New Partners for Smart Growth Fields

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					      Building “Desired Density” for Mode
                 Share Change:

        The Political Challenge of Encouraging
        Trail-Oriented Development

          Billy Fields, PhD
Center for Urban and Public Affairs

•Background: Density, Mode Choice, and
Climate Change
•Policy Implications and Challenges: How to
Encourage “Desired Density”
•Trail-Oriented Development: Innovative
Land Use Tool Linking Density and NMT
Background: Climate Change and Urban Form

  •Energy Implications of Urban Form Decisions
  Increasingly Important Policy Issue
  •Climate Policy Debate Focusing Primarily on
  Vehicle Efficiency Improvements
  •Growth in VMT Will, However, Outstrip Gains
  in Efficiency
  •Compact Development Strategy: Potential to
  Decrease GHG Emissions by 30% (Growing
  Cooler Argument)
Background: Role of Nonmotorized Transportation

    •Short Trips Crucial: Nearly Half of All Trips
    are Under 3 Miles (FHWA 2006)
    •Mode Share Change from Cycling Most
    Likely to Come from Short Trips in Areas of
    Mixed Land Uses (Dill 2008)
    •Strategy Works: Nonmotorized Pilot Study
    in Minneapolis (Walk, Bike, Transit Mode
    Share of 29%)
            Policy Implications
•Summary: Need Holistic Strategy of Compact
Development, Transit, and NMT to Manage GHG

•Basic Policy Frame for Mode Share Change:
Smart Growth (Built Landscape)+ Transit +
Active Transportation (Thomas Gotschi, RTC)
              Policy Challenge
•Policy Challenge is Political Not Technical:
Technology of Walkalble Urbanism Not
Technically Difficult
•“Desired Density” Challenge: Need for Politically
Acceptable Density Interventions (Quality of Life
and Compact Development)
 Policy Challenge: Defining Green Urbanism

•Suspicion of Density Extends to Within the Environmental
Community: Urban vs Rural Commons Debate (Newman
and Kenworthy 1999)
•Open space, “Natural” View of Greenways Extends to
Trails Community (Little 1990)

                                        Howard Garden Cities
 Trail-Oriented Development: Encouraging
              Desired Density

•Need to Create Politically Acceptable Solutions
•Trail-Oriented Development Example of
Innovative “Desired Density” Intervention
•TrOD uses Olmstedian Urban Parks Approach
to Greenways: Amenity Value (Crompton 2001)
•Recent Research Shows Economic Impact:
   •Nichols and Crompton (2005): $13.64
   Million Impact (Austin Greenbelt)
   •Lindsey et al (2003): $140 Million Impact
   (Monon Trail Indianapolis)
                                            Development and
Well-Designed           “Walkable            Redevelopment
Trail Amenity           Urbanism”             Opportunities
(Crompton       +    Land Use Policy    +      (Shilling and
2001)               (Leinberger 2007)          Logan 2008)

     Trail-Oriented Development

                                                  Indianapolis, IN
 Midtown Greenway:

5.5 Miles: Links Lakes and
Mississippi River
•560,000 Users Per Year in
2008 (25% Increase)
•Spurred Redevelopment
adjacent to Greenway


Midtown Greenway
Nonmotorized Pilot Connections to Greenway

                    1.    18th Ave north-south route – Bike
                    Boulevard chosen precisely because it
                    allows for a direct connection to the
                    2.    An extension to the Hiawatha Trail
                    3.    Bike lanes on two one way streets
                    that will tie into the Greenway
                    4.    Bryant Ave Bike Boulevard
Light-Rail Proposed Within Greenway
Right of Way
Trail-Oriented Development: Linking Land Use
Planning and Nonmotorized Transportation
Amenity Value of Greenway Lures Development

                                  Midtown Exchange
Development Intensity: Typologies
of “Desired Density”


Lachine Canal: Montreal
New Orleans

                         •Community Uniquely Threatened by
                         Climate Change and Economic Decline
                         •Need to Rebuild Both Safer and Smarter

Mark Bradford “Mithia”                      Lower 9th Ward New Orleans
“Green Dot” Plan: Nature in the City

              •“Rational” Hazard Mitigation
              Approach: Focus Redevelopment
              on High Ground
              •“Nature for Neighborhoods”
              Approach Resulted in Backlash
              •Need Smarter, Safer, and
              Politically Acceptable Density
                         Promising TrOD Locations

Canal Blvd

                        Bayou                    Quarter
                        St. John
         Lafitte Greenway

•Trail-Oriented Development Being Used to
Build Consensus for “Desired Density”

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