In March 1997 by n23zQX7

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									            Everyday Reading Comprehension Practice (April, 2001)
      |             Passage 1      AIDS Wiping out Families
Words: 219 Minutes: 4 /
WASHINGTON -- Nearly 40 million children in developing countries stand to lose one or both
parents to AIDS over the next 13 years, and almost 3 million children under 15 have caught the
disease worldwide, US experts said.
   "More than 40 million children in 23 developing nations will likely have lost one or both their
parents by 2010 . Most of these deaths will he the result of the HIV/AIDS and complicated illnesses,
"Brian Atwood, a US official said. Meanwhile, since the first reported death of a child by AIDS in
Los Angeles 15 years ago, almost 3 million children under 15 are estimated to have caught the
disease worldwide, and at least 1 000 are dying each day.
   "In countries across Africa, Asia and Latin America, HIV/AIDS is pulling years of progress in
economic and social development, "he added.
   Life expectancy (估计寿命) which has been steadily on the rise for the last thirty years will
drop to 40 years or less in nine African countries by the year 2020."
   Atwood said serious work to help stop children from dying in developing countries was being
wiped out.
 A. England             B) Russia                   C) Japan                D) America
4. AIDS is not only causing millions of death to human beings, but also____.
   A) speeding the development of society           B) slowing down the development of society
   C) polluting the air                             D) breaking the balance of nature
5. The underlined words "wiped out" mean ____.
   A) cleaned out         B) rubbed away            C) dried up      D. destroyed completely
                (CER1-2 P153 B C D B D)

                               Passage 2 Population and Pollution
/ Words: 239 Minutes: 5 /
Many of the world' s pollution problems have been caused by the crowding of large groups of
people into the cities. Supply for the needs of the people leads to further pollution by industry. If
the rapid increase of world population in countries continues at the present rate, there may be much
greater harm to human beings. Some scientists speak of the increase in numbers of people as
"population pollution".
   About 2000 years ago, the world population was probably about 250 million. It reached a billion
in 1850. By 1930 the population was two billion. It is now three and a half billion. It is
expected to double by the year 2000. If the population continues to grow at the same rate, there will
be 25 billion people in the world a hundred years from now!
   Man has been using the Earth' s resources more and more rapidly over the past years. Some of
them are almost used up. Now many people believe that man' s greatest problem is how to control
the growth of the population. The material supplies in the world will be far from enough to support
the human population, in time to come, if the present rate of increase continues. Already there is
overcrowding in many cities and starvation in some countries. Should man' s population keep on
                                                                       1
growing so rapidly as before? Many people believe that human survival in the future depends on
the answer to this question.
1. The rapid increase in population is considered to be ____.
   A) the increase of resources                 B) population pollution
   C) the development of mankind                    D) the present rate
2. The world population will be ____ by the year 2000.                    |
   A) 7 billion         B) 250 million            C) 25 billion         D) 3.5 billion
3. It is very important for us ____.
   A) to use the materials in the world             B) to move into cities
   C) to control the growth of our population       D) to support the human population
4. If the present rate of increase continues, ____.
   A) the world is going to end
   B) the earth won't be able to support the growing population in the future
   C) pollution has nothing to do with the rapidly increasing population
   D) there would be four billion in the world a hundred years from now
5. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
   A) In 1850 the world population reached a billion.
   B) Man must fight a battle against population pollution.
   C) The world's population is increasing with years.
   D) All of the Earth's resources are gone now.
                            (CER1-2 P185 B A C B D)
                            Passage 3 More European Girls Smoke
/ Words; 240 Minutes: 5 /
Within a few short years, girls in Europe have become heavier smokers than boys, for reasons
experts still fail to understand, according to a British study presented last week to an international
conference on smoking.
   Anti-smoking activists at the second "Tobacco or Health" conference in the Canary Islands
pointed out that while adults (grown-ups) were giving up smoking in ever growing numbers, more
and more young people were taking up the habit, particularly girls.
   One 15-year-old in four is a regular smoker, according to a study made in 27 countries in Europe
and the United States, Canada and Israel—by Edinburgh University together with the World
Health Organization.
   In Western Europe, girls were more likely than boys to smoke. In Germany or in England, one
third of the girls were smokers compared to one in four boys. In Eastern Europe, the girls "still fall
behind" those in the Western Europe but were "catching up" quickly, said the study.
   The study dealt with the behavior of 15-year-old in seven European countries over four year
periods between 1986 and 1998.
   The percentages of young women smoking went from 17 percent to 36 percent in Austria, from
17 percent to 28 percept in Norway, from 21 percent to 28 percent in Hungary.
   In the seven countries and regions studied Austria, Finland, Hungary, Norway, Sweden,
Switzerland and Wales — more girls smoked than boys in 1998, with the exception of Hungary.
1. According to the article, more and more ____ in Europe were giving up smoking.
                                                                        2
   A) adults          B) boys                 C) girls        D) old men
2. The number of boy smokers is ____ that of girl smokers.
   A) larger than        B) as large as       C) smaller than     D) as small as
3. The study was made by ____.
   A) Edinburgh University                    B) the World Health Organization
   C) Oxford University
   D) Edinburgh University and the World Health Organization
4. The country where the number of young women smokers increases fastest is ____.
   A) Norway          B) Austria              C) Hungary            D) Sweden
5. The main idea of the passage is ____.
   A) to introduce something about girl smokers in Europe
   B) to report something interesting happened in England
   C) to describe the present condition of European smokers
   D) to warn young people around the world against smoking
                     (CER1-2 P188 A C D B A)

                      Passage 4 Damage to Ozone Layer Gets Worse
/ Words, 245 Minutes: 6 /
In the middle of winter, when snow is falling in many parts of the United States, scientists have
sounded a warning to people who plan to spend many hours in the sun this summer. The warning:
The sun's summertime rays are more dangerous than once thought.
   A team of scientists from 80 nations recently reported to the United Nations that a layer of ozone
(臭氧) in the atmosphere, which protects humans from harmful levels of ultraviolet (紫外线的)
radiation, will be thinner over the United States this summer. The thinner layer allows more
ultraviolet rays from the sun to reach Earth. The extra amount of ultraviolet radiation could cause
an increase in the number of cases of skin cancer.
   Scientists first became concerned about the ozone layer in the mid-1980s when a hole was
discovered in the layer above Antarctica during the winter. The hole was caused by chemicals used
in refrigerators and air conditioners. When these chemicals are sent out into the atmosphere, they
produce gases that destroy the ozone.
   Concern about the protective ozone layer rose more recently when data from satellites and
ground stations showed that ozone levels were dropping over areas other than Antarctica. Low
ozone levels were recorded in the spring and summer over the United States and over other
populated areas in the world.
   Although many countries have already begun stopping the use of ozone-destroying chemicals,
the new findings are expected to advance the timetable for a total ban (禁止) of the chemicals.
1. The scientists have observed the ozone layer ____.
   A) since 1980                             B) since last winter
   C) for more than 10 years                 D) for about one year
2. The ozone layer in the atmosphere can ____.
   A) do a lot of good to human beings in many ways
   B) protect humans from diseases caused by bad weather
                                                                       3
   C) do a lot of harm to human beings in the summer-time
   D) protect humans from harmful levels of ultraviolet radiation
3. Scientists first found that there was a hole in the ozone layer          .
   A) above Arctic during the winter in the mid-1980s
   B) above Antarctica during the winter in the mid-1980s
   C) over somewhere in the north of the equator in 1980
   D) over the U.S. A. in the summertime in the mid-1980s
4. The damage to the ozone layer was caused by ____.
   A) the changeable weather                    B) ozone-destroying chemicals
   C) chemicals from refrigerators              D) chemicals from air conditioners
5. Which of the following is Not true?
A) The use of ozone-destroying chemicals have already been stopped.
B) The ozone level in the spring and summer over the U.S.A. were low.
C) More and more people begun to protect the natural surroundings.
D) Many countries have already taken measures to protect ozone layer.
                       (CER1-2 P219 C D B B A)
                                 Passage 5 An Open Heart
/ Words: 248 Minutes: 6.5 /
My Aunt Edith was a widow (寡妇) of 50, working as a secretary, when doctors discovered what
was then thought to be a very serious heart illness.
   Aunt Edith doesn't accept defeat easily. She began studying medical reports in the library and
found an article in a magazine about a well-known heart doctor. Dr. Michael DeBakey, of Houston,
Texas. He had saved the life of someone with the same illness. The article said Dr. DeBakey's fees
were very high; Aunt Edith couldn't possibly pay them. But could he tell her of someone whose fee
she could pay?
   So Aunt Edith wrote to him. She simply listed her reasons for wanting to live: her three children,
who would be on their own in three or four more years among them a little girl who always
dreamed of traveling and seeing the world. There wasn't a word of self-pity —only warmth and
humor and the joy of living. She mailed the letter, not really expecting an answer.
   A few days later, my doorbell rang. Aunt Edith didn't wait to come in; she stood in the hall and
read aloud:
   Your beautiful letter moved me very deeply. If you can come to Houston, there -will be no charge
for either the hospital or the operation.
Signed: Michael DeBakey
   That was seven years ago. Since then, Aunt Edith has been around the world. Her three children
are happily married. For her age, she is one of the youngest, most alive people I know.
1."Aunt Edith doesn't accept defeat easily" means that ___.__.
   A) she is very beautiful                          B) she is very strong
   C) she is very brave                              D) she is very warm-hearted
2. Why did Aunt Edith write to Dr. DeBakey? Because .,_..__.
   A) she had no time to visit him              B) she didn't know the way to Houston
   C) she didn't believe in him                      D) she wanted to get some help from him
                                                                       4
3. In fact. Aunt Edith' s letter to Dr. DeBakey was full of ____.
   A) sadness         B) illness               C) pity              D) courage
4. After reading Dr. DeBakey's letter, Aunt Edith felt __..__.
   A) discouraged B) frightened                C) disappointed      D) encouraged
5. The reason why Aunt Edith remains young is that ____.
A) she had an operation by a famous doctor
B) she has been light-hearted all the time
   C) her three children take good care of her
   D) she has lost her heart to live on
                           (CER1-2 P222 C D D D B)

                             Passage 6 Dangerous Sports
/ Words; 292 Minutes; 6.5 /Around the world more and more people are taking part in dangerous
sports and activities. Of course, there have always been people who have looked for adventure —
those who have climbed the highest mountains, travelled into unknown parts of the world or sailed
in small boats across the greatest oceans. Now, however, there are people who look for an
immediate excitement from a risky activity which may only last a few minutes or even seconds.
    I would consider bungee jumping to be a good example of such an activity. You jump from a
high place (perhaps a bridge or a hot-air balloon) 200 metres above the ground with an elastic (有
弹性的) rope tied to your ankles. You fall at up to 150 kilometres an hour until the rope stops you
from hitting the ground. It is said that about 2 million people around the world have now tried
bungee jumping. Other activities which most people would say are as risky as bungee jumping
include jumping from tall buildings and diving into the sea from the top of high cliffs (悬崖).
    Why do people take part in such activities as these? Some psychologists(心理学家) suggest that
it is because life in modern societies has become safe and boring. Not very long ago, people' s lives
were constantly in danger. They had to go out and hunt for food, diseases could not easily be cured,
and life was a continuous battle for survival.
    Nowadays, according to many people, life offers little excitement. They live and work in
comparatively safe conditions; they buy food in shops; and there are doctors and hospitals to look
after them if they become ill. The answer for some of these people is to look for danger in activities
such as bungee jumping.
1.A best title for the text is ____.
  A) Dangerous Sports: What and Why                  B) The Boredom of Modern Life
  C) Bungee Jumping: Is It Really Dangerous? D) The Need for Excitement
2. More and more people today ____.
  A) are trying activities such as bungee jumping
  B) are climbing the highest mountains
  C) are coming close to death in sports
  D) are looking for adventures such as travelling into unknown places
3. In bungee jumping, you ____.
  A) jump as high as you can                     B) slide down a rope to the ground
  C) fasten yourself to a rope and fall to the ground
                                                                        5
 D) fall towards the ground without a rope
4. People probably take part in dangerous sports nowadays because
 A) they have a lot of free time       B) they can go to hospital if they are injured
 C) their life is short of excitement D) they no longer need to hunt for food
5) The writer of the text has a          attitude towards dangerous sports.
 A) positive         B) negative           C) neutral(中立的)           D) nervous
                            (CER1-2 P254 A A C C C)
Passage 7 / Words; 387 Minutes; 8 /
Self-employed private physicians who charge a fee for each patient visit are the foundation of
medical practice in the United States. Most physicians have a contract relationship with one or
more hospitals in the community. They send their patients to this hospital, which usually charges
patients according to the number of days they stay and the facilities (operating room, tests,
medicines that they use). Some hospitals belong to a city, a state or, in the case of veteran's
hospitals, a federal government agency. Others are operated by religious orders or other non-profit
groups.
   Some medical doctors are on salary. Salaried physicians may work as hospital staff members, or
residents, who are often still in training. They may teach in medical schools, be hired by
corporations to care for their workers or work for the federal government's Public Health Service.
   Physicians are among the best paid professionals in the United States. In the 1980s, it was not
uncommon for medical doctors to earn incomes of more than $ 100, 000 a year. Specialists,
particularly surgeons, might earn several times that amount. Physicians list many reasons why they
deserve to be so well rewarded for their work. One reason is the long and expensive preparation
required to become a physician in the United States. Most would-be physicians first attend college
for four years, which can cost nearly $ 20, 000 a year at one of the best private institutions.
Prospective physicians then attend medical school for four years. Tuition alone can exceed $10, 000
a year. By the time they have obtained their medical degrees, many young physicians are deeply in
debt. They still face three to five years of residency (实习阶段) in a hospital, the first year as an
apprentice physician. The hours are long and the pay is relatively low.
   Setting up a medical practice is expensive, too. Sometimes several physicians will decide to
establish a group practice, so they can share the expense of maintaining an office and buying
equipment. These physicians also take care of each other's patients in emergencies.
   Physicians work long hours and must accept a great deal of responsibility. Many medical
procedures, even quite routine ones, involve risk. It is understandable that physicians want to be
well rewarded for making decisions which can mean the difference between life and death.
1. According to the passage, it is very unlikely that an American hospital is owned by ____.
    A) a church             B) a corporation         C) a city            D) a state
2. The expenses for becoming a doctor are spent on _____.
    A) schooling and retraining                           B) practice in a hospital
    C) facilities he or she uses                     D) education he or she receives
2. According to the passage, how long does it take for a would-be physician to become an
   independent physician in the USA?
    A) About seven years.        B) Eight years.     C) Ten years.        D) About twelve years.
                                                                      6
4. Sometimes several physicians set up a group medical practice mainly because ____.
    A) there are so many patients that it is difficult for one physician to take care all of them
    B) they can take turns to work long hours
    C) facilities may be too much of a burden for one physician to shoulder
    D) no one wants to assume too much responsibility
5. Which of the following statements could fully express the author's view towards
    physicians' payment in the USA?
    A) For their expensive education and their responsibility, they deserve a handsome pay.
    B) It is reasonable for physicians to have a large income because their work is very dangerous.
    C) Physicians should be better paid because they work long hours under bad conditions.
    D) Physicians shoulder great responsibility, so it is understandable that they should be
        well rewarded.                       (B D D C A)

                 Passage 8 Seeing Things
/ Words: 230 Minutes; 5 /
Suppose you are reading a book. Suppose, too, you suddenly close your eyes. Can you still see the
book? "Of course not," you will say. But can you tell why? You would probably say, "When I close
my eyes my eyesight cannot get out of my eyes to get to the book. " But this explanation is wrong.
   You cannot see any object unless light from that object gets into your eyes. Some of the things
you see give off light of their own. The sun, the stars, a lighted lamp are examples that can be seen
by their own light. Such things are luminous. Most of the things you see are not giving off light of
their own. They are simply reflecting (反射的) light that falls on them from the sun or some other
luminous body. The moon, for example, does not give off any light of its own. It is nonluminous.
You see it because sunlight falls on it and some of it reflects in your direction. So moonlight is only
second-hand sunlight.
   When you look at a book, it sends to your eyes some of the light which falls on it, and you see
the book. If light could be kept out from where you are so that there would be no light for the book
to reflect, then you could not see the book even with your eyes wide open.
   Light travels so fast that the time in which it travels from the book you are reading to your eyes
is so short as if there were no time at all. Light reaches us from the moon, which is about 380 000
kilometres away, in only a little more than a second.
1. You can not see the book when you close your eyes, because                 .
   A) your eyes are too close to it             B) closed eyes are out of sight
   C) your eyesight cannot get to it          D) the light from it cannot get into your eyes
2. The word "luminous" means____.
   A) visible              B) lighted                 C) giving off light            D) sunlight
3. ____ have light of their own.
   A) The sun and the moon                    B) The stars and the earth
   C) The sun and the stars                   D) The moon and the earth
4. Light travels about ____ kilometres per second.
   A) 380 000        B) 300 000       C) 400 000       D) 190 000
5. Which one is true?
                                                                         7
  A) All the things you can see give off light.
  B) Light from the book is much shorter than that from the moon.
  C) The moment you open your eyes the light from the book travels to your eyes.
  D) Light travels so fast that there is no time for you to read.
                         (CER1-2 P234 D C C B C)



                      Passage 9 The Origins of Basketball
/ Words; 267 Minutes; 6 /
They tell us the origins of basketball can go back to Springfield, Massachusetts, where James
Naismith invented a game for those who were always cutting men's gym class to play. The young
men were unable to stay still and longed for a sport that was both exciting and interesting. After
thinking over how to fill this blank, Naismith snatched some peach baskets, threw them a football
and told them to go play.
   And so they did, nine to a side, wearing wool pants and turtlenecks (高领毛衣) . Basketball was
officially born, in a form that is hardly recognizable today.
   The game that celebrated its 100th anniversary Saturday has been quite popular. Those who have
watched and played and coached (训练) basketball realize Springfield's importance in their sport's
history. For it was the place where the game originated.
   For Larry Bird, the game of basketball was born in a small town called French Lick, Indiana,
where, walking to his grand-mother's house from school every day, he passed a court full of older,
stronger players. Most times he was too cold and hungry to play. Most times he played anyway,
until the game became his great interest and his lifeblood.
   Earvin Johnson had never heard of French Lick as a child. He was sure the game of basketball
was invented in East Lansing, Michigan, where, after helping his father collect rubbish in the
morning, he would seize an old plastic basketball and shake off the cold by shooting jumper after
jumper. After a while, a warm feeling would come upon him, in spite of the snow.
1. From the passage we can see that there were ____ players altogether on the court when the game
   of basketball was invented in Springfield.
   A) eighteen            B) five              C) ten          D) nine
2. ____ was probably a teacher or coach.
   A) Larry Bird                               B) Earvin Johnson
   C) Earvin Johnson' s father                 D) James Naismith
3. Some young men were cutting men' s gym class because ____.
   A) they found that men' s gym class was not important
   B) they thought they should improve the game of football
   C) they didn't think gym class was exciting or interesting
   D) they believed the game of basketball would be exciting and interesting
4. Which of the following is NOT true?
   A) The author seems to think that James Naismith invented the game of basketball.
   B) Earvin Johnson was sure the game of basketball was invented in East Lansing, Michigan.
   C) Larry Bird thought the game of basketball was born in a small town of France.
                                                                     8
   D) People don't agree with each other about the origins of the game of basketball.
5. From the lines we can infer (推断) that ____
   A) Naismith also invented the game of football
   B) Larry Bird was a French basketball player
   C) Earvin Johnson was also a dustman
   D) basketball game is very popular in the country
                                            (CER1-2 P231 A D C C D)
Passage 10 / Words; 336 Minutes; 7.5 /
The old advertising slogan, "So simple a child can do it," has taken on new meaning for me. A few
weeks ago I got a computer, but I am mechanically illiterate. I knew that children had no fear of the
future, so that seemed a good place to seek help. I asked my nephew, twelve years old, at an
elementary school, to help me.
   My nephew took the machine for granted and has simply accepted the fact that computers are
now a way of life. He plays with them and does his homework on them and even creates programs
for them. I, on the other hand, am terrified by what this equipment can do. It can interchange (交换)
paragraphs, switch words around and even correct my spelling. It informs me of its limitations,
takes commands and asks questions. It even seems to have a sense of communication. Rather than
accusing me of making an error, it prints "One of us has made a mistake!" It never gets tired and is
always patient and ready to go when I am.
   I think it was somewhat normal for me to be suspicious of computers. They represent a break
with some very familiar habits and traditions. It is only human to instinctively avoid anything that
shifts thoroughly from the acceptable, comfortable past. But the world is governed by ceaseless
change and we must therefore establish links with the present and future as well as the past.
Computer technology is an excellent case in point, as the newest systems grow out of date in only a
few years, or even months.
   This ability to see, experience and accept the new is on of our saving characteristics. To be
fearful of tomorrow, to close ourselves to possibilities, to resist the inevitable, to advocate standing
still when all else is moving forward, is to lose touch. If we accept the new with joy and wonder,
we can move gracefully into each tomorrow. More often than not, the children shall lead us.
1. What is the new meaning of "So simple a child can do it" for the author?
     A) Computers are so easy to operate that even a child can play them well.
     B) A child can always do more complex things than an adult.
     C) It is easier for a child to accept new things than for an adult.
     D) Child has greater ability than an abult in operating computers.
2. According to the second paragraph, which of the following statements is true?
     A) The nephew thought it is natural to accept the fact that computers are now a way of life.
     B) The nephew believed that machines were made for people to do whatever they wanted.
     C) Computers are not only used to communicate, but also to remove their limitations.
     D) It is a fact that both adults and children have accepted computers as a way of life.
3. Which of the following doesn't the author's computer do?
     A) It asks the author if she has made a mistake.
     B) It accuses the author of making mistakes.
                                                                          9
    C) It corrects the authors spelling mistakes.
    D) It informs the author of her mistakes.
4. According to the third paragraph, it is human nature that we resist those things which .
    A) only represent the comfortable and acceptable past
    B) change thoroughly into the comfortable and acceptable past
    C) make people stand still when all is moving forward
    D) change completely from the acceptable and comfortable past
5. How do you understand "It… is always… ready to go when I am" in the second paragraph?
    A) It is always ready to inform me when I am ready to go.
    B) It is always ready to start working when I am ready for work.
    C) When I am ready to go, it is patient to wait.
    D) When I am ready to go, it has already gone.
                                   (C A B D B)

                 Passage 11 Money and the Meaning of Life
/ Words: 331 Minutes; 7 /
Recently, a professor of philosophy(哲学) in the United States has written a book called Money and
the Meaning of Life. He has discovered that how we deal with money in our day-to-day life has
more meaning than we usually think. One of the exercises he asked his students to do is to keep a
record of every penny they spend for a week. From the way they spend their money, they can see
what they really value in life.
   He says our relation with others often become clearly defined (诠释) when money enters the
picture. You might have wonderful friendship with somebody and you think that you are very good
friends.
But you will know him only when you ask him to lend you some money. If he does, it brings
something to the relationship that seems stronger than ever before. Or it can suddenly weaken the
relationship if he doesn't. This person may say that he has a certain feeling, but if it is not carried
out in the money world, there is something less real about it.
   Since money is so important to us, we consider those who possess a lot of it to be very important.
The author interviewed some millionaires in researching for his book.
Question: What is the most surprising thing you have discovered about being rich, because you
           are a self-made man?
Answer: The most surprising thing is how people give me so much respect. I am nothing. I don't
         know much. All I am is rich.
   People just have an idea of making more and more money, but what is it for? How much do I
need for any given purposes in my life? In his book, the professor uncovered an important need in
modern society: to bring back the idea that money is an instrument rather than the end. Money
plays an important role in the material world, but expecting money to give happiness may be
missing the meaning of life.
1. According to the first paragraph, people have not realized         .
   A) how important money is in their day-to-day life
   B) how one spends money shows what is important to him
                                                                         10
   C) that money is more important than their philosophy of life
   D) that their understanding of life is more important than money
2. The author seems to believe that asking your friend to lend you some money ____.
   A) is a good way to test your friendship         B) will do harm to your friendship
   C) will strengthen your friendship          D) is a good way to break off your friendship
3. What can we learn about the millionaire from his answer in the interview?
   A) He does not feel that he is well educated.
   B) He does not think that he is a very important person.
   C) He does not think that being rich deserves so much attention.
   D) He does not consider himself to be very successful.
4. What does the American professor of philosophy want to explain in his book?
   A) Money is an end.                    B) Money is a means.
   C) Money is everything.                D) Money is unimportant.
5. Which of the following might the author disagree?
   A) Money is important in modern society.
   B) The meaning of life does not completely lie in money.
   C) Wealth will surely bring the owner happiness.
   D) Happiness is not necessarily the result of wealth.
                               (CER1-2 P273 B A C B C)

                       Passage 12 A Famous Woman Pilot
/ Words: 204 Minutes; 3.5 /
After 60 hours without sleep, flying at 17 000 feet over India, Judith began to hallucinate (产生幻
觉) . Faces of relatives and friends began to appear around her. But even if she was physically and
mentally worn out, she decided to continue her record breaking round-world flight and fly on to Sri
Lanka.
   "I had planned to land in India, "she says, "hut I couldn't take the risk of being delayed. "Later in
the flight Judith found herself flying through a storm during which the plane was struck by
lightning. "In all my years of flying, I've never been so frightened, " she says.
   And then, within four hours in Australia, there was something wrong with engine, which nearly
forced her down into the ocean. On reaching Sydney, Judith decided she was able to fly on and
when she finally touched down at London, Heathrow, her tiny single-engined plane had taken her
over 27 000 miles in 15 days. She had broken 29 world records including the
fastest-ever-round-the-world flight by a woman. During those 15 days she had slept for less than 40
hours.
1. Flying over India, Judith ____.
   A) began to see her relatives and friends      B) seemed to be in a dream-like state
   C) felt too tired to imagine her relative      D) didn't feel like sleeping at all
2. The plane was probably struck by lightning ____.
   A) on the way to India            B)over Australia      C)over Sri Lanka        D)near London
3. Which of the following is true?
   A) The plane had only one small engine.
                                                                          11
   B) Judith landed at a country named Heathrow.
   C)Judith flew for 15 hours without a stop.
   D) Judith broke 30 world records in this flight.
4. The writer wrote the article with ____.
   A) excitement B) astonishment C) admiration                D) disappointment
5. From the passage we learn that Judith was the first woman _______.
   A) to fly around the world            B) to brave the storm
   C) to cover the longest distance      D) to fly fastest round the world
                          (CER3 P 7 B C A C D)



                 Passage 13 We Have Our Own Way of Education
/ Words: 252 Minutes: 4 /
On June 17, 1744, the officials from Maryland and Virginia held a talk with the Indians of the Six
Nations. The Indians were invited to send boys to William and Mary College. In a letter the next
day they refused the offer as follows:
    We know that you have a high opinion of the kind of learning taught in your colleges, and that
the costs of living of our young men, while with you, would be very expensive to you. We are sure
that you mean to do us good by your proposal (提议) and we thank you heartily. But you must know
that different nations have different ways of looking at things, and you will therefore not be
offended (冒犯) if our ideas of this kind of education happen not to be the same as yours. We have
had some experience of it. Several of our young people were formerly brought up at the colleges of
the northern provinces; they were taught all your sciences; but when they came back to us they
were bad runners, ignorant (无知的) of every means of living in the woods, they were totally good
for nothing.
    We are, however, not the less obliged (= thankful) by your kind offer, though we refuse to accept
it, and to show our grateful sense of it, if the gentlemen of Virginia will send us a dozen of their
sons, we will take care of their education, teach them in all we know and make men of them.
1.This passage is about ____.
    A) the colleges of the northern province
    B) the problems of the Americans in the mid 18th century
    C) the educational values of the Indians
    D) the talk between the Indians and the officials
2. According to the letter, the Indians believed that ____.
    A) they were being insulted by the offer
    B) they knew more about science than the officials
    C) it would be better for their boys to receive some schooling
    D) they had a better way of educating young men
3. The Indian' s chief purpose in writing the letter seems to be to ________.
    A) politely refuse a friendly offer            B) describe Indian customs
    C) express their opinions on equal treatment          D)show their pride
4. Different from the officials' view of education, the Indians thought ____.
                                                                       12
  A) they taught different branches of science
  B) they should teach the sons of the officials first
  C) they had different goals of education D) young women should also be educated
                                   (CER3 P 10 C D A C B)

                               Passage 14 Britons Learn to Forgive
(Words: 257 Minutes: 4.5)
LEEDS, England A Leeds University psychology (心理学) professor is teaching a course to help
dozens of Britons forgive their enemies.
   "The hatred (恨) we hold within us is a cancer," Professor Ken Hart said, adding that holding in
anger can lead to problems such as high blood pressure and heart disease.
   More than 70 people have become members in Hart's first 20-week workshop in London — a
course he says is the first of its kind in the world.
   These are people who are sick and tired of living with a memory. They realize their bitterness is a
poison they think they can pour out, but they end up drinking it themselves, said Canadian-born
Hart.
   The students meet in groups of eight to ten for a two-hour workshop with an adviser every
fortnight. The course, ending in July, is expected to get rid of the cancer of hate in these people.
"People have lots of negative( 负面的) attitudes towards forgiveness ( 宽恕 )," he said. "People
confuse ( 把…混同 ) forgiveness with forgetting. Forgiveness means changing from a negative
attitude to a positive one."
   Hart and his team have created instructions to provide the training needed. "The main-idea is to
give you guidelines on how to look at various kinds of angers and how they affect you, and how to
change your attitudes towards the person you are angry with," said Norman Claringbull, a senior
expert on the forgiveness project.
   Hart said he believes forgiveness is a skill that can be taught, as these people “want to get free of
the past.”
1. From this passage we know that ___.
   A) high blood pressure and heart disease are caused by hatred
   B) high blood pressure can only be cured by psychology professors
   C) without hatred, people will have less trouble connected with blood and heart
   D) people who suffer from. blood pressure and heart disease must have many enemies
2. If you are angry with somebody, you should
   A) try your best to defeat him or her                B) never meet him or her again
   C) persuade him or her to have a talk with you
   D) relax yourself by not thinking of him or her any more
3. In Hart's first 20-week workshop, people there can ___.
   A) meet their enemies                         B) change their minds
   C) enjoy the professor's speech               D) learn how to quarrel with others
4. If you are a member in Hart's workshop, you'll ___.
   A) pay much money to Hart                     B) go to the workshop every night
   C) attend a gathering twice a month         D) pour out everything stored in your mind
                                                                          13
5. The author wrote this passage in order to ________.
   A) persuade us to go to Hart's workshop B) tell us the news about Hart's workshop
   C) tell us how to run a workshop like Hart's
   D) help us to look at various kinds of angers
                               (C D B C B)

                           Passage 15 Closing the Gap
(Words: 346 Minutes: 6)
Until late in the 20th century, most Americans spent time with people of different generations. Now
middle-aged Americans may not keep in touch with old people until they are old themselves.
   That's because we group people by age. We put our three-yyear-olds together in day-car centers,
our 13-year-olds in schools and sports activities, and our 80-year-olds in senior-citizen homes.
Why?
   We live away from the old for many reasons. Young people sometimes avoid the old to get rid of
fears of aging and dying. It is much harder to watch someone we love disappear before our eyes.
Sometimes it's so hard that we stay away from the people who need us the most.
   Fortunately, some of us have found our way to the old. And we have discovered that they often
save the young. A reporter moved her family onto a block filled with old people. At first her
children were disappointed. But the reporter baked banana bread for the neighbours and had her
children deliver it and visit. Soon the children had many new friends, with whom they shared food,
stories and projects. “My children have never been less lonely," the reporter said.
   The young, in turn, save the old. Once I was in a rest home when a visitor showed up with a baby,
she was immediately surrounded. People who hadn't gotten out of bed in a week suddenly were
ringing for a wheelchair. Even those who had seemed asleep woke up to watch the child. Babies
have an astonishing power to comfort and cure.
   Grandparents are a special case. They give their grandchildren a feeling of security(安全)and
continuity. As my husband put it, "My grandparents gave me a deep sense that things would turn
out right in the end." Grandchildren speak of attention they don't get from worried parents. "My
parents were always telling me to hurry up, and my grandparents told me to slow down," one friend
said. A teacher told me she can tell which pupils have relationships with grandparents: they are
quieter, calmer and more trusting.
1. Now in an American family, people can find that ___.
   A) children never live with their parents
   B) not all working people live with their parents
   C) aged people are supported by their grand-children
   D) grandchildren are supported by their grand-parents
2. The reason that old people are left alone may be that ___.
   A) the old don't like to live in a big family
   B) the young can't get enough money to support the old
   C) different generations have different lifestyles
   D) the old are too weak to live with the young
3. The tact the reporter told us shows that __.
                                                                      14
   A) old people in America lead a hard life.
   B) old people in America enjoy banana bread
   C) she had no time to take care of her children
   D) old people are easy to get along with
4. Seeing a baby, the old people got excited because ___.
   A) they had never seen a baby before          B) the baby was clever and beautiful
   C) the baby brought them the image of life
   D) the baby's mother would take care of them
5. Why are some children quieter, calmer and more trusting?
   A) Because they have relationships with their grandparents.
   B) Because their worried parents ask them to act like that.
   C) Because they have nothing to worry about.
   D) Because their teachers ask them to act like that.
                                    (B C D C A)

                      Passage 16 Shakespeare' s or Someone Else' s?
/ Words; 237 Minutes: 4 /
Every once in while you will read some article about a so-called scholar discovering material that is
supposed to prove that William Shakespeare did not really write the works attributed to him. Many
alternative authors have been suggested — most noticeably, Christopher Marlowe and Francis
Bacon. One proponent of Bacon as author of Shakespeare' s plays actually looked for words like "
fat and lard" and calculated how their places in the texts of the plays proved that Bacon authored
them.
   Any schoolboy can see the fallacy (谬误) of such an argument and yet many adult readers of
newspaper articles, written by men who have never done any research on Shakespeare, are taken in
by the arguments proposed against Shakespeare's authorship. It is true that we have no manuscripts
(手稿)of the plays as they came from Shakespeare's hand. After all, he wrote the plays to be acted
and the actors used the author's manuscripts. However, almost half the plays appeared in print
under the author' s name during his lifetime — which ended in 1616. A few years later, in 1623,
two of Shakespeare's name appeared on the title page. They even got Ben Johnson, Shakespeare's
great rival playwright, to write a poetic introduction for the folio volume (对开本) .
   There are other arguments I might present to prove Shakespeare’s authorship. My own argument
is simply this, if Shakespeare did not write the plays attributed to him, it was someone else by the
same name.
1.The first paragraph tells us that some so-called scholars ____.
  A) have proved that Shakespeare's works were his own
  B) have already proved that Shakespeare's work were not his own
  C) try very hard to prove that Shakespeare's work were useless
  D) try to prove that Shakespeare's works were not his own
2. Some people suggested that certain writers other than Shakespeare ' s himself were the authors of
   his plays. One of them did so by ______.
   A) discovering words such as "fat and lard" in Bacon's plays
                                                                       15
   B) checking up every word in Shakespeare's words
   C) comparing the use of words in Shakespeare's works with others
   D) examining the whole text of Shakespeare's works
3. The author states in the second paragraph that it is amazing to find so many people ____.
   A) have never done any research on Shakespeare
   B) are fooled by schoolboys
   C) are easily persuaded to doubt Shakespeare's authorship
   D) have always been interested in newspaper articles about arguments proposed against
      Shakespeare's authorship.
4. According to the message, Shakespeare ____.
   A) died in 1616                       B) never had any manuscripts for his plays
   C) of ten wrote plays together with Ben Johnson
   D) published a great folio volume with 36 plays
5. In his final conclusion, the writer _________ .
   A) believe s that someone else had written the plays for Shakespeare
   B) states that it is logical that Shakespeare’s plays were written by Shakespeare
   C) does not think that Shakespeare could have written all the plays by himself
   D) believes that some of Shakespeare’s friends had published their own works under the
       name of Shakespeare
                                           (CER 3 P36 D C C A B)
                            Passage 17 Flying Saucers
(Words: 387 Minutes: 6.5)
In 1947 the pilot of a small aeroplane saw nine strange objects in the sky over Washington in the
USA. He said that they looked like saucers. Newspapers printed his story under the headline
"Flying Saucers".
   Since then, all over the world, people have reported seeing similar strange objects. No one knows
what they are or where they come from. Some people say that they do not exist, but many others
say that they have seen them. Usually people on the ground have seen them but not always.
Airline pilots also have reported seeing them and so have astronauts — the men who fly in
spaceships.
   Perhaps some people saw them only in their imagination. Perhaps some people made a mistake.
But airline pilots and astronauts do not usually make mistakes of this kind. Captain Ed Mitchell,
who was the sixth man to walk on the moon, said in 1974 that he believes that some "flying
saucers" are real. Many other people now believe that these strange flying objects are visiting the
earth from other worlds in space.
   "They have come to look at us," they say.
   The American government tried to find out more about these objects. It listened to a great many
people who said they had seen them. But the Government Committee (委员会) could not decide on
what the objects were. It called them UFOs, which is short for "Unidentified Flying Objects".
   Some say they have seen people in the flying saucers! -In 1964, a driver of a police car in New
Mexico saw a UFO landing a mile away. When he reached it, there were two small figures standing
near it. They looked like little men. When he reported on his radio, they got inside the object and
                                                                       16
flew away.
   In 1973 two men were out fishing in Mississippi. They say they saw a UFO shaped like an egg.
There were three creatures like men but their skins were silver in colour. They had no eyes, and
their mouths were just slits (裂缝). Their noses and ears were pointed. They made the fishermen get
inside the UFO for a while. Then the creatures photographed them and took them to the place
where they had been fishing.
   There are many other similar stories. Some are probably untrue but some may be true. No one
knows.
1. ___ took pictures of the two fishermen.
  A) The creatures in a UFO                     B) A driver of a police car
  C) A pilot of a plane                         D) Captain Ed Mitchell
2. The American government tried to ____.
  A) look for the flying objects                B) know where the objects come from
  C) learn more about UFOs                      D) report more about UFOs
3. According to the passage, the name "flying saucers" was first used by ____.
  A) a pilot of a small plane                   B) an official in Washington
  C) an editor of a newspaper                   D) the man who flies in saucers
4. The purpose of this passage is to tell us _______.
  A) the shape of UFOs                          B) how to observe UFOs
  C) the danger of UFOs                         D) what we know about UFOs
5. It is implied in the passage that the author ________.
  A) does not believe at all about the existence of UFOs
  B) believes that UFOs are real objects flying in the sky
  C) is not sure whether there are UFOs or not
  D) thinks UFOs come from other planets
                                 (A C C D C)

                       Passage 18 The Invention of Money
/ Words: 224 Minutes; 4 /
In its earliest form, trade consisted of (由组成) a simple bartering system, exchanging one type of
goods for another. For example, a person who owned many chickens might exchange some of his
chickens for another product, of which he did not have enough. This helped to ensure an adequate
distribution (适当的分配)of goods and services in the community (社区). There are, however, a
number of problems in this system which make it impractical in a complex (复杂的), advanced
society. For one thing, as trade expanded beyond the limits of the local community, the
inconvenience of transporting trade goods from one place to another became obvious. Also, as the
range of products and services broadened, it was increasingly difficult to agree on their worth. Thus,
it became necessary to set up a unit of exchange that was widely accepted, had a fixed value, could
be transported and exchanged easily, and was not subject to spoilage (损坏) as were perishable (容易
腐烂的) trade goods. Of course, I am referring to the invention of money. This remarkable device
allowed trade to expand into the international sphere (范围), and simplified and improved the
exchange of goods, services, and ideas within society. It is my belief that the invention of money
                                                                        17
was an important step on the road to civilization, without which the modern society could not have
come into being.
1.What was NOT the problem exchanging goods brought about?
   A) People were eager to make profit.       B) People had difficulties in transporting their goods.
   C) People used to have disagreement with the value of the products.
   D) The earliest bartering system couldn't keep up with the development of modern society.
2. Where did people exchange their products in the earliest society?
   A) On a large scale.     B) Between nations.         C) In the community.        D) In nation.
3. A bartering system refers to ____.
   A) the exchange of goods for coins                   B) the direct exchange of goods
   C) the trading of goods from one place to another
   D) the trading of goods within a local community
4. With the invention of money, people could do the following things EXCEPT ____.
   A) dealing with some goods quickly going bad            B) making their goods well-known
   C) contributing to exchanging goods                     D) simplifying the exchanges of goods
5. What's the main idea of this passage?
   A) In a bartering system, people all agree on the worth of the goods
   B) The invention of money is an index of civilization
   C) The invention of money results from the expansion of goods
   D) The invention of money brings about lots of advantages
                                    (CER 3 P68 A C B B D)

                          Passage 19 The Benefit of Stock Exchange
/Words:351 Minutes; 6 /
Large companies need a way to reach the savings of the public at large. The same problem, on a
smaller scale, faces practically every company trying to develop new products and create new jobs.
There can be little prospect (前景) of raising the sort of sums needed from friends and people we
know, and while banks may agree to provide short-term finance (经费), they are generally unwilling
to provide money on a permanent (永久的) basis for long-term projects. So companies turn to the
public, inviting people to lend them money, or take a share in the business in exchange for a share
in future profits (利润). This they do by issuing stocks and shares in the business through the Stock
Exchange. By doing so they can put into circulation (流通) the savings of individuals (个人) and
institutions, both at home and overseas.
   When the saver needs his money back, he does not have to go to the company with whom he
originally placed it. Instead, he sells his shares through a stockbroker (经纪人) to some other saver
who is seeking to invest his money.
   Many of the services needed both by industry and by each of us are provided by the Government
or by local authorities (当局). Without hospitals, roads, electricity, telephones, railways, this country
could not function (起作用). All these require continuous spending on new equipment and new
development if they are to serve us properly, requiring more money than is raised through taxes
alone. The Government, local authorities, and nationalized industries therefore frequently need to
                                        (
borrow money to finance major capital 资金)        spending, and they, too, come to the Stock Exchange.
                                                                         18
   There is hardly a man or woman in this country whose standard of living does not depend on the
ability of his or her employers to raise money to finance new development. In one way or another
this new money must come from the savings of the country. The Stock Exchange exists to provide a
channel through which these savings can reach those who need finance.
1. Almost all companies involved in new production and development must ____.
   A) persuade the banks to provide long-term finance
   B) borrow large sums of money from friends and people they know
   C) depend on the population as a whole for finance
   D) rely on their own financial resources
2. When the savers want their money back they ____.
   A) put their shares in the company back on the market
   B) transfer their money to a more successful company
   C) look for other people to borrow money from
   D) ask another company to obtain their money for them
3. The money which enables these companies to go ahead with their projects is ____.
   A) exchanged for pan ownership in the Stock Exchange
   B) raised by the selling of shares in the companies
   C) repaid to its original owners as soon as possible
   D) invested in different companies on the Stock Exchange
4. All the essential services on which we depend are ____.
   A) unable to provide for the needs of the population
   B) financed wholly by rates and taxes                     C) in constant need of financial support
   D)run by the Government or our local authorities
5. The Stock Exchange makes it possible for the Government, local authorities and nationalized
   industries ____.
   A) to make certain everybody saves money           B) to borrow as much money as they wish
   C) to make certain everybody lends money to them
   D) to raise money to finance new development
                                     (CER 3 P219 C A B C D)

               Passage 20 How to Help Children to Read
/ Words; 287 Minutes: 5 /
So long as teachers fail to tell teaching from learning, they will continue to undertake (承担) to do
for children that which only children can do for themselves. Teaching children to read is not
passing reading on to them. It is certainly not endless hours spent in activities about reading.
Douglas insists that "reading cannot be taught directly and schools should stop trying to do the
impossible.
   Teaching and learning are two entirely different processes (过程). They differ in kind and
function. The function (功能) of teaching is to create the conditions and the climate that will make it
possible for children to create the most efficient(有效的) system for teaching themselves to read.
Teaching is also a public activity: It can be seen and observed.
   Learning to read involves all that each individual does to make sense of the world of printed
                                                                       19
language. Almost all of it is private, for learning is an occupation of the mind, and that process is
not open to public scrutiny.
   If teacher and learner roles are not interchangeable (交换的), what then can be done through
teaching that will aid the child in the quest (探索) for knowledge? Smith has one principal rule for
all teaching instructions, "Make learning to read easy, which means making reading a meaningful,
enjoyable and frequent experience for children."
   When the roles of teacher and learner are seen for what they are, and when both teacher and
learner fulfill them appropriately, then much of the pressure and feeling of failure for both is
eliminated (消除). Learning to read is made easier when teachers create an environment where
children are given the opportunity to solve the problem of learning to read by reading.
1. The problem with the reading course as mentioned in the first paragraph is that ___...
   A) students spend endless hours in reading
   B) too much time is spent in teaching about reading
   C) reading tasks are assigned with little guidance
   D) it is one of the most difficult school courses
2. The teaching of reading will be successful if ____.
   A) teachers can enable students to develop their own way of reading
   B) teachers can improve conditions at school for the students
   C) teachers can devise the most efficient system for reading
   D) teachers can make their teaching activities observable
3. The word "scrutiny" (Para. 3) most probably means "____".
   A) inquiry           B) control              C) observation        D) suspicion
4. According to the passage, learning to read will no longer be a difficult task when _____.
   A) reading enriches children's experience
   B) teaching helps children in the search for knowledge
   C) teacher and learner roles are interchangeable          D) children become highly motivated
5. The main idea of the passage is that ____.
   A) reading is more complicated than generally believed
   B) reading ability is something acquired rather than taught
   C) teachers should encourage students to read as widely as possible
   D) teachers should do as little as possible in helping students learn to read .
                           (CER 3 P75 B A C D B)

                              Passage 21 A Breakthrough
/ Words: 286 Minutes: 5 /
A breakthrough in the provision of energy from the sun for the European Economic Community
(EEC) could be brought forward by up to two decades, if a modest increase could be provided in
the EEC's research effort in this field, according to the senior EEC scientists working on
experiments in solar (=of the sun) energy at EEC's scientific laboratories at Ispra, near Milan.
   The senior West German scientist in charge of the Community's solar energy programme, Mr.
Joachim Gretz, told journalists that at present levels of research spending it was most unlikely that
solar energy would provide as much as three per cent of the Community's energy requirements even
                                                                       20
after the year 2 000. But he said that with a modest increase in the present sums, devoted by the
EEC to this work it was possible that the breakthrough could be achieved by the end of the next
decade (=ten years).
   Mr. Gretz thinks that if solar energy only provided three per cent of the EEC' s needs, this could
still produce a saving of about a billion pounds in the present bill for imported energy each year.
And he believes that with the possibility of utilizing (=making use of) more advanced technology in
this field it might be possible to satisfy a much bigger share of the Community's future energy
needs.
   At present the EEC spends about $2.6 million a year on solar research at Ispra, one of the EEC' s
official joint research centres, and another $ 3 million a year in indirect research with universities
and other independent bodies.
1. The lined phrase " be brought forward" most probably means
   A) be completed         B) be introduced          C) be expected             D) be advanced
2. Some scientists believe that a breakthrough in the use of solar energy depends on ____.
   A) further experiments                            B) enough funding
   C) well-equipped laboratories                     D) advanced technology
3. According to Mr. Gretz, the present sum of money will enable the scientists to provide ____.
   A) only 3% of the EEC's needs before the year 2000
   B) more than 3% of the EEC's needs after the year 2000
   C) less than 3% of the EEC's needs before the year 2000
   D) 3% of the EEC's needs after the year 2000
4. Which of the following is NOT true according to the passage?
   A) The EEC spends one billion pounds on imported energy each year.
   B) The total yearly spending of the EEC on solar energy research amounted to almost 6 million.
   C) At the present level of research spending, it is difficult to make any significant progress in the
        provision of energy from the sun.
   D) the desired breakthrough could be obtained by the end of the next decade if investment were
        increased.
5. The application of advanced technology to research in solar energy
   A) would make it unnecessary to import oil
   B) would lead to a big increase in research funding
   C) would make it possible to meet the future energy needs of the EEC
   D) would provide a much greater proportion of the Community's future energy needs
                                 (CER 3 P95 D B C A D)
                           Passage 22 Nap or Not
/ Words: 242 Minutes: 4 /
American society is not nap-friendly. In fact, says David Dinges, a sleep specialist at the University
of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, "There's even a prohibition (禁止) against admitting we need
sleep. "Nobody wants to be caught napping or found asleep at work. To quote a proverb: "Some
sleep five hours, nature requires seven, laziness nine and wickedness (邪恶) eleven. "
   Wrong. The way not to fall asleep at work is to take naps when you need them. "We have to
totally change our attitude toward napping," says Dr. William Dement of Stanford University,
                                                                          21
the godfather of sleep research.
   Last year a national commission (委员会) led by Dement identified (确认) an "American sleep
debt" which one member said was as important as the national debt. The commission was
concerned about the dangers of sleepiness: people causing industrial accidents or falling asleep
while driving. This may be why we have a new sleep policy in the White House. According to
recent reports, President Clinton is trying to take a half-hour snooze (打瞌睡) every afternoon.
   About 60 percent of American adults nap when given the opportunity. We seem to have "a mid
afternoon quiet phase", also called "a secondary sleep gate" . Sleeping 15 minutes to two hours in
the early afternoon can reduce stress and make us refreshed. Clearly, we were born to nap.
   We Superstars of Snooze don' t nap to replace lost shut-eye or to prepare for a night shift (夜班).
Rather, we "snack" on sleep, whenever, wherever, and at whatever time we feel like it. I myself
have napped in buses, cars, planes and on boats; on floors and beds; and in libraries, offices and
museums.
1. It is commonly accepted in American society that too much sleep is ____.
   A) unreasonable          B) costly           C) harmful           D) criminal ()
2. The research done by the Dement Commission shows that Americans ____.
   A) don't like to take naps                   B) sleep less than is good for them
   C) are terribly worried about their national debt
   D) have caused many industrial and traffic accidents
3. The purpose of this article is to ____.
   A) make the reader believe the necessity of napping B) explain the danger of sleepiness
   C) discuss the side effects of napping                    D) warn us of the wickedness of napping
4. The "American sleep debt" (Para. 3) is the result of ____.
   A) the rapid development of American industry
   B) the new sleep policy of the Clinton Administration
   C) the traditional (传统的) misunderstanding the Americans have about sleep
   D) the Americans worry about the danger of sleepiness
5. The second sentence of the last paragraph tells us that it is             .
   A) preferable to have a sound sleep before a night shift
   B) natural to take a nap whenever we feel the need for it
   C) essential to make up for lost sleep
   D) good practice to eat something light before we go to bed
                           (CER P 125 D B A C B)

                    Passage 23 What Is the Market?
/ Words: 312 Minutes: 5 /
A market is commonly thought of as a place where goods are bought and sold. Thus fruit and
vegetables are sold wholesale (批发) at Covent Garden Market and meat is sold wholesale at
Smithfield Market. But there are markets for things other than goods in the usual sense. There are
real estate(房地产)markets, foreign exchange markets, labour markets, short-term capital markets,
and so on; there may be a market for anything which has a price. And there may be no particular
place to which dealings are confined. Buyers and sellers may be scattered over the whole world and
                                                                       22
instead of actually meeting together in a market-place, they may deal with one another by telephone,
telegram, cable or letter. Even if dealings are restricted to a particular place, the dealers may consist
wholly or in part of agents acting on instructions from clients (委托人) far away. Thus agents buy
meat at Smithfield on behalf of retail butchers all over England; and brokers (经纪人) on the
London Stock Exchange buy and sell securities on instructions from clients all over the world. We
must therefore define a market as any area over which buyers and sellers are in such close touch
with one another, either directly or through dealers, that the prices obtainable in one part of the
market affect the prices paid in other parts.
   Modem means of communication are so rapid that a buyer can discover what price a seller is
asking, and can accept it if he wishes, although he may be thousands of miles away. Thus the
market for anything is, potentially (潜在地), the whole world. But in fact things have, normally, only
a local or national market.
   This may be because nearly the whole demand is concentrated (集中) in one locality. These
special local demands, however, are of quite minor importance. The main reason why many things
have not a world market is that they are costly or difficult to transport.
1. According to the passage, all of the following can be called commodities in the usual sense
   except _______.
   A) fruit and vegetables             B) meat            C) books                D) labour
2. We can see from the passage that _______.
   A) a market does not always mean a place where commodities are bought and sold
   B) buyers and sellers can deal with one another through a third party
   C) a market-place is not always indispensable to people who want to do business
   D) all of the above
3. The author says anything can have a potential world market on the ground that _______.
   A) buyers and sellers are scattered all over the world
   B) buyers and sellers are in such close touch with one another that the price of a commodity in
      one part of the world affects those in other parts
   C) modern means of communication are available, which makes it convenient for buyers and
      sellers to do business even if they may be in different parts of the world
   D) both A and B
4. In fact, many things don't have a world market because
   A) they are too expensive
B) they are not world-wide demanded
   C) it's difficult or it costs much money to transport them           D) both A and B
5. The author's purpose in writing this passage is to _______.
   A) argue against the common concept of a market
   B) help the readers to have some acquaintance with market-places of various kinds
   C) prove the functions of modem means of transportation in the development of a world market
   D) get the readers acquainted with clear and scientific definition of a market
                                      (CER 3 P102 D D C C D)

                          Passage 24    Say No to Your Kids
                                                                          23
/ Words; 287 Minutes: 4.5 /
"It hurts me more than you," and "This is for your own good. "These are the statements my mother
used to make years ago when I had to learn Latin, clean my room, stay home and do homework.
   That was before we entered the permissive period in education in which we decided it was all
right not to push our children to achieve their best in school. The schools and the educators made it
easy on us. They taught that it was all right to be parents who take a let-alone policy. We stopped
making our children do homework. We gave them calculators, turned on the television, left the
teaching to the teachers and went on vacation.
   Now teachers, faced with children who have been developing at their own pace for the past 15
years, are realizing we've made a terrible mistake. One such teacher is Sharon Klompus who says
of her students — "so passive" — and wonders what happened. Nothing was demanded of them,
she believes. Television, says Klompus, contributes to children' s passivity. "We" re not training
kids to work any more. "says Klompus. "We' re talking about a generation of kids who've never
been hurt or hungry. They have learned somebody will always do it for them. Instead of saying 'go
and look it up', you tell them the answer. It takes greater energy to say no to a kid."
   Yes, it does. It takes energy and it takes work. It' s time for parents to end their vacation and
come back to work. It's time to take the car away, to turn TV off , to tell them it hurts you more than
them but it' s for their own good. It' s time to start telling them no again.
1. To such children as described in the passage ____.
   A) neither is easy to say yes or say no                   B) it is easier to say no than to say yes
   C) it is easier to say yes than no                  D) neither is difficult to say yes or say no
2. We learn from the passage that the author' s mother used to lay emphasis on ____.
   A) natural development B) education at school C) learning Latin                     D) discipline
3. Children are becoming more inactive in study because ____.
   A) they watch TV too much                           B) they have to fulfill too many duties
   C) they have done too much homework                  D) teachers are too strict with them
4. By " permissive period in education" the author means a time
   A) when everything can be taught at school
   B) when children are permitted to receive education
   C) when children are allowed to do what they wish to
   D) when every child can be educated
5. The main idea of the passage is that ____.
   A) it’s time to be more strict with our kids
   B) parents should always set a good example to their kids
   C) parents should leave their children alone
   D) kids should have more activities at school
                                      (CER 3 P157 C D A C A)

                         Passage 25 A Day to Remember
/ Words: 312 Minutes: 5 /
We have all experienced days when everything goes wrong. A day may begin well enough, but
suddenly everything seems to get out of control. What often happens is that a great number of
                                                                         24
things choose to go wrong at just the same moment. It is as if single unimportant event set up a
chain of reactions. Let us suppose that you are preparing a meal and keeping an eye on the baby at
the same time. The telephone rings and this marks the prelude (序幕) to an unexpected series of
catastrophes (大祸). While you are on the phone, the baby pulls the table-cloth off the table,
smashing half your best crockery (陶器) and cutting himself in the process. You hang up hurriedly
and attend to baby, crockery, etc. Meanwhile, the meal gets burnt. As if this were not enough to
reduce you to tears, your husband arrives, unexpectedly bringing three guests to dinner.
   Things can go wrong on a big scale as a number of people recently discovered in Parramatta, a
suburb of Sydney. During the rush hour one evening two cars collided and both drivers began to
argue. The woman immediately behind the two cars happened to be a learner. She suddenly got into
a panic and stopped her car. This made the driver following her brake hard. His wife was sitting be-
side him holding a large cake. As she was thrown forward, the cake went right through the
windscreen and landed on the road. Seeing a cake flying through the air, a lorry-driver who was
drawing up alongside the car, pulled up all of a sudden. The lorry was loaded with empty beer
bottles and hundreds of them slid off the back of the vehicle and on to the road. This led to yet
another angry argument. Meanwhile, the traffic piled up behind. It took the police nearly an hour to
get the traffic on the move again. In the meantime, the lorry-driver had to sweep up hundreds of
broken bottles. Only two stray dogs benefited from all this confusion, for they greedily devoured
what was left of the cake. It was just one of those days!
1. What would have most upset the woman the day everything went wrong for her ?
   A) She had not expected her husband to arrive so early.
   B) The meal she had cooked for the three guests had got burnt.
   C) Her husband had not told her he was bringing anyone to dinner.
   D) She had not got enough crockery left to serve the meal with.
2. There was a second angry argument because ____.
   A) the lorry-driver blamed the owner of the cake for his accident
   B) the traffic was extremely slow to get on the move again
   C) the lorry-driver did not think he should be made to sweep up the glass
   D) two dogs had devoured what was left of the cake
3. In the sentence "It is as if a single unimportant event set up a.chain of reactions", "set up"
   means ____.
   A) establish          B) build                C) cause          D) fix
4. According to the passage, the lorry stopped suddenly ____.
   A) in order not to hit the car in front            B)in order to draw up alongside the car
   C) because the driver didn't want to run over the dogs
   D) because the driver has seen a cake in the air
5. In the last sentence, "devoured" means ____.
   A) hit           B)bite                  C) ate         D) smelled
                                 (CER 3 P171 C A C D C)

                        Passage 26 The Real Happiness
/ Words: 304 Minutes: 5 /
                                                                       25
The way people hold to the belief that a fun-filled, painfree life equals happiness actually reduces
their chances of ever attaining real happiness. If fun and pleasure are equal to happiness then pain
must be equal to unhappiness. But in fact, the opposite is true: more often than not things that lead
to happiness involve some pain.
   As a result, many people avoid the very attempts that are the source of true happiness. They fear
the pain inevitably brought by such things as marriage, raising children, professional achievement,
religious commitment (承担的义务), self-improvement.
   Ask a bachelor (单身汉.)why he resists marriage even though he finds dating to be less and less
satisfying. If he is honest he will tell you that he is afraid of making a commitment. For
commitment is in fact quite painful. The single life is filled with fun, adventure, excitement.
Marriage has such moments, but they are not its most distinguishing (有区别的) features.
   Couples with infant children are lucky to get a whole night's sleep or a three-day vacation. I don't
know any parent who would choose the word fun to describe raising children. But couples who
decide not to have children never know the joys of watching a child grow up or of playing with a
grandchild.
   Understanding and accepting that true happiness has nothing to do with fun is one of the most
liberating realizations. It liberates time: now we can devote more hours to activities that can
genuinely increase our happiness. It liberates money: buying that new car or those fancy clothes
that will do nothing to increase our happiness now seems pointless. And it liberates us from envy:
we now understand that all those who are always having so much fun actually may
not be happy at all.
1. Raising children, in the author's opinion, is ____.
   A) a time-taking job                               B)a source of inevitable pain
   C) a painful but joyful experience                 D) a moral duty
2. According to the author, a bachelor resists marriage chiefly because ____.
   A) he finds more fun in dating than in marriage
   B) he is reluctant to take on family responsibilities
   C) he fears it will put an end to all his fun, adventure and excitement
   D) he believes that life will be more cheerful if he remains single
3. To understand what true happiness is one must ____.
   A) put up with pain under all circumstances
   B) have as much fun as possible during one's lifetime
   C) make every effort to liberate oneself from pain
   D) be able to distinguish happiness from fun
4. From the last paragraph, we learn that envy sometimes stems from ____ happiness.
   A) prejudice (偏见) against                   B) misunderstanding of
   C) ignorance (无知)of                         D) hatred of
5. What is the author trying to tell us?
   A) It is important to make commitments.            . B) It is pain that leads to happiness.
   C) Happiness often goes hand in hand with pain.
   D) 0ne must know how to attain happiness.
                                            (CER 3 P175 C B C B C)
                                                                         26
                              passage 27 Sea Harvest
/ Words: 308 Minutes: 5 /
Man is a land animal, but he is also closely tied to the sea. Throughout history the sea has served
the needs of man. The sea has provided man with food and a convenient way to travel to many
parts of the world. Today, experts estimate that nearly two-thirds of the world' s population live
within eighty kilometers of the seacoast.
   In the modern technological world the sea offers many resources to help mankind survive.
Resources on land are beginning to grow less. The sea, however, still offers hope to supply many of
man's needs.
   The riches of the sea yet to be developed by man' s technology are impressive. Oil and gas
exploration have existed for nearly thirty years. Valuable amounts of minerals such as manganese,
iron, nickel and copper exist on the ocean floor, ready to be mined.
   Fish farming promises to be a good way to produce large quantities of food. The culture of fish
and shellfish is an ancient skill practised in the past mainly by Oriental (东方) peoples.
   Besides oil and gas, the sea may offer new sources of energy. Experts believe that the warm
temperature of the ocean can be used in a way similar to the steam in a steamship. Ocean currents
and waves offer possible use as a source of energy such as hydroelectric power.
   Technology is enabling man to explore ever deeper under the sea. The new undersea technology
is providing divers with diving suits and undersea chambers that are kept at sea-level pressure. The
development of strong, new materials has made this possible.
   The technology to harvest the sea continues to improve. By the year 2000, experts believe that
the problems to exploit the food, minerals, and energy sources of the sea will he largely solved.
1. Why does the author mention a steamship?
   A) To illustrate that man can make use of sources of energy from the sea.
   B) To argue that man should use steamships more than other means of transportation.
   C) To show that a steamship is better than other kinds of ship.
   D) To indicate that it is warmer in the ocean than on land.
2. It can be inferred from the passage that ____.
   A) technology for exploring the sea has been solved
   B) in the near future man can live on the ocean floor
   C) planting rice in the sea will be made possible in a short time
   D) man hasn't completely cultivated the riches of the sea
3. According to the author, technology for exploring the sea is important because ______..
   A) it's a lot of fun diving into the sea          B) ancient people used to explore the sea
   C) resources on land are running short            D) man cannot travel farther into space
4. The word "exploit" in the last paragraph could best be replaced by _______.
   A) develop               B) gather                C) evaluate (评估)         D) scatter
5. The word “harvest” in the last paragraph could be replaced by _______.
   A) gather                B) exploit                    C) know                  D) cross
                                 (CER 3 P179 A D C A B)


                                                                       27
                          Passage 28   Who's Who

/ Words: 324 Minutes: 5.5 /
It has never been explained why university students seem to enjoy practical jokes more than anyone
else. Students specialize in a particular type of practical joke: the hoax (恶作剧). Inviting the
fire-brigade to put out a non-existent fire is a crude form of deception which no self-respecting
student would ever indulge (沉溺于) in. Students often create amusing situations which are funny to
everyone except the victims(受害者)          。
   When a student recently saw two workmen using a pneumatic drill (风钻)outside his university,
he immediately telephoned the police and informed them that two students dressed up as work-
men were tearing up the road with a pneumatic drill. As soon as he had hung up, he went over to
the workmen and told them that if a policeman ordered them to go away, they were not to take him
seriously. He added that a student had dressed up as a policeman and was playing all sorts of silly
jokes on people. Both the police and the workmen were grateful to the student for this piece of
advance information.
   The student hid in an archway nearby where he could watch and hear everything that went on.
Sure enough, a policeman arrived on the scene and politely asked the workmen to go away. When
he received a very rude reply from one of the workmen, he threatened (威胁) to remove them by
force. The workmen told him to do as he pleased and the policeman telephoned for help. Shortly
afterwards, four more policemen arrived and remonstrated (规劝) with the workmen. As the men
refused to stop working, the police attempted to seize the pneumatic drill. The workmen struggled
fiercely and one of them lost his temper. He threatened to call the police. At this, the police pointed
out ironically that this would hardly be necessary as the men were already under arrest. Pretending
to speak seriously, one of the workmen asked if he might make a telephone call before being taken
to the station. Permission was granted and a policeman accompanied him to a call-box. Only when
he saw that the man was actually telephoning the police did he realize that they had all been the
victims of a hoax.
1. A good hoax is a joke which depends on ____.
   A) deceiving people into behaving in a way which amuses everyone but themselves
   B) doing something like calling the fire-brigade to a non-existence fire
   C) at least two parties being led to believe the other is fraudulent
   D) people disguising themselves to look like other people
2. When the policeman first arrived outside the university ____.
   A) the student hid in an archway to see what happened next
   B) he told the workmen if they disobeyed him he would call four policemen
   C) the workmen refused to take his request that they should move seriously
   D) he was polite to the workmen as he had expected them to be students
3. When did it become clear to the police that the workmen were not students?
   A) When one of the workmen angrily said he was going to call the police.
   B) Not until one of the workmen asked if he could telephone the police
   C) When the policeman saw whom the workman was ringing from the call-box.
   D) 0nly after they had arrested the workmen and taken them to the station.
                                                                         28
4. The other more policeman were called for to ____.
   A) arrest the student                     B) explain to the workmen
   C) take the first policeman away          D) arrest the two workmen
5. According to the passage, how did one of the workmen get permission to make a telephone call?
   A) He admitted that he was a student.          B) He said he really was a workman.
   C) He spoke to the police seriously and asked for permission to make a call.
   D) He said that a policeman could come with him to the call-box.
                               (CER 3, P182 A C C D C)
                Passage 29           The Mars
/ Words: 182 Minutes: 4/
Of the six outer planets, Mars, commonly called the Red Planet, is the closest to the earth. 4 200
miles in diameter and 55% of the size of the earth, Mars is 34 600 000 miles from the earth, and
141,000,000 miles from the sun. It takes this planet, along with its two moons, Phobos and Deimos,
1.88 years to circle the sun, compared to 365 days for the earth.
   For many years, Mars had been thought of as the planet with the man-made canals, supposedly
discovered by an Italian astronomer, Schiaparelli, in 1877. With the United States spacecraft Viking
1's landing on Mars in 1976, the man-made canal theory was proven to be only a myth.
   Viking 1, after landing on the soil of Mars, performed many scientific experiments and took
numerous pictures. The pictures showed that the red color of the planet is due to the reddish, rocky
Martian soil. No biological life was found, though it had been speculated (推测) by many scientists.
The Viking 1 also monitored many weather changes including violent dust storms. Some water
vapor, polar ice and permafrost (永久冻土带) were found, indicating that at one time there were
significant quantities of water on this distant planet. Evidence collected by the spacecraft shows
some present volcanic action, though the volcanos are believed to be dormant (休眠的), if not
extinct.
1. Man-made canals were supposedly discovered by ____.
   A) Deimos                  B) Phobos        C)Schiaparelli                D) Viking 1
2. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
   A) Martian soil is rocky.           B) Mars has two moons.             C) Mars doubles the earth in
size.
   D) It takes longer for Mars to circle the sun than it does for the earth.
3. Viking 1 exploration accomplished all the following things EXCEPT____.
   A) performing scientific experiments                   B) monitoring weather conditions
   C) collecting information showing volcanic action
   D) discovering large quantities of polar ice and permafrost
4. What does "extinct "(Para.3) mean?
   A) Disappearing. B) No longer active.            C) No longer in existence.           D)   Having
vanished.
5. What is the reason for the red color of Mars in the picture?
   A) The soil on Mars is reddish.                  B) The soil on Mars emits reddish light.
   C) The rocks on Mars proved to be reddish.             D) The rocks on Mars give out reddish light.
                           (CER 3, P1 C C D B A)
                                                                        29
                        Passage 30 How to Talk to a Foreigner?
/ Words:242 Minutes: 5.5/
Students often want to practise their English outside class. One of the best ways to practise your
English is to speak to a foreigner. This week's question comes from a student who is eager to start a
conversation with the foreigners he sees every day. Our student asks, "Is it okay to try to talk to
foreigners I see in the street?"
   The answer is yes and no, but probably no! If you see a foreigner who looks lost, it is polite to
ask them, "May I help you? "But, otherwise, you should probably let them get on with their
business. Situations, however, do exist where it is quite all right to talk to foreigners. If a foreigner
enters your school, classroom, office, shop or restaurant, for instance, feel free to ask them (for
example):
   — What is your name?
   — Where do you come from?
   — What do you think of Beijing?
   — How long will you stay in Beijing?
   There are also situations where it's okay to talk to foreigners in public places. If you see a
foreigner alone in a restaurant, bar or coffee shop, it may be appropriate to ask him or her:
   — Is this seat free?
   — Do you mind if I talk to you in English?
   You can probably help them if they are new to China and if they are alone, you may be able to
make them feel more welcome.
   After a few such questions, you should know whether this person wants to talk to you or not. If
they ask you similar questions, or if they give long, informative answers, you're in luck. If not, then
give them their privacy (独处)
Talking to strangers is fun if you choose the right time and place.
1. One way to practise your spoken English is to try to talk with ____.
   A) Japanese              B) Americans          C) your classmates            D) French people
2. From the second paragraph we get to know that ____.
   A) it is polite to stop foreigners to talk with them in the street
   B) it is polite to interrupt foreigners in a conversation
   C) it is impolite to interrupt foreigners when they are on business
   D) it is impolite to help foreigners find their way
3. When you first meet a foreigner, which of the following would you like to say?
   A) Where are you going?                        B) Have you eaten your dinner?
   C) Can you help me with my English?                 D) Hi, nice to meet you.
4. The writer suggests that we should ____.
   A) follow foreigners when we meet them in the street                 B) talk with a foreigner in an
accepted way
   C) have a meal with foreigners in a restaurant                   D) move to a place where a foreigner
lives
5. This passage comes from a newspaper in ____ column.
                                                                          30
  A) sports           B) health             C) language            D) business
                   (FLTS 2000.1,     B C D B C)


                           Passage 31      Why Not Eat Breakfast?
/ Words: 334 Minutes: 7/
Breakfast is not only the most important meal of the day, it is also the most neglected (忽视).
Common reasons for not eating breakfast include lack of time, not feeling hungry, traditional
dislike for breakfast, and dieting.
   Breakfast simply means "break the fast". Your body spends at least 6 to 12 hours each night in a
fasting state. In the morning your body needs energy for the day's work ahead.
   A good breakfast should provide up to 1-/3 of your total calorie needs for the day. On average,
we eat 400 less calories for breakfast than for dinner. If breakfast doesn't appeal (吸引) to you in the
morning, try eating a lighter dinner earlier in the evening or save half your dinner for breakfast in
the morning.
   If you still aren't hungry in the morning, start with something small like juice or toast (烤面包片)
or have a nutritious (有营养的) mid-morning snack (小吃) later when you are hungry.
   So, you say you're on a diet. Some people fear eating breakfast will make them hungrier during
the day and they will eat more. It is true that eating breakfast is likely to make you feel hungry
throughout the day. That's because your body is working correctly. Although you may feel as if you
are eating more all day long, in reality you are probably not.
   Not eating breakfast can also cause you to overeat, since a fall in blood sugar often makes you
feel very hungry later. To make matters worse, since your body is in a slowed state it will not be
able to burn those extra calories very effectively. If you feed your body healthy snacks and meals
throughout the day, you are less likely to become hungry and stuff (填饱) yourself as soon as you
begin to eat.
   Since breakfast is the first and most important meal of the day, choosing the right fuel is
important. The best breakfast foods are fruits, juice, lean (廋) meat, and grain products such as
bread, rice, noodles, and cereals (谷物).
1. What's the meaning of the word "fast" in the phrase "break the fast"?
   A)movement B)going without food                  C) quickness D)certain kind of food
4. If you don't want to have breakfast in the morning, according to the writer's suggestion,
   you should ____.
   A) see a doctor to have an examination                 B) have a little supper
   C) go to a restaurant to enjoy a good meal             D) have a good supper
3. Eating breakfast, in fact, makes your body
   A) work out of order                                   B) produce too much energy
   C) work well                                           D) feel hungry quicker
4. Not eating breakfast will __
   A) save a lot of money                                      B) do harm to your health
   C) do good to your health                                   D) help you keep in shape
5. In the last paragraph the writer mainly ______.
   A) persuades us to have a good breakfast
                                                                        31
  B) tells us what food is not suitable for breakfast
    C) describes when and how we should have our breakfast
    D) tells us what food we should have for breakfast
                         (FLTS 2000.1, B B C B D)


                            Passage 32 The Greatest Power
/Words; 353 Minutes: 6.5/A long time ago men hunted for their food. Often they killed wild
animals, birds, or fish. How did they kill the beasts? They used rocks and wooden sticks.
Sometimes they fought with their own hands and bodies.
   Later on, people began fighting each other. Everyone wanted more food and more land. They
made arrows from sticks. They also made spears from stones.
   Then somebody invented the gun. Soldiers were taught how to shoot and kill enemy soldiers.
Great wars were fought and many people died.
   A famous general cried as he looked at one battle field. His soldiers were fighting well, but he
felt very sad. He turned to his men and said, "My soldiers, I am going to ask you a question. TThe
one who gives the best answer will receive a medal. The question is this: What is the strongest
power in the world?"
   Four soldiers raised their hands. They wanted to answer the general's question. The general asked
the first soldier to speak.
   "Sir," said the young man, "I think my gun is the strongest power. It can kill a person or an
animal from a great distance. "
   "Thank you," said the general. "Next. " He pointed to the man who was his best soldier.
   "A soldier is stronger," said the second man. "He must shoot the gun and aim well. A gun's power
comes from the way it is used. "
   The third soldier thought he had the best answer of all. "No, sir, "he said, "our general is the
strongest power. He gives the orders for his soldiers to shoot their guns. "
   The general said nothing. He waited for the last man to answer his question. The fourth soldier
answered the general's question this way: "I believe, sir, that the greatest power on the earth is love.
It makes the general decide if he wants his soldiers to use their guns. Also, if men had more love for
each other? they would not use their guns. "
   The general gave the medal to the last man. Now if you were this general, which of your soldiers
would receive the medal?
1. A long time ago, man led ____ life.
   A) a happy            B) a hard             C) an active          D) a strange
2. What caused more people to die in the battle fields?
   A) The invention of the gun.                B) The invention of the arrow.
   C) The invention of the spear.              D) The invention of the wooden stick.
3. From the third soldier's answer, we can see that ____.
   A) the general was the greatest power                 B) the general was good at shooting
   C) the soldier wanted to please the general
   D) the soldier wanted to fight against the general
4. What does the fourth soldier's love mean?
                                                                          32
   A) Love can make guns fire.        B) Love among people can stop war from breaking out.
   C) Love can make people fight for peace.            D) B and C.
5. This passage seems to show us that the general ____.
   A) liked to make jokes on his soldiers                   B) liked testing his soldiers
   C) liked crying in the battle fields                D) hope the world to be peaceful
                         (FLTS 2000. 5, B A C D D)

                                 Passage 33 The American Cowboy
/Words; 378 Minutes; 8 /
The American cowboy was a great national hero through facts and stories.
   In history, the real cowboy was a simple farm worker on horseback. He spent twelve to fourteen
hours a day outdoors working with cows. The work was dirty, tiresome and not very well paid. In
the winter, most cowboys had to find other jobs. They were seldom alone. Most of them worked in
teams of eight to ten.
   People could raise beef cattle at low cost in the western states and send them by train to the
eastern markets. But someone had to look after the cattle on the open land and get them to the
nearest railroad. This was the job of a cowboy. Sometimes the railroad was more than a thousand
kilometres away and it could take as long as six months to move the cattle. The cowboy moved the
cattle slowly so that the cattle would not lose weight.
   Most cowboys were young, unmarried men. A cowboy's horse was his most important tool. A
good horse made the job of moving cattle much easier. A good cowboy understood cows and knew
how to control them. At night, he sang to the cows to keep them calm.
   The cowboy quickly received popular praise. Historians say that was because the cowboy
appeared during a time of change in American life. In the late 1800's America was changing from a
nation of farms to one of factories and cities. The cowboy seemed free and more independent than
other Americans.
   Today, the life of real cowboys has changed greatly. One change has been the use of trucks.
There is no need for the modern cowboy to sleep on the ground. Modern cowboys are better paid.
They are likely to be married. Today cowboys are found in almost every state of the United States.
Some of them are farmers or teachers or truck drivers. Some work for big companies. But at night
and on weekends they became cowboys. Most have less than a thousand cows and some have only
two or three. Those part-time cowboys increase the total production of meat, keeping beef price low.
Most modern cowboys do not make much money from raising cattle. Many do it because they love
the cowboy life.
1. In the past, the cowboy's work ____.
   A) was covered with dirt                         B) cost much labor
   C) was less paid                                 D) Alt of the above.
2. Sometimes it took the cowboys ____ to move the beef cattle from the western states to the
   eastern markets.
   A) a week          B) a month               C) half a year        D) a year
3. The cowboy's important instrument in the past was the ____.
   A) truck            B) horse                C) sleeping-bag        D) raincoat
                                                                      33
4. The cowboys quickly receive popular praise because they appeared ____.
   A) in the western parts of the United States       B) in the eastern markets every year
   C) in the time of great changes in America         D) in the early 1800's
5. Which of the following statements is true?
   A) The modern cowboys not only use their horses but also their trucks.
   B) The modern cowboys still have to sleep on the ground outdoors.
   C) The modern cowboys are badly paid.
   D) Most modern cowboys don't love their work.
                            (FLTS 2000.5, D C B C A)
                Passage 34 Conserving the World’s Natural Resources
/Words; 381 Minutes: 7/
In the decade (=10 years) of the 1970’s, the United Nations organized several important meetings
on the human environment to study a very serious problem. We humans are destroying the world
around us. We are using up all of our natural resources. We must learn to conserve them, or life will
be very bad for our children and grandchildren.
   There are several major aspects to this problem.
   1. Population. Most problems of the environment come from population growth. In 1700 there
were 625 million people in the world; in 1900 there were 1.6 billion; in 1950, 2.5 billion; and in
1980,4.4 billion. In the year 2200 there will be 6.3 billion. More people need more water, more
food, more wood, and more petroleum.
2. Distribution. Scientists say there is enough water in the world for everyone, but some countries
have a lot of water and some have only a little. Some areas get all their rain during one season. The
rest of the year is dry.
3. Petroleum. We are using up the world's petroleum. We use it in our cars and to heat our buildings
in winter. Farmers use petrochemicals to make the soil rich. They use them to kill insects on those
plants. These chemicals go into rivers and lakes and kill the fish there. Thousands of people also die
from these chemicals every year. Chemicals also go into the air and pollute it. Winds carry this
polluted air to other countries and other continents.
4. Poverty. Poor farmers use the same land over and over. The land needs a rest so it will be better
next year. However, the farmer must have food every year. Poor people cut down trees for firewood.
In some areas when the trees are gone, the land becomes desert. However, people need wood to
cook their food now. Poor people cannot save the environment for the future.
   We now have the information and the ability to solve these huge problems. However, this is not a
problem for one country or one area of the world. It is a problem for all humans. The people and
the nation of the world must work together to conserve the world's resources. No one controls the
future, but we all help make it.
1. We humans are destroying our ____.
   A) environment            B) farms                 C) areas        D) desert
2. Most environmental problems come from
   A) forests          B) population growth           C) too much rain D) poor distribution
3. Good distribution means ____.
   A) having things in the right place at the right time
                                                                        34
   B) cutting down forests and selling them to other countries
   C) building water systems to carry water to farms
   D) conserving our natural resources
4. Poor farmers don't give their land a rest because ____.
   A) they don't have petrochemicals to kill insects
   B) they don't have enough land to let some of it rest each year
   C) they need more water                         D) they need firewood
5. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
   A) People must work together to save the environment.
   B) People have the ability to solve problems.
   C) We control the future.                       D) We help make the future.
                    ( FLTS 2000.8, A B A B C )


                           Passage 35 Bike for a Better City
/Words: 291 Minutes: 6/Some people think that they have an answer to the problems of automobile
crowding and pollution in large cities. Their answer is the bicycle, or bike. In a great many cities,
hundreds of people ride bicycles to work every day. In New York city, some bike riders have even
formed a group called "Bike for a Better City". They claim that if more people rode bicycles to
work there would be fewer automobiles in the downtown section of the city and therefore less dirty
air from car engines.
   For several years this group has been trying to get the city government to help bicycle riders. For
example, they want the city to paint special lanes (通道) — for bicycles only on some of the main
streets, because when bicycle riders must use the same lanes as cars, there may be accidents. "Bike
for a Better City" feels that if there were special lanes, more people would use bikes.
   But no bicycle lanes have been painted yet. Not everyone thinks it is a good idea. Taxi-drivers
don't like the idea — they say it will slow traffic. Some store owners on the main streets don't like
the idea — they say that if there is less traffic; they will have less business. And more people live
too far from downtown to travel by bike.
   The city government has not yet decided what to do. It wants to keep everyone happy. On
weekends, central Park — the largest open place in New York — is closed to cars, and the roads
may be used bicycles only. But "Bike for a Better City" says that this is not enough and keeps
fighting to get bicycle lanes downtown. Until that happens, the safest place to bicycle may be in the
park.
1. "Bike for a Better City" is a club formed in ___.
   A) large cities         B0 New York           C) the downtown section            D) the government
5. One thing "Bike for a Better City" wants to do is to ___ on the main streets.
   A) paint special lanes                                  B) help bicycle riders
   C) use the same lanes as cars                      D) make fewer accidents
3. No bicycle lanes have been painted yet because
   A) the main streets are not wide enough             B) the city government is too busy to do it
   C) a lot of people don't think it is a good idea D) most people live too far to travel by bike
4. Central Park is closed to cars and may be used by bicycles only ___.
                                                                        35
   A) on Saturdays and Sundays                       B) in the afternoons
   C) in holidays                                    D) on weekdays
5. "Bike for a Better City" feels that ___ is the safest place to bicycle.
   A) the bicycle lane       B) Central Park         C) downtown section      D) the large city
                         (FLTS 1999.11 B A C A B)

                      Passage 36    Armed Students Expelled: USA
/Words: 215 Minutes: 4 /
More than 6000 children were expelled (开除) from US schools last year for bringing guns and
bombs to school, the US Department of Education said on May 8.
   The department gave a report on the expulsions (开除)as saying hand guns accounted for 58 per
cent of the 6093 expulsions in 1996*971 against 7 per cent for rifles (步枪) or shotguns and 35 per
cent for other types of firearms.
   "The report is a clear sign that our nation's public schools are cracking down (严惩) on students
who bring guns to school, "Education Secretary Richard Riley said in a statement. "We need to be
tough-minded about keeping guns out of our schools and do everything to keep our children safe. "
   In March 1997, an 11-year-old boy and a 13-year-old boy using handguns and rifles shot dead
four children and a teacher at a school in Jonesboro, Arkansas. In October, two were killed and
seven wounded in a shooting at a Mississippi school. Two months later, a 14-year-old boy killed
three high school students and wounded five in Daducah, Kentucky.
   Most of the expulsions, 56 per cent, were from high schools, which have students from about age
13. 34 per cent were from junior high schools and 9 percent were from elementary schools, the
report said.
1. From the first paragraph we can infer that in the US schools ____.
   A) students enjoy shooting                       B) students are eager to be soldiers
   C) safety is a problem                           D) students can make guns
2. The report from the US Department of Education shows that ____.
   A) the number of the expulsions is not large        B) the number of the expulsions is wrong
   C) there are soldiers hiding among the students D) guns are out of control in US schools
3. The main idea of paragraph four shows us ____.
   A) some examples of shootings in US schools           B) the Americans' feeling
   C) some famous schools                     D) that some teachers were killed by students
4. How many students were shot dead in 1997 in US schools?
   A) 10             B) 9                C) 12                D) 22
5. From this passage we know that ____.
   A) every American cannot have guns               B) only soldiers and police can have guns
   C) every American citizen can own guns           D) teachers have no money to buy guns
                              (FLTS 1999.12 C D A B C)
                      Passage 37 WORLD RESOURCES
/Words: 215 Minutes: 4 /
As world population grows, people are drawing more heavily on the Earth's natural resources— its
raw materials and energy sources. Raw materials are natural substances that are extracted from
                                                                         36
water, air, or from the ground. Some energy sources, such as solar or wind power, are renewable.
Others, such as oil or coal, are nonrenewable and will eventually run out.
                   TABLE 1                                             TABLE 3




                 TABLE 2




                                                                   TABLE 4




                                                                      TABLE 5




1. The first paragraph suggests that _________.
   A) some raw materials are not naturally occurring and need to be scientifically created.
   B) human beings prefer to use non-renewable sources of energy.
   C) increases in world population are leading to greater pressures on natural resources.
   D) countries with growing populations should share their natural resources more evenly.
2. Which of the following CORRECTLY lists a renewable and a non-renewable energy source?
                    RENEWABLE              NON-RENEWABLE
           A
                    sun                    wind
           B        oil                    coal
           C
                                                                        37
           D
                   wind                    oil
                   coal                    sun

3. According to the information, which of the following statements is TRUE?
   A) In the USA, the annual wheat crop exceeds the annual maize crop.
   B) Each year, France produces less maize than wheat.
   C) In China, wheat is produced in larger annual amounts than rice or maize.
   D) Vietnam produces a greater quantity of rice than India.
4. Which of the following statements is supported by evidence from Table 1 and Table 4?
   A) India both produces and consumes tea in the greatest amounts.
   B) Australia is the top producer of sheep but not of wool.
   C) China produces the most cotton but is not the biggest consumer of it.
   D) The USA is the top producer of coffee and Brazil is the top consumer of it,
5. From the information about Fossil Fuels and Energy Consumption, which of the following
   statements is INCORRECT?
   A) Germany is the third largest producer of coal and the fifth largest energy consumer
        in the world.
   B) Japan consumes a much greater percentage of the world's energy than China does.
   C) The USA produces the most electricity and is the largest consumer of the world's
        energy supplies.
   D) Russia produces a total of 904 959 000 kilowatt hours of electricity each year.
6. This information has several purposes. Read the following list and choose the correct purposes.
   (a) outline quantities of various raw materials produced around the world
   (b) describe types and amounts of commodities consumed by different countries
   (c) evaluate which country provides its inhabitants with the healthiest diet
   (d) criticize the amounts of energy that are wasted by some countries
   (e) list the countries which manufacture the most expensive products
   (f) show the percentage of world energy used by different countries
   The correct purposes are
   A) a, d and e.       B) b, c and f. C) a, b and f.    D) b, d and e.
                      (FLTS 2001.2 C C B A B C)
                    Passage 38 Politeness Disappearing Fast in Japan
/Words: 271 Minutes: 6/
TOKYO — Our kids, the Japanese government announced *, have forgotten how to behave. They
can't be bothered with housework. If they see someone being wronged, they probably look the other
way.
  Few countries have placed more importance on being well-behaved in public than Japan. The
simplest requests for directions often result in guided tours. Smiling shopkeepers are still the rule.
Lost wallets usually make their way back to their owners.
  But according to recent surveys, all that may be going the way of the ancient hair-do (发式). And
Japan's government has gone into something of a crisis mode (危机时刻).
  A Japanese Education Ministry survey (调查) formed late in 1999 and made public last month

                                                                        38
found that Japan moves behind other nations in teaching youngsters right from wrong.
   It also reported that Japanese children are less helpful and do far less housework than
their foreign peers (同龄人) in all classes. But they are better about taking dirty dishes to the kitchen
after dinner.
   In addition, Japanese kids are more likely to dye their hair and carry cell phones than their
American and Chinese kids, according to another survey, by a Tokyo-based think-tank.
   Children in about 8 per cent of public school classrooms are so disorderly that teachers cannot
hold lessons, further recent reports show. Children refuse to sit, to listen or to stop talking.
   Older and middle-aged Japanese continue to have a solid sense of good manners and social
justice (正义) , says Professor Yoshina Hirano from Shinshu University, who was appointed to
direct the ministry's survey.
   Despite the knowledge of good manners among adults, the breakdown in manners may be
spreading, he said.
1. From the first paragraph, we can infer that ________.
   A) the Japanese government has gone bad                   B) kids in Japan have a bad memory
   C) kids in Japan seldom help their parents with housework
   D) kids in Japan are too busy to help others
2. The second paragraph seems to show us that ______.
   A) the education system of Japan is better than that of any other country
   B) shopkeepers in Japan are too kind to their customers
   C) Japanese kids often find wallets on their way to their schools
   D) Japanese adults in public places act politely to each other
3. The underlined phrase "made public "in this passage means ______.
   A) known to all                                         B) used by everyone
   C) related to everyone                                  D) found by everyone
4. It is implied in this passage that Japanese kids ______.
   A) spend much time doing their homework                   B) lead an advanced modern life
   C) have their hair cut too often                          D) often wash dishes after dinner
5. From the last three paragraphs we can conclude that ______.
   A) older and middle-aged Japanese should set examples to their kids
   B) Japanese schools are supposed to punish some rude kids
   C) it is difficult for Japan to prevent its kids from becoming impolite
   D) Japanese kids have become tired of staying at school
                            (FLTS 2000.10 .C D A B C )


                         Passage 39    Say "No" To Gain Power and Time
/Words: 340 Minutes; 6/
Listen carefully, working people, we would like to introduce you something that could save your
precious time and money! Best of all, it is free!
  It's "no".
  What do you ask? We'll say it again "No".
  Sweet and simple "no".
                                                                        39
   Say " no" at your office and see how quickly that pile of work on your desk disappears.
   "Saying 'no' to others means you are saying 'yes' to yourself," said C. Leslie Charles , a
professional speaker from East Lansing, Michigan.
   "Time is precious. People are spending money to buy time. And yet we are willing to give up our
time because we can't say 'no'. "
   Charles , a famous writer, said people who always say "yes" need to say "no" without
guilt (内疚) or fear of punishment.
   "I would rather have someone give me a loving 'no' than an obligated (强制的) 'yes' ," she said.
   Susie Watson says she feels "no" obligation to give an explanation when she says "no" either
socially or professionally. Does she feel guilty about it? "Not at all, "said Watson, who is director of
advertising and public relations at Timex Corp in Middlebury, Connecticut. "Most people are afraid
of saying 'no'. . My advice is to say 'yes' only if you don't mean 'no'. "
   Watson said "no" is the most effective weapon against wasting time. "Every year there are more
demands on your time. Other people are happy to use up your time, "Watson said. Time saving
appears to be "no's" greatest friend.
   "No" can be your new friend, a powerful tool to take back your life. "No" may even take you
further in the business world than "yes".
   "No" is power and strength. "No" now seems completely correct. "Saying 'no' isn't easy. But
finally it's greatly liberating," Charles said. But, he added, a "no" project needs to be worked on
every day because it is hard to change long-term habit.
   But, he also warns: "Don't go to extremes (极端). Don't find yourself saying 'no' to everything. In
return you should learn to hear ‘no’.”
1. The sentence "Saying 'no' to others means you are saying 'yes' to yourself" means _______.
   A) you can have more time to play with others
   B) you needn't care about other's feeling if you are happy
   C) you are selfish and treat others rudely
   D) you can deal with your business as you have planned
2. When you say "no" to others you should say it in a ____.
   A) secret way           B) polite way        C) proud way           D) guilty way
3. In Watson's opinion, people can save much time on condition that ____.
   A) they say "no" at a suitable time          B) they say "no" as much as possible
   C) they are afraid of saying "no"                  D) they make others angry at them
4. What does the sentence "Saying 'no' isn't easy" mean?
   A) It is difficult to change one's language.       B) It is difficult to refuse others' demands.
   C) It is difficult to say "no" correctly.          D) It is difficult to find a person to say "no" to.
6. If a person says "no" to everything, the result he or she receives may be that he or she ____.
   A) enjoys a wonderful life                         B) makes a lot of money
   C) faces difficulty in life                        D) forgets to say “yes’ in the end
                                       (FLTS 2000.12 D B A B C)


                               Passage 40     Thanksgiving Feast
/Words: 331 Minutes: 6/
                                                                          40
On the fourth Thursday in November, Americans celebrate the festival of Thanksgiving. This
festival is a time when the family comes together for a meal and gives thanks to God for the
blessings they have received. The first Thanksgiving festival was celebrated by the early American
settlers who gave thanks to God for their good harvest.
    In America, Thanksgiving is a family holiday. It is on that holiday that all the family members
make a special effort to get together. The feast is always held on Thursday and most people have a
four-day holiday from school and work. Thus they are able to travel a great distance to be with their
family.
    The Thanksgiving meal is traditionally turkey, which was the food for the first Thanksgiving.
The table is filled with fruits, walnuts (核桃) and many kinds of vegetables. For dessert the main
choice is usually pumpkin pie. The meal is a time for the members of the family to talk to each
other. There will be talking before the meal, during the meal and long after the meal.
    On Thanksgiving morning there are sporting events and parades in many cities to mark the day.
The family dinner is usually held in the afternoon around 4 o'clock. The mother will prepare the
meal and the father will carve the turkey. He will preside at the head of the table. The meal will
begin with a short prayer of thanksgiving to God for the blessings the family received. The father
will also thank the family for coming together on this day. During the meal there is plenty of food
for everyone present. The meal is a very joyful time. When the meal is over some will help
with the dishes and others will return to the living room to talk or watch television.
    In many ways the festival of Thanksgiving is similar to the Chinese festival of Mid-Autumn Day.
It is a time for the family to get together for dinner.
1. On Thanksgiving Day the family comes together ___.
    A) to have the Thanksgiving dinner
    B) to give thanks to God for the blessings they have received
    C) to talk with one another                                     D) All of the above.
2. Why does the writer say Thanksgiving is a family holiday in America?
    A) It is a holiday for those who have a family.
    B) People try to get back to be with their family wherever they are.
    C) People celebrate this holiday only at home and will not go out on this particular day.
    D) Each family has its own way of celebrating this holiday.
3. ___ was the food for the first Thanksgiving according to this passage.
    A) Turkey            B) Pumpkin pie              C) Walnuts            D) Wild bird
4. What is one similarity between Thanksgiving and Mid-Autumn Day in China?
    A) They are held at about the same time of the year.
    B) Family members make a special effort to get together.
    C) People eat the same traditional food on both days.
    D) The celebration activities are more or less the same.
5. Today is November 4th, Thursday. Which of the following is Thanksgiving Day?
    A) 18              B0 19               C) 25              D) 26
                                  (FLTS 2001.1 . D B A B C)



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