Instruction by yurtgc548

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									        Instruction
Gradual Release of Responsibility
          & Feedback
What does the
research tell us?
When Learning Isn’t Occurring
 Classrooms do not use scaffolding to ensure
  success.
When Learning Isn’t Occurring
 Students are asked to learn independently
  day after day.
When Learning Isn’t Occurring
   Teacher models and then meets with small groups of
    students, but they are required to complete independent tasks
    while waiting their turn to meet. (the collaborative learning
    phase is missing)
Best Teaching Occurs when a
Model of Explicit Instruction is
          Followed.
   Model Of Explicit Instruction

Gradual Release of Responsibility Model


                                       Student
 Modeling
                                                   Independence

       Teacher

                 Guided Practice



                    Spires & Stone, 1989, after Pearson & Gallagher, 1983
 Dependent Learning
   Direct Instruction that establishes purpose,
    models thinking, demonstrates skills, and
    teaches for metacognition.
   Must consists of a Focused Lesson
Focused Lesson
 Clearly establishes a purpose and models their
  own thinking.
 Provides students with information about the
  ways in which a skilled reader, writer, or thinker
  processes information.
 Almost always done with the whole class and
  typically last around 15 minutes (depending on
  the age group)
Clearly establishing
a purpose:
1. A clear, general statement of learner
   outcomes,
2. Related to an identified problem and
   needs assessment
3. Achievable through instruction
What to Look For
   The teacher establishes the purpose for the lesson.
   Both content and language goals are established.
   The teacher uses “I” statements to model thinking.
   Questioning is used to scaffold instruction, not to interrogate
    students.
   The lesson includes a decision frame for when to use the
    skill or strategy.
   The lesson builds metacognitive awareness, especially
    indicators of success
   Focus lessons move to guided instruction, not immediately
    to independent learning
• Dependent Learning
   • Direct Instruction that establishes purpose,
     models thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches
     for metacognition.
• Shared Learning
   • Guided Instruction and tasks that require
     joint intellectual effort, such as jigsaws, case
     studies, group projects, numbered heads
     together, etc.
Shared Learning: Two Parts
1.   Guided Instruction
        Almost always done with small, purposeful groups,
         which are composed based on students’
         performance on formative assessments.
        Consist of students who share a common
         instructional need that the teacher can address.
        Ideal time to differentiate based on needs
What to Look For
 Small-group arrangements are evident.
 Grouping changes throughout the semester.
 The teacher plays an active role in guided instruction,
  not just circulating and assisting individual students.
 A dialogue occurs between students and the teacher as
  they begin to apply the skill or strategy.
 The teacher uses cues and prompts to scaffold
  understanding when a student makes an error an does
  not immediately tell the student the correct answer.
Shared Learning: Two Parts
1. Guided Instruction
2. Collaborative Learning
       Key is the requirement for independent
        products from the group collaboration.
       It is not the time to introduce new information
        to students.
       Should be a time for students to apply
        information in novel situations or to engage in
        a spiral review of previous knowledge.
       Critical to the success of the gradual release
        of responsibility model of instruction
What to Look For
 Small-group arrangements are evident.
 Grouping changes throughout the semester.
 The teacher has modeled concepts that students
  need to complete collaborative tasks.
 Students have received guided instruction of the
  concepts needed to complete collaborative
  tasks.
• Dependent Learning
   • Direct Instruction that establishes purpose, models
     thinking, demonstrates skills, and teaches for
     metacognition.
• Shared Learning
   • Guided Instruction and tasks that require joint
     intellectual effort, such as jigsaws, case studies,
     group projects, numbered heads together, etc.
• Independent Learning
   • Tasks that are meaningful,
     experiential, and relevant, which the
     student completes on his or her own.
Independent Learning
 Students should not be asked to do
  unfamiliar tasks - tasks for which they
  have not had instruction - independently.
 Too many students are asked to
  complete independent tasks in the
  absence of good instruction.
What to Look For
 Students have received focus lessons, guided
  instruction, and collaborative learning
  experiences related to concepts needed to
  complete independent tasks.
 Independent tasks extend beyond practice
  to application and extension of new
  knowledge.
 The teacher meets with individual students for
  conferencing about the independent learning
  tasks.
Complete Model
   Focus Lessons: Establishing the lesson’s purpose and then
    modeling your own thinking for students.

   Guided Instruction: Strategically using prompts, cues, and
    questions to facilitate students’ increased responsibility for task
    completion.

   Collaborative Learning: Enabling students to discuss and
    negotiate with one another to create independent work, not
    simply one project.

   Independent Tasks: Requiring students to use their previous
    knowledge to create new and authentic products.
This instructional
model is intentional,
purposeful, and
explicit.
Feedback
What’s Effective
Power of Feedback
    Double-barreled approach

    1. Address cognitive factors

    2. Address motivational factors
Good Feedback
 Contains information that a student can
  use.
 Is a part of a classroom assessment
  environment in which students see
  constructive criticism as a good thing and
  understand that learning cannot occur
  without practice.
Four Levels of Feedback
1. Feedback about the task
  •   Information about errors
  •   Information about the depth or quality of
      the work
  •   Information about neatness or format
  •   May include a need for more information
  •   Found to be more powerful when it corrects
      misconceptions
Four Levels of Feedback
2. Feedback about the processing of the
   task
  •   Information about how they approached
      the task
  •   Information about the relationship between
      what they did and the quality of their
      performance
  •   Information about possible alternative
      strategies that would also be useful
Four Levels of Feedback
3. Feedback about self-regulation
  •   Effective to the degree that it enhances
      self-efficacy.
      •   Effective learners create internal routines
      •   Less effective learners depend more on external
          factors
  •   Students are more willing to expend effort
      in getting and dealing with feedback if they
      have confidence in themselves as learners
      and confidence that the information will be
      useful and thus worth the effort.
Four Levels of Feedback
4. Feedback about the self as a person
  •   Not a good idea (example: Smart girl!)
  •   Doesn’t contain information that can be
      used for further learning
  •   Contributes to students believing that
      intelligence is fixed
    How to Give Feedback
 Point out improvements over the student’s own last
  performance.
 Select one or two small,doable next steps for the
  student; after the next round of work, give feedback
  on the success with those steps, and so on.
 Give students lots of opportunities to practice and
  receive feedback without a grade being involved.
 Make the feedback observational. Describe what you
  see. How close is it to the learning target? What do
  you think would help.

								
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