The Alamo by alicejenny


									The Alamo
Political Geography
• Land in Tejas was rich & desirable, with forests in the
  east, rich soil for growing corn & cotton, & great
  grassy plains for grazing animals.
• It was home to Plains & Pueblo Native Americans &
  had few Spanish settlers.
• In 1821, only about 4,000 Tejanos lived there.
• Spain agreed to allow Moses Austin to start his own
  colony in Texas.
• Shortly after Austin arrived in Tejas in 1821, Mexico
  gained its independence from Spain, so Tejas became
  part of Mexico. It made Austin’s land grant worthless.
• The Mexican government would allow Austin to keep
  his colony only if he agreed that new settlers must
  become Mexican citizens & Catholic.
• He attracted 297 families, known as the
  “Old Three Hundred.”
• He demanded evidence that each family was moral,
  worked hard, & did not drink.
• By 1830, the population had grown to about 30,000,
  with Americans outnumbering the Tejanos six to one.
• Tejanos & Americans did not get along for several
  reasons, including:
   – Americans did not want to learn Spanish
   – Official documents had to be in Spanish
   – Slavery was outlawed by Mexico in 1829 & Americans wanted
     slaves to help with their cotton farms
   – Tejanos believed Americans thought they were superior &
     deserved special privileges
   – Americans seemed unwilling to adapt to Mexican laws
• The Mexican government sent
  troops to Tejas to force them to
  obey the laws.
          What is the Alamo?
• Mission San Antonio de Valero (later called the Alamo)
  was established in 1718, the first of five Spanish
  missions founded in San Antonio to Christianize and
  educate resident Indians.
• Other Spanish missions in San Antonio included San
  Jose, San Juan, Concepcion, & Espada.
• It was well over 100 years old when it became the focal
  point for the Battle of the Alamo. The Alamo will
  always be remembered and associated with that battle.
               Texans Revolt
• Texans talked about breaking away from Mexico,
  although Austin remained loyal.
• Austin went to Mexico City to meet with General Lopez
  de Santa Anna, the Mexican President. They discussed
  changes to be made.
• When Santa Anna didn’t agree to the changes, Austin
  protested & was jailed for one year. Santa Anna also
  sent troops to Texas.
• Mexicans tried to seize the Alamo, but Texans fought
  back & the Mexicans fled.
      The Fight for the Alamo
• Leaders William Travis, James Bowie, Davy Crockett,
  & Juan Seguin, helped to lead the revolt. In 1836, Santa
  Anna’s troops surrounded San Antonio & began
  another siege of the Alamo.
• Travis wrote: “The enemy has demanded a
  surrender…I have answered the demand
  with a cannon shot & our flag still waves
  proudly from the walls. I shall never
  surrender or retreat.”
       Colonel William Travis
• He was a Texas military
  commander & fought at
  the Alamo at age 26.
• He asked Texans for
  support & backup in
  defending the Alamo
  from Santa Anna’s
• He gave his life fighting
  at the Alamo.
                    James Bowie
• He commanded the Volunteer
  Force at the Alamo.
• He was disabled by pneumonia
  & he was confined to his cot at
  the time of his death.
• He is known for his famous
  "Bowie knife" and his
  sometimes reckless sense of
                     Davy Crockett
• He was a genuine frontiersman
  and Indian fighter who had no
  formal schooling. He served in
  the Tennessee legislature and
  killed 105 bears in one year!
• When he lost a re-election
  against Andrew Jackson in
  1835, he set out for Texas with a
  group of fellow adventurers,
  telling opponents"You can go to
  hell--I'm going to Texas!"
• He died defending the Alamo.
                    Santa Anna
• He led the Mexican rebellion
  against Texas.
• After taking the Alamo, he
  moved against the forces
  being massed by Sam
  Houston, pushing them back
  toward eastern Texas.
• The army settled into a
  siesta. And then the Texans
  struck. Santa Anna was
  captured the next day.
                   The Battle
• The Mexicans set the Alamo on fire & the mission went
  up in flames & Texans fought to put it out.
• The Alamo’s defenders held off the attack for 12 days.
  They refused to surrender.
• On the 13th day, Santa Anna ordered more than 1,800
  men to storm the fortress.
• Texans met attackers with a hailstorm of cannon &
  gunfire. Then it suddenly became strange & quiet.
  Texans had run out of ammunition.
• Five Texans had died, but the Battle of the Alamo was
      Events of March 3, 1836
• Day 13 of the siege: At 1 a.m. Mexican troops move
  towards their positions. At 5 a.m. Santa Anna gave the
  signal. The Mexican bugler sounded & they advanced
  on the Alamo.
• Texans fought hard to defend their mission. There were
  heavy Mexican casualties (nearly 600 killed or
  wounded). The battle raged all through the Alamo.
• By 6:30 a.m. the last firing was over. The Alamo had
  fallen... In the words of General Vincente Filisola,
  “By grapeshot, musketshot and the
  bayonet, they were all killed at last."
                   The Result
• Men who had not died in the Battle were executed at
  Santa Anna’s command.
• A total of 183 Alamo defenders died, although they let a
  few women & children live.
• Susanna Dickinson, one of the survivors, was
  ordered by Santa Anna to tell the story of the
  Alamo to other Texans to discourage rebellion.
  The battle shocked Texans & showed them
  how hard they would have to fight for their
  freedom from Mexico.
• With Santa Anna on the attack, Texans fled eastward.
  They were captured by Mexican forces, who executed
  more than 300 more.
                 Sam Houston
• Born in Virginia, Sam
  Houston was a statesman,
  politician, & soldier.
• He moved to Texas, leaving
  the United States to protest
  Jackson’s Indian Removal
• Houston persuaded Texans
  to move eastward & led the
  battle against Santa Anna
  at San Jacinto.
        Victory at San Jacinto
• With support from Texans, Houston’s army doubled
  into more than 800 angry men, including Tejanos,
  American settlers, volunteers from the U.S., & many
  free & enslaved African Americans.
• Santa Anna caught up with Houston near San Jacinto
  River & Texans advanced on the Mexican army with
  “the stillness of death.”
• When close to Santa Anna’s camp, they raced forward,
  rifles ready, screaming, “Remember the Alamo!!!”
• In 18 minutes, Texans killed more than half
  of the Mexican Army. Santa Anna signed a
  treaty giving Texas its freedom. With the
  Battle of San Jacinto, Texas was now
       The Lone Star Republic
• Texans adopted the nickname Lone Star Republic &
  proclaimed themselves to be an independent nation.
• They set up their own army & navy & elected Sam
  Houston as president.
• Many Texans did not want to remain an independent
  nation & so Texas asked the U.S. Congress to join the
  union in 1836.
• Congress voted against it, because many Americans
  feared conflicts with slavery & voting advantages.
• It would be more than ten years
  before Texas would join the
  United States.
                     Texas Flag
• The official state flag of
  Texas, called the Lone Star
  Flag, was adopted in 1845
  when Texas became the
  28th state of the United
•    The colors represent
    bravery (red), purity
    (white), and loyalty (blue).
• The large white star was
  first used on Texas flags in
  the 1830's during the
  battles between Texas and
             The Aftermath
• Without the Alamo there could have been no
  Battle of San Jacinto.
• Without the Battle of San Jacinto, Texas could not
  have existed.
• Without Texas, the westward expansion of the
  U.S. would have been thwarted.
• Without the West, the U.S. would have remained
  an Atlantic power, and not risen to become a
  world power.
• Without the U.S. as a world
  power, the world as we see it
  today would not exist.
        Six Flags Over Texas
• The amusement park was named for the six different
  nations’ flags which have governed Texas, including:
  France, Spain, Mexico, Republic of Texas, the Confederate
  States of America, & the United States of America.

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