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					  APA Style

Rehabilitation Research
RCS 6740
May 18, 2005
Why Use APA Style?
         Allows readers to cross-
         reference your sources
         Provides consistent format
         within a discipline
         Gives you credibility as a
         Protects you from
     Cross-Referencing Your Sources

Cross-referencing allows readers to locate the publication
  information of source material. This is of great value for
  researchers who may want to locate your sources for
  their own research projects.
“Because one purpose of listing references is to enable
  readers to retrieve and use the sources, reference data
  must be correct and complete. …” (APA, 2001, p. 216).
Using a Consistent Format
         Using a consistent format helps your
             reader understand your
             arguments and the sources
             they’re built on.
         It also helps you keep track of your
             sources as you build arguments.
         32 APA primary journals; as many as
             1000 more in social sciences and
             psychology use APA as their style
           Establishing Credibility

The proper use of APA style shows the credibility
  of writers; such writers show accountability to
  their source material.
“[Because] authors are responsible for all
  information in their reference lists. Accurately
  prepared references help establish your
  credibility as a careful researcher” (APA, 2001,
  p. 216).
               Avoiding Plagiarism
Academic honesty and integrity!
– Proper citation of your sources in APA style can help you
  avoid plagiarism, which is a serious offense. It may result in
  anything from failure of the assignment to expulsion from
You are academically dishonest if:
–   Someone writes your paper for you
–   You purchase a paper
–   You copy a paper from online
–   You fail to cite your sources
–   Your present someone else’s ideas as your own
   Quick Background of the Publication
   Manual of the American Psychological
1928: Meeting of editors of anthropological and
psychological journals.
February 1929: 7 page article in Psychological Bulletin.
– Just recommended a standard procedure – did not dictate
  the style to authors.
1952: 1st edition – 60 page supplement to Psychological
1974: 2nd edition – 136 pages
2001: 5th edition - 439 pages
                 APA Style

Content & Organization of a Manuscript
Expressing Ideas & Reducing Bias in Language
Editorial Style
Reference List
            Content & Organization
Parts of a Manuscript
–   Title Page
–   Abstract
–   Introduction
–   Method
–   Results
–   Discussion
–   Multiple Experiments
–   References
–   Appendix
–   Author Note
                     Title Page

Title (centered, upper ½ of page, ds)
Author’s name (1 ds below title)
Institutional affiliation or course identification (ds
below author’s name)
Manuscript page header (upper right corner, 1st
2 or 3 words of title, 5 spaces, then page #)
Running head
                                                Life Skills   1

Running head: LIFE SKILLS

           Empirically Derived Life Skill Factors for
            Program Evaluation in Rehabilitation

                       Fong Chan
               Running Head

Abbreviated title
Maximum 50 characters including letters,
punctuation, and spaces
Left-justified below manuscript page header

Running head: GENERATION X

  Brief comprehensive summary
  75-120 words
Note: Manual has specific guidelines for empirical studies, reviews
and theoretical pieces, methodological works, and case studies.
                First Page of Text

Includes manuscript page header
Full title is centered on the top line of the page
DS, only, between title and first line of text

Note. Double space, only, throughout the entire document.
The levels of heading are established by format or
The hierarchy of sections help orient the reader to the
structure of the manuscript – they function as an outline
Topics of equal importance have the same level of
heading throughout the manuscript.
Start each section with the highest level of heading,
even if one section may have fewer levels of
subheading than another section
                Headings - Continued
                               (Level 5)
             Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
                               (Level 1)
       Centered, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
                               (Level 2)
Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading
                               (Level 3)
   Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending
with a period.
                               (Level 4)
    One Level Heading
Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
                (Level 1)

          Two levels (use level 1 & 3)
              Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
                                  (Level 1)
      Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading
                                  (Level 3)



Orientation of Client
            Three levels (Use level 1, 3 and 4)
                              Centered Uppercase and Lowercase Heading
                                               (Level 1)
Flush Left, Italicized, Uppercase and Lowercase Side Heading
                                               (Level 3)
    Indented, italicized, lowercase paragraph heading ending with a period. (Level 4)



      Early childhood.

Handling Quotes in Your Text
       If directly quoted from another
       author’s work should be reproduced
       word for word
       Short quotations (fewer than 40
       words) are incorporated into the text,
       enclosed with double quotation
       Must be accompanied by a reference
       citation with a page number
      Example of a Short Quotation

Matkin (1985) stated “the compensation principle
 and accident prevention form an intertwined
 relationship whereby one enhances the other”
 (p. 29).
 At end of sentence – close quoted passage with
 quotation marks, cite the source in parentheses
 after marks, and end with the period or other
 punctuation outside the final parenthesis.
     Example of Mid-Sentence Quote

He found “Assessment or decision-making
  interviews are generally more focused”
  (Zastrow, 1998, p. 86) than other types of
  interview formats.
  In midsentence - End the passage with quotation marks, cite
  source in parentheses immediately after the quotation marks,
  and continue the sentence.
  Use no other punctuation unless meaning of sentence requires it.
                  Example of Long Quote
Wang, Thomas, Chan, and Cheing (2003) stated the following:
  Conjoint analysis has the potential to augment the study of attitudes toward
  disabilities in rehabilitation psychology research. Specifically, as an indirect
  measurement, conjoint analysis is less prone to social desirability effects. The
  trade-off method used in conjoint analysis to study people’s attitudes toward
  disability closely approximates human decision making in real life. Hence both
  conjoint measurements and conjoint analysis could increase the ability of
  rehabilitation psychology researchers to understand factors contributing to the
  formation of attitudes/preferences in multiple social contexts. (p. 200-201)
  At end of block quote – Cite the quoted source in parentheses after the
  final punctuation mark
  Do not single space long quotes. Indent 5-7 spaces from the left margin
  without the usual paragraph indent.
General rule is to use figures to express numbers
10 and above
    The client is 25 years old
    Mr. Roberts has had 12 arrests

Use words to express numbers below 10
   Nora Edwards has had three previous

Always as numerals: Dates, Ages, Exact sums of money,
  scores and points on a scale, numbers and precise
   – Each item on the Beck Depression Index is scored on a 5-
     point scale
   – The client receives $8 per completed hour.
Always as words: Any number that begins a sentence,
  common fractions
   – Twelve participants were involved in the focus groups
       Parenthetical (Within-Text)
Author’s(s’) last name
Year of publication
Page number (if quoting)
    (Chan, 2000, p. 17)
            Parenthetical Citations
               Multiple Authors
2 authors – cite both names separated by &
           (Rubin & Roessler, 2002, p. 127)
3-5 authors – cite all authors first time; after first time,
use et al.
           (Chan et al., 2000)
6 or more authors – cite first author’s name and et al.
           (Rosenthal et al., 1992)
         Parenthetical Citations
           Multiple Citations
Multiple sources from same author –
chronological order, separated by comma.
   (Thomas, 1998, 1999, in press)
Within same year:
   (Chan, 1998a, 1998b, 1999, in press)
       Parenthetical Citations
     Multiple Citations Continued
Multiple sources – separated by semicolon,
alphabetical order
   (Chan, 1998; Pruett, 2001; Thomas, 1992)
   Handling Parenthetical Citations

If the source has no
known author, then use
an abbreviated version of
the title:
Full Title: “California
Cigarette Tax Deters
Citation: (“California,”
Handling Parenthetical Citations
         A reference to a personal
         Source: email message from Hanoch
         Citation: (H. Livneh, personal
         communication, November 22, 2002)
         A general reference to a web site
         Source: University of Wisconsin -
         Madison web site
         Citation:      (http://www.wisc.edu)
         Reference Citations in Text
If author(s) name is part of narrative, cite only year of publication
in parentheses

Hess, Marwitz and Kreutzer (2003) report treatment planning
following a spinal cord injury should include methods for
identifying cognitive deficits.

On rare occasions you may have the year and author with no

In 2000 Walker compared reaction times
Keys to Parenthetical Citations

                Keep references brief
                Give only information
                needed to identify the
                source on your reference
                Do not repeat
                unnecessary information
        Handling Quotes in Your Text

There are many different
  combinations and
  variations within APA
  citation format.

If you run into something
    unusual, look it up!
Reference List – General
      On a separate page
      References (the title) is centered on top
      Alphabetical list of works cited
      If same author cited more than once,
      chronologically listed
      Double spaced
      Hanging indent
      Titles of works and volume number in
   Reference List – Journal Article
Garske, G. G. (2000). The significance of
     rehabilitation counselor job satisfaction. Journal of
     Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 31(3), 10-13.
Shaw, L. R., & Tarvydas, V. M. (2001). The use of
     professional disclosure in rehabilitation
     counseling. Rehabilitation Counseling
     Bulletin, 45, 40-47.
Miller, L. J., & Donders, J. (in press). Prediction of
     educational outcome after pediatric traumatic
     brain injury. Rehabilitation Psychology.
           Reference List – Book

Smart, J. (2001). Disability, Society, and the
    Individual. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
Parker, R. M., & Szymanski, E. M. (Eds.). (1998).
    Rehabilitation Counseling: Basics and
    Beyond. Austin, TX: PRO-ED.
American Psychiatric Association. (1994).
    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
    disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
   Reference List – Book Chapter

Jaet, D. N., & McMahon, B.T. (1999).
   Implications of disability legislation for
   case managers. In F. Chan & M. J. Leahy
   (Eds.), Health Care and Disability Case
   Management (pp. 213 – 238). Lake Zurich,
   IL: Vocational Consultants Press.
                      Reference List
                     Electronic Media
Internet articles based on a print source (exact replicate
   – usually a pdf file)
  Smith, S., & Jones, T. (2001). The impact of authoritative
       supervisors on job retention {Electronic version}. Journal of
       Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 12(2), 110-112.

Internet articles that are not exactly as the printed
   article (i.e., htlm, doc, or txt files)
  Smith, S., & Jones, T. (2001). The impact of authoritative
       supervisors on job retention. Journal of Applied
       Rehabilitation Counseling, 12(2), 110-112. Retrieved
       October 13, 2001, from http://jarc.org/articles
                       Reference List
                      Electronic Media
Articles in an Internet only journal
  James, T. (2001, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to
      optimize health and well-being. Prevention &
      Treatment, 3, Article 01a. Retrieved November 20,
      2000, from http://journals.apa.org/articles

Stand alone document, no author identified, no date.
  Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (n.d.). Retrieved
  August 8, 2000, from http://www.ahrq.gov
        APA Writing Style Rules:
Avoid abbreviations except for long familiar
terms (MMPI).
Explain what the abbreviation means at the first
occurrence: American Psychological
Association (APA).
If an abbreviation is commonly used as a word, it
does not require explanation (IQ, LSD, RAM).
Use two-letter postal codes for U.S. state names.
Language Exerts a Powerful
   Avoiding Biased and Pejorative
Be more specific, not less
– Use age ranges rather than broad categories
– Use the phrase Men and women – rather than generic
– Avoid the generic “he”
– Specific ethnic or racial labeling
Mention differences only when relevant
            Be Sensitive to Labels

Use person-first
language when
describing and individual
or group of people with a
 Example: people over the
  age of 65, people with
  learning disabilities
       Standards of Comparison

Be aware of hidden standards that compare the
study group to an invisible (standard) group.
Example: “culturally deprived” (by what
Unparallel nouns
Example: man and wife - Instead: husband and
      Acknowledge Participation

 Replace the impersonal term “subjects” with
 - participants
- individuals
- college students
- children
Where Do I Find APA Style and
      Publication Manual of the American
      Psychological Association, 5th ed.
      Some other good links:

           Software for APA Style

APA Style Helper 5
–   Walks you through a paper as you create it
–   Helps format references, headings etc
–   Includes a reference builder
–   Works with most word processors
–   From APA – costs $40
MS Word Template for APA format
– Headings and Format in APA style (no help with references)
– From Microsoft Office Web site, Free, only good with Microsoft
            Software for APA Style
Citation Software
–   EndNote 8.0 (endnote.com)
–   ProCite 5.0 (procite.com)
–   Software Reference Manager 11.0 (refman.com)
–   Biblioscape 6.0 (biblioscape.com)
All have versions for Mac (OS X) as well as Windows
(98 – XP) & support a variety of word processors
(except Biblioscape – Windows only)
Cost: $110 – $200 (Education prices)

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