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Sustainable Low Cost Shelter Design Angelfire

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					Sustainable Low Cost
   Shelter Design
      Shelter Options
                 By
         Prakash M Apte
     Urban Development Consultant
    Shelter As Living Environment
   Housing cannot be viewed as mere
    ‘construction of shelters’
   It is creation of an environment for the
    HABITAT of man which will lead to his
    physical, intellectual, cultural and social
    development’.
   Imaginative configuration of shelters and other
    facilities that lead to the creation of the total
    environment for living.
HOUSING CONCEPTS AND STANDARDS

   Should houses be made “permanent” so that
    they last for a hundred years or should they be
    ‘temporary’?
   Resources for housing are meager, should
    these not be invested in creation of physical
    infrastructure that can help and stimulate
    private and public saving and investment in
    construction of houses?
              Growing House
   Concept of a renewable growing houses can be
    implemented only by efforts in an organized
    manner.
   Programmes like provision of sites and
    services are of great relevance.
   Hygiene, water supply, roads, parks and open
    spaces and recreational facilities are more
    appropriate indices for identifying shelter
    quality than its physical structure
Growing House on Serviced Sites
           Housing Standards :
   Should we be satisfied with only improving
    upon the existing conditions rather than fixing
    idealistic norms ?
   The municipal bye-laws decide the housing
    standards.
   Success or failure in solving the problem of
    housing will depend upon how realistically we
    fix standards for housing.
       FORM AND DENSITY OF
      HOUSING DEVELOPMENT:
   The forms range between crowded squatter
    huts to individual single storey houses to
    multistory high rise apartments.

   Densities range from 12 dwelling units per
    hectare in suburban developments through 600
    dwelling units in squatter areas to 1200
    dwelling units in the older walled city areas.
High Rise Residential Development:
   High-rise development favoured in urban
    centers with soaring land prices for economy
    in cost of land.
   But land under residential use is at best only
    50 percent of the total developed land
   What weightage be given to this aspect?
   High intensity of land use can be achieved by
    low rise high density residential development.
Low Rise High Density Development
Shelter Design For Low Rise High
      Density Development
    INDEX OF PLINTH AREA RATE FOR
        CONTRUCTION IN INDIA
   Type of Construction             Index(Base = 100)     Increase percent

   Ground floor (GF) construction       106.5           + 6.5

   GF + 1 Storey construction           100             Nil

   GF + 2 Storey construction           106.5           + 6.5

   GF + 3 Storey construction           112.5           + 12.5

   GF + 4 Storey construction          121.88           + 21.8
               Multi Story Design
Block design with central corridor & open ducts for light & cross ventilation
       Multistory Unit Design
Dwelling units with central corridor
High Density Low Rise
    Economy in Shelter Projects
   Maximization of land use to get optimum
    density consistent with desirable living
    environment,

   Building designs that are simple and
    functional, use indigenous building materials,
    are capable of expansion, are low on capital
    cost though higher on maintenance cost.
    Economy in Shelter Projects
   Innovative building designs facilitating easy access
    to public open spaces and community facilities, and
    use of public open spaces for the overspill activities
    of the families
-
   Use of austere specifications, cheaper and substitute
    and new building materials and techniques to
    reduce capital cost and bring shelter within the
    affordability limits of low income families.
         Best & Worst Practices
   Earlier designs with central corridor resulted in
   Dark & Damp corridor
   Exposed plumbing on exterior surfaces
   Lack of cross ventilation
   Difficulties in plumbing repair
Central corridor with external
          plumbing
    Blocks with corridor on external
                 sides
   This type of design resulted in

   Excesive space for corridor
   Poor light for dwelling units
   No cross ventilation
   Corridors susceptible to heavy rains
   Difficult plumbing & repairs
Blocks with external corridor on
  both sides with back to back
         dwelling units
Blocks with central corridor without
     the attending drawbacks
                 Best Practice
   Open ducts along central corridor afford

   Ample light in central corridor
   Cross ventilation to dwelling units & corridor
   Ease of repair of plumbing
   Clean exterior surface

				
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posted:9/25/2012
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