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					Craig, Heritage of World
Civilization, 6th ed.

 Chapter16 - The Age of Reformation
 and Religious Wars
Introduction
   Europe and world transformed in 16th century
   Exploration and origins of larger slave trade
   Protestant Reformation led revolt against medieval
    church
      Reform also within the Catholic church

      Bloody religious warfare

   Period of superstition - witch craze
      And brilliance - writings of Cervantes,
       Shakespeare, Pascal, Spinoza, Hobbes, Locke
Discovery of a New World
   Prince Henry the Navigator - 1394-1460
      Portuguese exploration of African coast

      Gold and spices

      Desire to bypass Muslim land trade routes

   Bartholomew Dias - d. 1500
      Rounded Cape of Good Hope in 1487

   Vasco da Gama - d. 1524
      Reached India in 1498
Voyages of Columbus
   Spanish decide to sail across Atlantic
   Christopher Columbus - 1451-1506
      Marco Polo’s account of his years in China

      Global map of Martin Behaim

   Reached San Salvador - October 12, 1492
      Taino Indians - generous and easily enslaved

   Amerigo Vespucci - 1451-1512
   Ferdinand Magellan - 1480-1521
      Exploration of coastline of South America
Impact of Columbus’ Journeys
   Exploration becomes journeys of conquest
      Three centuries of Spanish dominance

   Largest and longest-surviving trading bloc
      Financed Spain’s commanding role

      Spurred other Europeans nations to explore

   Virtual destruction of American societies
      Warfare, diseases, exploitation of labor

      Spanish Catholicism, economic dependence,

       hierarchical social structure
Northern Renaissance
   Scholarly works of northern humanists created a
    climate favorable to religious reforms
   Desiderius Erasmus - 1466-1536
      The Praise of Folly - 1511

      Expose of human self-deception

   Sir Thomas More - 1478-1535
      Utopia - 1516

      Imaginary world based on reason and tolerance

      Rids itself of all social and political injustice
Martin Luther - 1483-1546
   Son of Thuringian miner
      Master of Arts at University of Erfurt

      Order of the Hermits of Saint Augustine

   Severe questions of his own salvation
      “Justification by faith alone”

   Pope Julius II (r. 1503-1513), St. Peter’s
      John Tetzel and selling of indulgences

   Ninety-five Theses - October 31, 1517
   Debate with John Eck - June 27, 1519
Luther’s Pamphlets - 1520
   Address to the Christian Nobility of the German
    Nation
      Urged German princes to reform church

      Curtail its political and economic power

   Babylonian Captivity of the Church
      Attacked traditional seven sacraments

      Authority of Scripture over the Pope

   Freedom of a Christian
      Salvation of faith alone
Diet of Worms - 1521
   Luther presented his views before Diet of empire
      Ordered to recant - Luther refused

      Declared an outlaw of the empire - May 1521

   Protected by Saxon Elector Frederick the Wise
      Translation of Bible into German

      Reformation assisted by emperor’s war with

       France
      Threat posed by Ottoman expansion

   Diet of Speyer - 1526
Peasants’ Revolt
   Luther’s teaching of religious freedom appealed to
    peasants’ desire for change
      Peasants openly solicited Luther’s support

      Lutherans were no social revolutionaries

   Peasants revolted in 1524-1525
      Luther condemned peasants as “unchristian”

      Urged the peasants to crush the revolt

      70,000-100,000 peasants killed

   For Luther - freedom was an inner release
Ulrich Zwingli - 1484-1531
   Leader of the Swiss Reformation
   Simple philosophy
      Whatever lacked literal support in Scripture
       was to be neither believed nor practiced
   Marburg Colloquy - 1529
      Attempt to bring Luther and Zwingli together

      Different interpretations of Christ’s nature

      Differences not settled

      Luther thought Zwingli a dangerous fanatic
Anabaptists
   Many desired a more rapid and thorough
    implementation of primitive Christianity
   Anabaptists - most important groups
      Early equivalents of Mennonites or Amish

   Rejection of infant baptism
      Insistence on adult baptism

   Physically separated from society
      Attempt to form a more perfect society

   More rural, agrarian class
John Calvin - 1509-1564
   Reform-minded humanist and lawyer
   Institutes of the Christian Religion
      Definitive Protestant theological work

   Geneva - center of Calvinism
   Desire to make society godly
      Elect should lead God-pleasing life

      Consistory - judicial body of clergy and laity

      Calvin’s instrument of power

      Enforced strictest moral discipline
Consolidation of Reformation
   Lutherans formed regional consistories
      Spread to Denmark - Christian III

      Spread to Sweden - Gustavus Vasa

      Poland - model of religious pluralism

   Charles V made efforts to enforce compromise
   Peace of Augsburg - September 1555
      Made division of Christendom permanent

      Curius regio, eius religio

      Calvinism ignored by Peace of Augsburg
English Reformation
   Henry VIII - r. 1509-1547
     Marriage to Catherine of Aragon

     Anne Boleyn

     Pope Clement VII, Charles V

   Reformation Parliament - 7 year session
     Henry recognized as head of English church

     Submission of the Clergy - passed 1533

     Act of Supremacy - passed 1534
Edward VI and Mary
   Henry VIII had remained conservative
      Six Articles - 1539

      Reaffirmed transubstantiation

   Edward VI - r. 1547-1553
      Book of Common Prayer

      Forty-Two Articles

      Clerical marriage sanctioned

   Mary Tudor - r. 1553-1558
      Return to Catholicism
Counter-Reformation
   Attempts at Catholic reform before Luther
      Blocked by upper clergy

   Ignatius of Loyola - 1491-1556
      Society of Jesus

      Spiritual Exercises

   Council of Trent - 1545-1563
      Reaffirmed traditional Catholic doctrine

      Reform of church discipline
Changing Religious Life
   Religion in 15th century life
     Clergy made up 6-8% of urban population

     Considerable political and religious power

     Monasteries were prominent and influential

   Religion in 16th century life
     Numbers of clergy fell by 2/3

     Monasteries and nunneries nearly absent

     Worship conducted in the vernacular

     Clergy could marry, paid taxes
Changing Role of Women
   Reformation changed status of women
      New marriage laws gave them greater security

      Reformers viewed their wives favorably

      New value placed on marriage and family life

   Ideal of companionate marriage
      Expansion of divorce in Protestant cities

      Women had equal rights to divorce

   Protestants encouraged education of girls to
    literacy in the vernacular
French Wars of Religion
   Catherine de Medici - 1519-1589
   Competition - Guise vs. Bourbon vs.
    Montmorency-Chatillon families
      Guise - ultra-Catholicism

      Bourbon - Huguenot

   Saint Bartholomew Day’s Massacre
      August 24, 1572

      3000 Huguenots killed in Paris

      20,000 Huguenots killed throughout France
Henry IV - r. 1589-1610
   Henry of Navarre a politique
      Managed to placate both sides

      “Paris is worth a Mass”

   Edict of Nantes - 1598
      Granted Huguenots

         Freedom of public worship

         Rights of assembly

         Admission to public offices and universities

         Permission to maintain fortified towns
Philip II - r. 1556-1598
   Leader of Counter-Reformation
      Victory over Turks at Lepanto - 1571

   Revolt in the Netherlands
      William Prince of Orange - r. 1533-1584

         Politique

      Duke of Alba - Council of Troubles (Blood)

      Pacification of Ghent - 1576

         Split into Protestant Netherlands and

          Catholic Belgium
Elizabeth I - r. 1558-1603
   Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn
     Most astute politician of sixteenth century

   Religious settlement
     Anglican church as a middle road

   Conflict with Spain
     Francis Drake and John Hawkins

     Support of Protestants in Netherlands

     Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots

     Victory over Spanish Armada - 1588
Thirty Years’ War - 1618-1648
   Last and most destructive of religious wars
   Holy Roman Empire equally divided between
    Catholics and Protestants
   Treaty of Westphalia - 1648
      Reasserted major feature of Peace of Augsburg

      Rulers determined religion of their lands

      Calvinists recognized this time

      Insured German political weakness

      Rise of Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia
Witch Hunts 1400-1700
   70,000-100,000 people sentenced to death for
    harmful magic (malificium)
      Attendance at sabbats

      Sexual orgies with the devil

   Cunning folk played role in villages
      Often old and impoverished

      Usually single or widowed women

   Clergy had monopoly on magic
      Magic outside church - league with the devil
Women and the Witch Hunts
   80% of victims were women
      Most single, 45-60 years of age

      Role of misogyny

   Also economic factors
      More women than men laid claim to

       supernatural power that made them influential
      Involvement of women in midwifery

   Political self-aggrandizement
   Role of the Reformation
End of the Witch Hunts
   Many factors
   Emergence of more scientific worldview
      Mind and matter two independent realities

   Witch hunts also tended to get out of hand
      Judges and leaders accused

   Protestants ridiculed sacramental magic of
    Catholic church
      Belief in a God supreme over time and eternity

      Devil believed to serve God’s purpose
Miguel de Cervantes - 1547-1616
   Greatest Spanish writer of all time
     Preoccupied with strengths, weaknesses of

      religious idealism
   Don Quixote - 1605, 1615
     Supposed to satirize chivalric romances

        Down-to-earth realism of Sancho Panza

        Old-fashioned religious idealism of Quixote

     To be truly happy, people need dreams, even
      impossible ones, as much as reality
William Shakespeare 1564-1616
   Playwright, actor, part-owner of a theater
      Original synthesis of the best past and current

       achievements in dramatic arts
   Mastered psychology of human motivation and
    passion
      Unique talent for psychological penetration

   Extraordinary tragedies
   Romeo and Juliet (1597), Hamlet (1603), Othello
    (1604), King Lear (1605), Macbeth (1606)
Blaise Pascal - 1623-1662
   French mathematician and physical scientist
      Provincial Letters and Pensees

      Refuted Jesuits, atheists, deists

   Human religion remained of no avail in religion
   Two truths:
      A loving God exists

      Humans, corrupted in nature, unworthy of God

   Leap of faith was necessary
      Pascal’s wager
Baruch Spinoza - 1632-1677
   Most controversial thinker of 17th century
   Ethics - 1677
   Only one substance is free and self-caused - God
      Everything exists in God

      Cannot be conceived apart from him

   Mind and matter are extensions of the infinite
    substance of God
      Controversial - Spinoza’s words seen as
       indicating that human actions were unfree
Thomas Hobbes - 1588-1679
   Most original political thinker of 17th century
     Leviathan - 1651

   Natural law as basis of all positive law
   Representative theory of absolute authority
     Commonwealth - people united by their consent

      in one all-powerful person
     Original state of humankind was chaos

     Corruption that society delivered people

   Anarchy is greater danger than tyranny
John Locke - 1632-1704
   Most influential political thinker of 17th century
      Thought embodied in Glorious Revolution

      Two Treatises of Government - 1690

   Argued the rulers did not have absolute power
   People form “social contracts”
      Empowering governments to umpire disputes

      To preserve their natural rights

   Governments that threaten individual rights can be
    replaced by the governed

				
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