Instruction Gradual Release of Responsibility & Feedback What does the research tell us? When Learning Isn’t Occurring Classrooms do not use scaffolding to ensure success. When Learning Isn’t Occurring Students are asked to learn independently day after day. When Learning Isn’t Occurring Teacher models and then meets with small groups of students, but they are required to complete independent tasks while waiting their turn to meet. (the collaborative learning phase is missing) Best Teaching Occurs when a Model of Explicit Instruction is Followed. Model Of Explicit Instruction Gradual Release of Responsibility Model Student Modeling Independence Teacher Guided Practice Spires & Stone, 1989, after Pearson & Gallagher, 1983 Dependent Learning Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition. Must consists of a Focused Lesson Focused Lesson Clearly establishes a purpose and models their own thinking. Provides students with information about the ways in which a skilled reader, writer, or thinker processes information. Almost always done with the whole class and typically last around 15 minutes (depending on the age group) Clearly establishing a purpose: 1. A clear, general statement of learner outcomes, 2. Related to an identified problem and needs assessment 3. Achievable through instruction What to Look For The teacher establishes the purpose for the lesson. Both content and language goals are established. The teacher uses “I” statements to model thinking. Questioning is used to scaffold instruction, not to interrogate students. The lesson includes a decision frame for when to use the skill or strategy. The lesson builds metacognitive awareness, especially indicators of success Focus lessons move to guided instruction, not immediately to independent learning • Dependent Learning • Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition. • Shared Learning • Guided Instruction and tasks that require joint intellectual effort, such as jigsaws, case studies, group projects, numbered heads together, etc. Shared Learning: Two Parts 1. Guided Instruction Almost always done with small, purposeful groups, which are composed based on students’ performance on formative assessments. Consist of students who share a common instructional need that the teacher can address. Ideal time to differentiate based on needs What to Look For Small-group arrangements are evident. Grouping changes throughout the semester. The teacher plays an active role in guided instruction, not just circulating and assisting individual students. A dialogue occurs between students and the teacher as they begin to apply the skill or strategy. The teacher uses cues and prompts to scaffold understanding when a student makes an error an does not immediately tell the student the correct answer. Shared Learning: Two Parts 1. Guided Instruction 2. Collaborative Learning Key is the requirement for independent products from the group collaboration. It is not the time to introduce new information to students. Should be a time for students to apply information in novel situations or to engage in a spiral review of previous knowledge. Critical to the success of the gradual release of responsibility model of instruction What to Look For Small-group arrangements are evident. Grouping changes throughout the semester. The teacher has modeled concepts that students need to complete collaborative tasks. Students have received guided instruction of the concepts needed to complete collaborative tasks. • Dependent Learning • Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for metacognition. • Shared Learning • Guided Instruction and tasks that require joint intellectual effort, such as jigsaws, case studies, group projects, numbered heads together, etc. • Independent Learning • Tasks that are meaningful, experiential, and relevant, which the student completes on his or her own. Independent Learning Students should not be asked to do unfamiliar tasks - tasks for which they have not had instruction - independently. Too many students are asked to complete independent tasks in the absence of good instruction. What to Look For Students have received focus lessons, guided instruction, and collaborative learning experiences related to concepts needed to complete independent tasks. Independent tasks extend beyond practice to application and extension of new knowledge. The teacher meets with individual students for conferencing about the independent learning tasks. Complete Model Focus Lessons: Establishing the lesson’s purpose and then modeling your own thinking for students. Guided Instruction: Strategically using prompts, cues, and questions to facilitate students’ increased responsibility for task completion. Collaborative Learning: Enabling students to discuss and negotiate with one another to create independent work, not simply one project. Independent Tasks: Requiring students to use their previous knowledge to create new and authentic products. This instructional model is intentional, purposeful, and explicit. Feedback What’s Effective Power of Feedback Double-barreled approach 1. Address cognitive factors 2. Address motivational factors Good Feedback Contains information that a student can use. Is a part of a classroom assessment environment in which students see constructive criticism as a good thing and understand that learning cannot occur without practice. Four Levels of Feedback 1. Feedback about the task • Information about errors • Information about the depth or quality of the work • Information about neatness or format • May include a need for more information • Found to be more powerful when it corrects misconceptions Four Levels of Feedback 2. Feedback about the processing of the task • Information about how they approached the task • Information about the relationship between what they did and the quality of their performance • Information about possible alternative strategies that would also be useful Four Levels of Feedback 3. Feedback about self-regulation • Effective to the degree that it enhances self-efficacy. • Effective learners create internal routines • Less effective learners depend more on external factors • Students are more willing to expend effort in getting and dealing with feedback if they have confidence in themselves as learners and confidence that the information will be useful and thus worth the effort. Four Levels of Feedback 4. Feedback about the self as a person • Not a good idea (example: Smart girl!) • Doesn’t contain information that can be used for further learning • Contributes to students believing that intelligence is fixed How to Give Feedback Point out improvements over the student’s own last performance. Select one or two small,doable next steps for the student; after the next round of work, give feedback on the success with those steps, and so on. Give students lots of opportunities to practice and receive feedback without a grade being involved. Make the feedback observational. Describe what you see. How close is it to the learning target? What do you think would help.
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