Prof. Dr. Nasamat Abd El Kader Prof. Dr. Sayed Mohammed Ettouney Prof. Dr. Rowaida Reda Kamel Ass’t Dr. Reeman Mohammed Rehan
Professor of Housing Professor of Urban Design Professor of Architecture and Housing Department of architecture
Department of Architecture Department of Architecture Department of architecture Faculty of Engineering
Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Engineering Faculty of Engineering Helwan University
Cairo University Cairo University Cairo University
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The project of Low-Cost Housing Prototypes in Egypt (1987) is one of the governmental trials to solve the
Egyptian housing problem to reach a greater number of lower – income families. The concept offered internal
flexibility of the housing unit, permitting the participation of the user in the design decisions of his own house
that matches his needs and affordability.
The partially completed housing prototypes comprised seven types of five stories apartment walk-ups, providing
a variety of flat areas, namely: 45, 60, 75 and 90 square meters. Each flat was conceived as a minimal shelter,
comprising: a finished bathroom, structure elements, all sanitary connections and electrical installations.
Internal partitions as well as walls and floor finishing were left, to be gradually completed by the user according
to his needs and affordability.
The start was in 1987.
Stage 1: 1987 Initial phase with supports, bath room, and
Stage 2: 1987-1989 second phase with bath room, final
finishing of internal wall and floors, kitchen, 1 bedroom,
and 1 living room.
Stage 3: 1989-1997 third phase with bath room, kitchen, 2
bedrooms, and 1 living room.
Stage 4: 1997-2010 fourth phase with bath room, kitchen,
3 bedrooms, and 1 living room.
Stage 5: 2010… fifth phase with bath room, kitchen, 2
bedrooms, and 1 living room.
1987-1989: New small family consists of 2 persons.
1989-1992: Small family consists of 3 persons.
1992-1997: Family consists of 4 persons.
1997-2010: Big family consists of 5 persons.
2010…….: Family consists of 4 persons.
The proved income:
STAGE 1 STAGE 2 STAGE 3 STAGE 4 STAGE 5 1997-2001: 800LE/month.
EXPANSION User received a unit with It is a housing unit with 1 bedroom was added, 1 bedroom was added, 1 bedroom removed and 2001-2010: 1500LE/moth.
STAGES a finished bathroom, finished bathroom, for a total of 2 for a total of 3 area combined with
structure elements, all kitchen, 1 bedroom, and living room Actual income:
sanitary connections and 1 living room. It is not a fixed income, it comes from overtime work and
electrical installations. family assistant and it is not supported by documents.
TIME IN 1987 1987-1989 1989-1997 1997-2010 2010
WHY IN To solve the problem of accommodating the great number of lower – income categories. Number of rooms:
THAT TIME 1987: Initial phase with 0 room, supports, bath room, and
CONCEPT It is to be a key factor in decreasing the initial cost of dwellings. While developing architectural designs for the housing prototypes, the outer skin.
allowing the incremental development of the dwellings within a scenario of flexibility and adaptability. 1987-1989: 2 rooms (1 bedroom + 1 living room), bath
The concept was welcomed as it combined the external appearance of a complete project and allowed the users to gradually room, and kitchen.
complete and finish the interiors of their dwellings. 1989-1997: 3 rooms (2 bedrooms + 1 living room), bath
HOW BUILT The government built the outer skin of the building. room, and kitchen.
The user completes his housing unit with the help of the contractor
1997-2010: 4 rooms (3 bedrooms + 1 living room), bath
WHO BUILT User built the internal walls and he finished floors according to his needs and affordability.
room, and kitchen.
ISSUES The issue of users’ participation in the gradual completion and finishing of their dwellings.
2010…….: 3 rooms (2 bedrooms + 1 living room), bath
The issue of affordability and the impact of the family income on the process of gradual completion.
The issue of the organizational procedure related to the provision of tools, materials and technical assistance for the gradual room, and kitchen.
FAMILY The state has drawn some constrains on the beneficiaries, such as: Inflection point:
CIRCUMST Employment: users should be governmental employers , or have a proved income It is concentrated around the political decision.
ANCE Income: between (200-400 LE)/month (1987 Requirements) as the residential unit take a loan repaid over 30 or 40 years at a rate According to the civil Law No, 148, 2001, that outlining the
of 4%, so the user should pay 25% of his monthly income . boundaries of income category, the Egyptian low-income
SERVICES The external appearance of a complete project, finished bathroom, structure elements of a housing unit, and all sanitary connections
person is one ho gets 1500 LE /month.
and electrical installations were supplied by the government.
COSTS 2170 LE = (Monthly 2900 LE = (Monthly 3200 LE = one bedroom 4500 LE = one bedroom -
installment + 4% + wall installment+ 4% + finishing cost finishing cost References:
and floor finishing cost) bedroom, living room  Ettouney, S.M. & Abdel-Kader, Nasamat (1987) Formal Low
75 LE/month +95 LE/ and kitchen finishing Cost Housing Prototypes, Ministry of Development and New
month +2000 LE cost 75 LE/month +56 Communities, Cairo, Egypt ,(Arabic).
LE/month +5000 LE  Ettouney, S.M. & Abdel-Kader, Nasamat, (2003) Users’
SKETCHES Participation in Low Cost Housing Projects Post
Occupancy Evaluation, World Congress on Housing Housing
Process & Product, Montreal, Canada.
 Rehan ,Reeman Mohammed (2002) Review & Evaluation
of low-cost housing prototypes referring to 6th October
city, unpublished master thesis, Department of architecture,
PHOTOGRA Faculty of Engineering, Cairo University, Cairo.