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					Human Behavior in
MGMT 4534 (Monday -Wednesday Sessions)

Class 06 – “How do we motivate
people at work”

Dr. James A. Burrescia
  Class 6 – What to expect! (Monday)
Saturday: November 19, 2005
    Administrative    / Introductions   1:00 – 1:30

    Break   #1                          1:30– 1:40

    Session    1                        1:40– 2:30

    Break   #2                          2:30 – 2:45

    In-class   Examination              2:45 – 3:40

    Wrap-Up                             3:40 – 3:50

           Dr. Burrescia                               2
  Class 6 – What to expect! (Wednesday)
Saturday: November 19, 2005
    Administrative    / Assignments   7:00 – 7:30

    Break   #1                        7:30– 7:40

    Session    1                      7:40– 8:30

    Break   #2                        8:30 – 8:45

    In-class   Examination            8:45 – 9:40

    Wrap-Up                           9:40 – 9:50

           Dr. Burrescia                             3
Motivation in

                Class 6
Learning Objectives
1.   Define motivation and explain its importance in the field of
     organizational behavior.
2.   Describe need hierarchy theory and what it recommends
     about improving motivation in organizations.
3.   Identify and explain the conditions through which goal
     setting can be used to improve job performance.
4.   Describe distributive justice, procedural justice, and
     interactional justice, and explain how they may be applied
     to motivating people in organizations.
5.   Describe expectancy theory and how it may be applied in
6.   Distinguish between job enlargement, job enrichment, and
     the job characteristics model as techniques for motivating
         Dr. Burrescia                                              5

 The set of processes
  that arouse, direct,
  and maintain human
  behavior toward
  attaining some goal.
 Components:
    – Arousal
    – Direction
    – Maintenance

       Dr. Burrescia     6
Components of Motivation

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Key Points about Motivation

                     Motivation and job
                      performance are
                      not synonymous.
                     Motivation is
                     People are
                      motivated by more
                      than just money.

    Dr. Burrescia                          8
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory

 Specifies that there
 are five human         Deficiency Needs
 needs and that          Physiological
 these are arranged           Safety
 in such a way that           Social
 lower, more basic
 needs must be           Growth Needs
 satisfied before            Esteem
 higher-level needs
 become activated.

     Dr. Burrescia                           9
Deficiency Needs
   The needs that must be met in order for
    people to develop in a healthy fashion.
   Physiological: Fundamental biological
    drives, such as the need for food, air, water,
    and shelter.
   Safety: The need for a secure environment
    and to be free from threats of physical or
    psychological harm.
   Social: The need to be affiliative – that is, to
    have friends, and to be loved and accepted by
    other people.

        Dr. Burrescia                                  10
Growth Needs
 The needs that must be met in order for a
  person to reach his or her full potential.
 Esteem: The need to develop self-
  respect and to gain the approval of
 Self-Actualization: The need to discover
  who we are and to develop ourselves to
  the fullest potential.

      Dr. Burrescia                            11
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
 Analternative to Maslow’s need
 hierarchy theory which asserts that
 there are three basic human needs:
  – Existence: Corresponds with Maslow’s
    physiological and safety needs.
  – Relatedness: Corresponds with
    Maslow’s social needs.
  – Growth: Corresponds with Maslow’s
    esteem and self-actualization needs.
       Dr. Burrescia                       12
Need Theories: A Comparison

   Dr. Burrescia              13
Managerial Applications
   Promote a healthy
   Provide financial
   Provide
    opportunities to
   Recognize
        Dr. Burrescia     14
Goal-Setting Theory
 The theory according to which a goal serves as
  a motivator because it causes people to
  compare their present capacity to perform with
  that required to succeed at the goal.
 Related Concepts:
    – Goal Setting: The process of determining specific
      levels of performance for workers to attain.
    – Self-Efficacy: One’s belief about having the capacity
      to perform a task.
    – Goal Commitment: The degree to which people
      accept and strive to attain goals.

        Dr. Burrescia                                         15
The Goal-Setting Process

   Dr. Burrescia           16
Setting Effective Goals
                     Assign specific goals:
                      People perform at higher
                      levels when asked to meet
                      a specific high-
                      performance goal than
                      when simply asked to “do
                      their best,” or when no
                      goal at all is assigned.
                     Assign difficult but
                      acceptable goals.
                     Provide feedback
                      concerning goal

    Dr. Burrescia                                 17
Goal-Setting Effects

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The Importance of Feedback

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Organizational Justice
 People’s perceptions of fairness in organizations,
 consisting of perceptions of how decisions are
 made regarding the distribution of outcomes and
 the perceived fairness of those outcomes
 Distributive Justice: The perceived fairness of
 the way rewards are distributed among people.
 Procedural Justice: Perceptions of the fairness
 of the procedures used to determine outcomes.
 Interactional Justice: The perceived fairness of
 the interpersonal treatment used to determine
 organizational outcomes.
     Dr. Burrescia                                    20
Three Types of Justice

   Dr. Burrescia         21
Equity Theory
 The theory stating that people strive to
 maintain ratios of their own outcomes to their
 own inputs that are equal to the
 outcome/input ratios of others with whom
 they compare themselves.
 Outcomes: The rewards employees receive
 from their jobs, such as salary and
 Inputs: People’s contributions to their jobs,
 such as their experience, qualifications, or
 the amount of time worked.
     Dr. Burrescia                                22
Equity Theory
 Overpayment Inequity: The condition resulting in
 feelings of guilt, in which the ratio of one’s
 outcomes/inputs is more than the corresponding ratio
 of another person with whom that person compares
 himself or herself.
 Underpayment Inequity: The condition resulting in
 feelings of anger, in which the ratio of one’s
 outcomes/inputs is less than the corresponding ratio
 of another person with whom that person compares
 himself or herself.
 Equitable Payment: The state in which one person’s
 outcome/input ratio is equivalent to that of another
 person with whom the person compares himself or
     Dr. Burrescia                                      23
Equity Theory

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Reactions to Inequity

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Making Decisions Fairly
                     Give people a say in
                      how decisions are
                     Provide an
                      opportunity for errors
                      to be corrected.
                     Apply rules and
                      policies consistently.
                     Make decisions in an
                      unbiased manner.

    Dr. Burrescia                              26
Motivational Tips

   Avoid underpayment.
   Avoid overpayment.
   Give people a voice in
    decisions affecting
   Explain outcomes
    thoroughly using a
    socially sensitive

       Dr. Burrescia         27
Expectancy Theory
 The theory that asserts that motivation is
 based on people’s beliefs about the probability
 that effort will lead to performance, multiplied
 by the probability that performance will lead to
 reward, multiplied by the perceived value of the
 Determinants of motivation:
   Other Factors

     Dr. Burrescia                                  28
Determinants of Motivation
 Expectancy: The belief that one’s efforts will
 positively influence one’s performance.
 Instrumentality: An individual’s beliefs
 regarding the likelihood of being rewarded in
 accord with his or her own level of
 Valence: The value a person laces on the
 rewards he or she expects to receive from an
 Other Determinants: Skills and abilities, Role
 perceptions, opportunities to perform

     Dr. Burrescia                                29
Expectancy Theory

   Dr. Burrescia    30
Managerial Applications
                    Clarify people’s
                     expectancies that
                     their effort will lead
                     to performance.
                    Administer rewards
                     that are positively
                     valent to employees.
                    Clearly link valued
                     rewards and

   Dr. Burrescia                              31
Job Design
   An approach to motivation suggesting that
    jobs can be created to enhance people’s
    interest in doing them.
   Job Enlargement: The practice of
    expanding the content of a job to include
    more variety and a greater number of tasks
    at the same level.
   Job Enrichment: The practice of giving
    employees a high degree of control over
    their work, from planning and organization,
    through implementing the jobs and
    evaluating the results.
        Dr. Burrescia                             32
Job Enlargement and Enrichment

    Dr. Burrescia                33
The Job Characteristics Model
 An approach to job enrichment that
 specifies that five core job dimensions
 produce critical psychological states that
 lead to beneficial outcomes for individuals
 and the organization.
 Components of the Model:
 – Core Job Dimensions
    • Motivating Potential Score
 – Critical Psychological States
    • Growth Need Strength
 – Personal and Work Outcomes
     Dr. Burrescia                             34
    Core Job Dimensions
   Skill Variety: The extent to which a job requires a
    number of different activities using several of the
    employee’s skills and talents.
   Task Identity: The extent to which a job requires
    completing a whole piece of work from beginning to
   Task Significance: The degree of impact the job is
    believed to have on others.
   Autonomy: The extent to which employees have the
    freedom and discretion to plan, schedule, and carry out
    their jobs as desired.
   Feedback: The extent to which the job allows people to
    have information about the effectiveness of their
          Dr. Burrescia                                       35
Motivating Potential Score
   A mathematical index describing the
    degree to which a job is designed so as to
    motivate people, as suggested by the job
    characteristics model. It is computed on
    the basis of a questionnaire known as the
    Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS).

   The lower the MPS, the more the job may
    stand to benefit from redesign.
        Dr. Burrescia                            36
Critical Psychological States
 Experienced meaningfulness of the work.
 Experienced responsibility for outcomes of
 the work.
 Knowledge of the actual results of the work
 These effects are moderated by an
 individual’s growth need strength:
 – The personality variable describing the extent to
   which people have a high need for personal growth
   and development on the job.
 – The JCM best describes people high in growth
   need strength.
     Dr. Burrescia                                     37
The Job Characteristics Model

   Dr. Burrescia                38
Enriching Jobs

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