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					Chapter 16



 Climate
               Climate
Climate is weather that is averaged over time


Conditions that are recorded then averaged
include:
     1.) temperature
     2.) precipitation
     3.) air pressure
     4.) humidity
     5.) days of sunshine
What Factors Affect the
Climate?
 Latitude
 Topographic features (Mountains,
Bodies of Water, Cities)
 Global wind patterns
 Air masses
      What Factors Affect the
      Climate?
  Latitude
Meteorologist use 3
latitudes (climate
zones) to look at
climate.
1.) Polar
2.) Temperate
3.) Tropical
Which zone do we live
in?
                       Polar Zone

  Extends from the poles
(north and south) to 66 1/2˚
  Solar energy hits the poles at
low angles
  Polar ice reflects the sun’s
rays
  Due to this the poles are
always cold.
                   Tropical Zone

  Located between 23 1/2˚
North, and 23 1/2˚ South
 Sun shines almost directly
overhead
 Receives large amounts of
solar energy
 This zones is always hot
except in higher elevations.
               Temperate Zone

   Located between the polar and
tropical zones (North and South)
 Temperatures are moderate
 The continental U.S. is located
here.
What are Topographic
Features that effect
climate?

 Mountains
 Cities
 Large bodies of water
Large Bodies of Water
 Land heats up faster than water
  Land along the coasts are usually warmer
in the winter (water keeps it warmer longer)
  Breezes from the water also cause costal
land to be warmer in winter and cooler in
summer
  Coastal land also experience more
precipitation and increased moisture in the
air.
           Mountains
  At the same latitude the climate is colder in
the mountains than at sea level.
 The air is less dense up in the mountains
and therefore absorb less solar energy.
          Large Cities
 Large cities affect local climate
 Solar radiation is absorbed by streets,
parking lots, and buildings
  They heat up and radiate heat into the
atmosphere.
What are the Climate Types?
   There are 6 main climate types
    Wladimir Koppen 1918 German
  climatologist developed a classification
  system
Koppen Climate Classification System
    classification is based on temperature and
  precipitation
   Divided the climates into 6 groups
   Some are divided into sub-groups
             1.) Tropical
             2.) Mild
             3.) Dry
             4.) Continental
             5.) Polar
             6.) High elevation
  Climate Classification System
   Climatologist – a person who studies
climates, and uses a system to classify all
the worlds climates.
Climate Type Determines Vegetation
   the climate –
 temperature and
 precipitation
 determine what type
 of plants grow there.
   Pine trees are not
 found in desert
 regions and cactus
 are not found
 growing outside in
 Ohio.
   All organisms have
 certain adaptations
 that allow them to
 survive in their
 climate.
              Adaptation:

  Is a structure or behavior feature that
helps an organism survive in its
environment.
  These may include an animal having thick
fur for the cold, or we build houses
(structure) for shelter from the harsh
weather.
    Behavioral Adaptation:

 Many mammals such as bears and rodents
go through a period of inactivity in the
winter.
 This is known as hibernation
 Their bodies needs (eating) are reduced to
survive the winter season.
      Human Adaptations:

  Our bodies is always trying to maintain a
certain temperature (98.6 degrees).
  How does our body regulate its
temperature?
            Human Adaptations:
  Sweating helps us keep our bodies
temperature cool.
  Sweat evaporates off the skin, which
allows the body to cool.
         Climate Changes

 We have seasonal changes.
 Seasons are short term periods of climate
change, caused by regular variation in
daylight, temperature and weather patterns.
  Variations are due to the amount of solar
radiation an area receives.
  Endless Days and Nights

  the North and South Poles experience 6
months of 24 hour daylight and 24 hours of
darkness
 As you move closer to the equator the
days and nights balance out.
 The equator has 12 hour days and 12
hours night
    Other Climate Changes

  El Nino – is a climate event that starts in
the Pacific Ocean and sets off changes in the
atmosphere.
 These use to occur every 3 to 7 years, now
we experience this more often.
  Scientists are beginning to link the more
frequent occurrences to global warming
        Trends in Climate

 the Earth’s climate remains fairly constant.
 We do experience changes in temperatures
and moisture from year to year.
  Scientists are beginning to see a warming
trend in the Earth’s climate.
 Many see this as evidence of global
warming.
  However, the Earth has seen some major
climate changes.
Explaining Major Climate Changes

Catastrophic events
Meteorites
Volcanic eruptions
Earth plate movement
Greenhouse effect (global warming)
         Catastrophic Events
  Meteorites or Volcanic activity caused
great amount of dust and ash in the
atmosphere, blocking out the sun’s radiation
 This caused the Earth to cool down.
                Earth’s Plates
  The movement of the plates affect the oceans and
continents affect the transfer of heat on the surface.
 This in turn changes wind and precipitation patterns

				
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posted:9/24/2012
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