French Empire by ajizai


									            Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)
   Origins
       A Noble Corsican Family
       Trained in armies of Ancien Regime
       Commissioned 1785
       Was in favor of the Revolution.

   Character
       He saw himself as a man of Destiny
       A rationalist and an opportunist
       Romantic Streak
           Compared himself to Alexander the Great and Caesar.
       Devoted to his family - he made them important all
        over Europe.
                      Coup of 18 Brumaire

   Napoleon Named First Consul 1799
   The Coup did not go well.
       Napoleon addressed the Assembly
           Shouted down and became angry.
       Saved by his brother Lucien calling in the army
         forced away the deputies.
    Napoleon's account of this later was distorted
     Failed to mention that Lucien saved him.

     Napoleon become one of three consuls.

           Presents himself as saving the Republic
       New Constitution of the Year VIII

   It appealed to republican theory (Checks and Balances)
   it included a Council of State (ref. Louis XIV)
   It actually made Napoleon ruler
   Approved by plebiscite (3,011,077 to 1,567)
   May be regarded as then end of the French Revolution
        Declaration to that effect in 1799
     In reality the rev. was over at Thermidor.
            Napoleon's Rule in France (1799-1814)
                 The Consulate (1799-1804)
   Napoleon maintained order in the state by his policies.
   Liberal Policies
       worked out important compromises between competing groups
       Employed people from all political groups. (e.g. Talleyrand)
       Gains of the peasants were confirmed
        Granted an amnesty to nobles
        Decreed improved education.
        Signed the Concordat of 1801 with Pope Pius VII
         Gave Catholics freedom of worship.
           It said Catholicism is Religion of most Frenchmen.
         State named bishops and paid priests
           The Church gave up its claims on property.
           Clergy swore loyalty to the state.
                        Conservative Order

   Central government control of the Provinces.
       Stopped the free press and free speech 1800
       Ruthless in crushing opposition secret police developed.
           Murdered the Bourbon Duke of Enghien 1804
       Stopped free elections - especially when he declared
        himself emperor
        CIVIL CODE 1804 = Napoleonic Code

   Granted the Middle class equality
   Safeguarded property rights
   Abolished all Privileges of birth
   Made state officials be chosen by merit
   Gave men control over their wives
   Labor unions forbidden

   Set the tone of all later French life
       legally egalitarian, socially bourgeois, and administratively
              Napoleon's Rule in France
                     The Empire (1804-1814)

   Used fears of a Bourbon comeback to get himself
    crowned Emperor.
     Also had another new constitution: also approved by

   Pope came to do it but Napoleon crowned himself
     Story of Charlemagne in 800AD being crowned by

       pope and then having to support him.
     Restoration of a Quasi-nobility: Legion of Honor.

   1809 Napoleon married Archduchess Marie Louise
     A more fitting wife for an emperor than Josephine,

       (supposedly she was sexually to much for him).
Coronation of Napoleon
               Conquering an Empire
   Peace of Ameins(1802)
   Britain was only truce because of Napoleon’s ambitions
           Army sent to quell colony of Haiti, aroused British fears of French
            American empire because Spain restored Louisiana to France(1800),
            also in Swtzerland, Italy, Germany
   Treaty of Campo Formio:
       Redistribution of territories along Rhine, princes scrambled for
       Reduction of Austrian influence, emergence of Napoleon-
        dependant larger German states
   British Naval Supremacy
       British sent ultimatum
       Napoleon ignored it,
       Britain declared war May 1803 – William Pitt Jr. returned as
        prime minister(1804), began constructing 3rd Coalition; persuaded
   Oct. 21, 1805, British Admiral Horatio Lord Nelson, destroyed
    combined French/Spanish fleets at Battle of Trafalgar:
        British lost no ships – ended all hope of French invasion of
        Britain, guaranteed Britain control of sea
                     War against Third Coalition
   (Aus. Russ. Swed. GB)
     Lost Naval dominance to Britain at Trafalgar
      1805 (Lord Horatio Nelson killed)(21 Oct)
     Britain now had the dominance of the seas it
      was to keep for the next century.

   Napoleon Dominant in Europe
     1805 Austerlitz (Dec 2)(just after Trafalgar) -
      Napoleon gains Italy
     1806 Jena defeats Prussia (supposedly best
      army in Europe).
     1807 Treaty of Tilsit

       Signed by Napoleon, by Alexander I of
        Russia (secretly)
       Russia becomes part of continental system
       -French Territorial gains confirmed
       Russia reduced in size.
    The Grand Empire and the Continental System

   French controlled all of Continental Europe (achievement shows
    unrealized possibilities of France under the later Ancien Regime).
       1806 The Holy Roman Empire dissolved.
           Germany re-organized July 1806 as The Confederation
            of the Rhine.
       French Empire set up including land up to the Rhine
        and beyond.
            New Kingdoms set up - Spain, Italy, Holland, Sweden -
            All with Napoleons family or followers on the throne. One
            relative became a Cardinal.
       All the other state were, for the time being allies.
       The Napoleonic Code was imposed everywhere. -end
        of Feudalism + Local town oligarchies
                        Continental System
   After Treaty of Tilsit,
       Napoleon needed to defeat British to feel safe
       Couldn’t defeat navy, so tried to cut off British trade and
        drive Britain from the war
   The Milan Decree of 1807:
       Attempted to stop neutral nation from trading w/Britain
   British economy survived
       Continental System hurt European economies
       Napoleon rejected suggestions to make empire trade-free
           Tariff policies favored France
           Increased foreign resentment
            less willing to enforce system, more likely to smuggle
       Napoleon invaded Spain in 1808 in part to prevent
        smuggling, helped bring his ruin
                      German Nationalism
   No unified German state,
       Romantic movement; nationalism was basic feature
       writers emphasized unique qualities of German culture
        Until Napoleon humiliated Prussia at Jena(1806)
   Many German intellectuals urged resistance to Napoleon
    from nationalism
   France served as example of independent growth;
     Germans wanted unified state

       Only Prussia could be so patriotic: nationalist went to
        Prussia calling for reforms that were feared by
        Frederick William III and Junker nobility
                        Prussian Reform
   Prussian admin./social reforms
     Baron vom Stein and Count von Hardenberg

           Wanted to keep power of Prussian monarch/nobles
           Tried to fight French w/revolution
           Reforms came from top,
           changed social scene
   Broke Junker land monopoly/serfdom abolished
       Some manorial labor) /new problems created by landless labor
       force w/population explosion
   Military reforms:
       abolished inhumane military punishments
       Embraced patriotism
       Opened officer corps to commoners/based on merit/war colleges
   Reforms soon let Prussia regain former power
     Limited army to 42,000 men, universal conscription not introduced
       until 1813(trained reserves)
               The Wars of Liberation

   Spain: resistance had deep social roots
     Napoleon used a revolt to dispose of
      Spanish Bourbons
           replace with brother, Joseph
       attacks on church enraged peasants
           General rebellion – new guerilla warfare, British
            helped out,
           long campaign would drain French strength
            elsewhere, big role in Nap’s defeat
   Austria:
       Spanish troubles encouraged Austrians, renewed war
        1809; since defeat at Austerlitz, sought war of revenge,
       counted on Nap’s distraction
           French weariness
           German princes (none happened)
       French Army marched to Austria, won Battle of Wagram
           Peace of Schoenbrunn: Austria lost territory/3.5 million
   Marie Louise
        spoil of Nap’s victory, Austrian archduchess, daughter of
        emperor – old wife was 46, no children; divorced her,
        married 18-yr-old Marie
            considered marrying sister of Tsar Alexander
The Invasion of Russia
   March on Moscow
   1810 Russians withdrew from the Continental system. and
    resume contact with GB.
   1812 Napoleon Attempts to march on Moscow, as his major
    continental opponent.
       Defeated by the Cold and snow and lack of supplies
         Russians used scorched earth policy.
         Also defeated by the resistance put up by the entire
          Russian people - from the Tsar to the serfs.
         Tsar did not allow for any one decisive battle which
          was Napoleon's forte (Borodino 1812 not decisive)
   The Retreat from Moscow - 1812/1813
     Napoleon was unable to get together another army for six
      months. About 100,000 out of 600,000 survived.
     Raised 350,000
    The Opposition Becomes Effective
   1813
       Prussia after defeat at Jena reorganized and
           Some land reform. end of serfdom, calls to patriotism.
            42,000 men trained each year
           By 1813 it was strong again - army of 270,000

   Napoleon still put down opponents in Paris/raised another
    350K men
   Other countries hesitant to attack,
     Austrian foreign minister, Prince Klemens von Metternich

      would have settled reasonably,
     Nap didn’t consider compromising

   Patriotic pressure/national ambition brought together -
    most powerful coalition v. Napoleon(1813)
                    European Coalition
   The Fourth Coalition, (Russia, Prussia,
    Austria, GB)
       Russians drove westward, joined by Austria/Prussia
        w/vast amounts of British $;
           Wellington marched peninsular army into France from west
       New army was inexperienced/poorly equipped; still,
        waged skillful campaign in central Europe, defeated
        allies at Dresden
       In Oct. Nap decisively defeated at Leipzig in “Battle of
           a few days later, Nap abdicated/went into exile on island of
            Elba, of coast of northern Italy
The Congress of Vienna
   Fear of Nap/hostility to ambitions had held coalition
     Split apart, seeking separate goals

     Agreement reached through Robert Stewart,
       Viscount Castlereagh, British foreign secretary;
     Treaty of Chaumont (March9,1814)

         restored Bourbons to French throne/contracted French
                final deal at Vienna Congress
          HRE, dissolved since 1806, left untouched/established
          legitimate monarchs/rejected republican/democratic
          politics that came from French Rev
   Brought agreement that Britain, Austria, Russia,
    Prussia would from Quadruple Alliance for 20 yrs to
    preserve settlement
             Territorial Adjustments

   Settlement of Eastern Europe divided victors
       Alex. I of Russia wanted Poland/ Prussia would
        trade for Saxony
       Austria unwilling to give up share of Poland or see
        Russian/Prussian power grow (Polish-Saxon
       Talleyrand, representing France,
         suggested that leak of “secret treaty” between
           France, Britain, Austria would bring Alexander to
           his senses
   Russia accepted smaller Poland,
       Prussia settled for ½ of Saxony,
       France was included as 5th great power in all
                 The Hundred Days

   Nap returned from Elba(March1,1815) army
    still loyal;
       Promised liberal constitution
       peaceful foreign policy
       Allies declared him outlaw and went to crush him
   Wellington with help of Prussians under
    Field Marshal von Bluecher,
       defeated Nap at Waterloo in Belgium
       Nap abdicated, sent to exile on Saint Helena,
        died there in 1821
                the Quadruple Alliance
   Alexander proposed Holy Alliance
       monarchs promised to act with Christian ideals,
       Austria and Prussia signed
       Britain- Castlereagh didn’t
   Quadruple Alliance renewed(Nov20,1815)
       New diplomacy in European affairs; determined to prevent
       purpose of treaty to secure peace,
       Vienna Settlement, powers framed good relations
   Congress of Vienna achieved goals
       France accepted situation/new legal framework
   Criticized for failing to recognize/provide for
    nationalism/democracy (inappropriate) general desire was for
        virtually unprecedented to produce settlement intact for 100 yrs
               Changed Political Map of Europe

   Holy Roman Empire Goes
     Austria now its own nation

       300 German States reduced to 39.
           More Catholic states than Protestant ones disappeared
           no Habsburg would again be elected emperor
       France becomes less important for 30 years
       Britain's mastery of the seas now total
   Began in late 1700s
   Dominated European cultural life through
    first half of 1800s
   Difficult to define:
       Romantics were both liberals and
        conservatives; revolutionaries and reactionaries
       Some were religious, others not
               Rousseau and Education
   Claimed society/material prosperity had
    corrupted human nature
       Emile(1762) stressed difference between kids and
        adults; showed stages of maturation and said kids
        should be raised with max. individual freedom; trial
        and error – like a plant
   Thought that child’s sentiments/reason should
    be allowed to grow
       Romantic writers
           concept showed rights of nature were over artificial
            society; view of life led romantics to value uniqueness
            of each individual
           saw humankind/nature/society as organically related
                          Kant and Reason
   Wrote 2 greatest philosophical works of late 18th:
   The Critique of Pure Reason(1781)
   The Critique of Practical Reason(1788)
       Wanted to accept rationalism of Enlightenment/still
        preserve belief in God/human freedom/immortality
       Argued for subjective character of human knowledge,
        mind imposes on world of sensory experience
        human mind sees world b/c of own internal mental
        categories, not everything is sensory experience
   Believed in “noumenal” world of moral/aesthetic reality
    known by “practical reason”
       Thought all humans had innate sense of moral duty
        (categorical imperative) that showed natural freedom
        postulated existence of God/eternal life/future
   Romantic writers identified w/Kantian philosophy
    Romantics and Nature
   Philosophes saw nature as a lifeless machine, a
    giant clock, all parts working in perfect precision
       Romantics rejected this impersonal machine model of
        nature, responding to nature emotionally, seeking
        mystical union with nature
   Nature is alive an suffused with God’s presence
       The factories of the Industrial Revolution were “dark
        satanic mills” that separated people from the glories of the
        natural world
                       Romantics and God
   God - spiritual force behind all life; mysterious and
   Romantics condemned Deists for weakening
       Methodism
           John Wesley’s revolt against deism and the rationality of the
            English church; connection with God is individual and
            heartfelt, an enthusiastic, emotional experience (revivals)
       Hasidic Judaism
           Founded by the Ba’al Shem tov in E. Europe
            Hasidics rejected the academic Judaism in favor of a more
            spiritual Judaism in which God is seen in every aspect of the
            world and humans can make direct, personal connections
            with God; miracles
              Romantics and History
   Philosophes            Romantics
                           Middle Ages as a time of
   Middle ages as a        security, spiritual unity,
    time of darkness,       and social harmony
    superstition, and      A time of chivalrous
    fanaticism              deed, heroic individuals,
                            colorful pageantry
                           Looked to Medieval
                            language, folk songs,
                            legends, myths, and
                            traditions as a way to
                            identify with unique
                            national histories
        Romantics- Nationalism and History

   German Romantics
       Glorification of the individual and culture
   G. Fichte
       The world exists because of humans
   Johann Gottfried Herder
       Rejection of French influences in Germany
       Promoted German folk cultures
           Grimm Bros followed his example
   Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
       Created system of how ideas develop
           Thesis- set of ideas
           Antithesis- conflicting ideas
           Synthesis- Merging of ideas
Romanticism and Islam
   The Crusades against Islam fit into European
    Romantic ideas
       Ottomans seen unfavorably
   Some spread of Islamic culture
       1001 Nights
       Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

   Romantic view of history gave Islam a distinct
   Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt brought artifacts
    back to France
       Growth of interest in ancient Egyptian culture

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