Punctuation Review

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					Punctuation Review

  Commas
Conjunctions
   Words that join two independent clauses
    together.
       For
       And
       Nor
       But
       Or
       Yet
       So


    I like animals, so I go to the zoo every weekend.
     Independent Clause     Independent Clause
Commas with Compound Sentences

    Use a comma before the coordinating
     conjunction in a compound sentence.
      Jose wanted to attend the game, but he
       decided to do his report instead.
      Either we will win tonight, or we will have to
       face a sad crowd afterward.
Commas between items in a series

    Use commas to separate three or more
     words, phrases, or clauses in a series.
      Ellen bought new jeans, a plaid skirt, and a
       pair of gloves.
      They drove to the post office, parked the
       car, and unloaded the boxes.
Commas between adjectives

    Use commas to separate adjectives of
     equal rank.
      A narrow, rough road led to the country
       market.
      The tall, handsome man handed me the
       money.
Commas that set off added
elements
    Commas After Introductory Material: Use
     a comma after an introductory word,
     phrase, or clause.
        Introductory Material:
           Introductory word: No, I don't think I can go.
           Introductory phrase: Reaching the lake, she
            searched for her canoe.
           Introductory Clause: When she entered the
            building, she was confused and frightened.
Commas that set off added
elements
    Parenthetical expressions:
      Names of People Being Addressed: I
       know, Susan, that you will do well.
      Certain adverbs: I decided, therefore, to
       wait.
      Common Expressions: Mr. Wong agreed, I
       believe, to go.
      Contrasting Expressions: The room is
       narrow, not wide.
Commas that set off added
elements
    Commas with nonessential expressions:
     A nonessential expression, short or long,
     give additional information about
     someone or something in a sentence.
     Because it can be left out without
     changing the basic meaning of the
     sentence, it is set off with commas.
Commas That Set off Added
Elements
    Essential: My cousin the computer expert is
     growing rich.
    Nonessential:Cathy, a computer expert, knows
     BASIC and COBOL.
    Essential: The man standing in the corridor is
     the principal.
    Nonessential: Dr. Rogers, now standing at the
     corridor, is the principal.
    Essential: The boy who lives in the next house
     plays the French Horn.
    Nonessential: My cousin Phil, who lives in the
     next house, plays the French Horn.
Commas That Set off Added
Elements
    Commas with Places, Date, and Titles:
        When a geographical name or a date is made up of
         two or more parts, use a comma after each item
         except in the case of a month followed by a day.
         Use commas to set off a title following a name.
             Geographical Name: Houston, Texas, is a rapidly growing
              city.
             Date: On September 19, 1939, German Panzers invaded
              Poland.
             Name with Title: Jim Thon, M.D., Discussed safe ways to
              lose weight.
Commas That Set Off Added
Elements
    Address: Send the package to J. Brown, 10
     Elk Lane, Glen Cove, New York 11542.
    Salutation and Closing: Dear Peter, Very
     truly yours,
    Numbers: 31,654 envelopes
    Elliptical Sentence: Lorraine plays the guitar;
     her brother Sam, the flute.
    Direct Quotation: “in a few minutes,” laughed
     Julio, “you’ll know the surprise.”
    To Prevent Confusion: For Carla, Jonas had
     designed a unique costume.

				
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posted:9/25/2012
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