than Upper
Middle Income Countries – Why?:

       Can take time off for lesser causes (flu, cold, etc)

       Live longer and so deteriorate and have more illnesses?

       Are insured so can have the luxury of getting medical care?

       Diagnostic Systems are better?

       Better statistics available?

       Better tracking of diseases and time off work?

       Are wimps?

       All of the above?

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