Organizing and Outlining Your Presentation Novella

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					                                                                   CHAPTER 6 Organizing Your Presentation

Chapter 6: Organizing and Outlining Your Presentation

Chapter Objectives and Integrator Guide
After reading and thinking about the chapter students should be able to:

 Objectives                                              Resources
 1. Compose your presentation with a                     In the Text:
    limited number of main points of                     Page References: pages 155-157; 178-180
                                                         Figure 6.7: Margins and Symbols Indicating Subordination.
    equal importance, and incorporate                    (p.179)
    subordination, division, and                         Figure 6.8: Outlining Principles of Subordination, Division,
    parallelism.                                         and Parallelism. (p. 180)

     Key Term: Parallel construction, principles of      IM Activities:
     outlining, principle of subordination, principle    Activity 6.1: Outline Scramble.
     of division, principle of parallelism.              Activity 6.2: The Principle of Parallelism.
 2. Think about how you might use the                    In the Text:
    six patterns of organization in your                 Page References: page 133-141
                                                         Try This: Identify Examples of Patterns. (p. 157)
    presentations.                                       Figure 6.1: Presentation Outline Using Time-Sequence
                                                         Pattern. (p. 158)
     Key Terms: Time-sequence pattern, spatial           Figure 6.2: Spatial Relations Pattern of Organization. (p.
     relations pattern, cause-effect pattern, topical    161)
     sequence pattern, problem-solution pattern,         Figure 6.3: Cause-Effect Organizational Pattern. (p. 167)
     Monroe’s Motivated Sequence.                        Figure 6.4: A Topical Sequence Pattern of Organization. (p.
                                                         Figure 6.5: The Problem-Solution Organization. (p. 170)
                                                         Figure 6.6: Monroe’s Motivated Sequence. (p. 175)
                                                         Culture Note: Cultural Differences in Organization. (p. 174)
                                                         Table 6.1: Patterns of Organization Linked to General
                                                         Purposes. (p. 174)

                                                         IM Activities:
                                                         Activity 6.4: Which Organization Works best?

 3. Draft a presentation outline, a key                  In the Text:
    word outline, and a formal sentence                  Page Reference: pages 180-147
                                                         Figure 6.9: A sentence Outline. (p. 182)
    outline.                                             Figure 6.10: Example Key Word Outline. (p. 182)
     Key terms: Preparation outline, formal
     sentence outline, general purpose, specific
     purpose, thesis statement, bibliography, key
     word outline.

                                                        IM 6 | 1
Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank for iSpeak

 4. Recognize the critical roles played by         In the Text:
    a presentation’s introduction,                 Page Reference: pages 178
    conclusion, and internal devices such          IM Activities:
    as transitions, signposts, previews, and       Activity 6.3: Transitions, Signposts, Internal Previews, and
    reviews.                                       Internal Summaries.

     Key term: Introduction, audience
     participation, relating the topic sentence,
     forecasting, brake light function, instant
     replay function, action ending function,
     transitions, signposts, internal previews,
     internal reviews.
 Other Resources:
     Beginning of chapter: Chapter objectives, opening narrative.
     End of Chapter: Bulleted summary, key terms, references, and Get Involved exercises.
     Video: Sample Speeches on the OLC.
     Glossary: On the OLC.
     Self Quizzes: On the OLC.
     PowerPoint Files: On the OLC (Teacher Area).


Purpose: The objective of this exercise is to help students understand the principle of
subordination in outlining.
Procedure: Distribute the outline scramble to your students and ask them to complete the
activity individually. After students have completed the activity, you can move straight to
debriefing or have students compare answers within small groups.
Debriefing: The solution depicted below has numbers corresponding to the sentences on the
        I.      4
        II.     9
                A. 8
                B. 2
                C. 7
        III.    3
                A. 1
                B. 6
                C. 10
        IV.     5
Remind students that most classroom presentations have up to three main points, that main
points are the important ones, and that the sub-points either provide detail or examples of the
main point and are, therefore, subordinate or “less than” the main points. The exercise helps
students select the most important points from among less important points.

                                                 IM 6 | 2
                                                        CHAPTER 6 Organizing Your Presentation

Purpose: To help students understand the principle of outlining called parallelism or parallel
Procedure: Show students the Parallelism Worksheet. Encourage them to review pp. 117-1l8
on parallelism, and have them convert the example into a sentence outline as illustrated in Figure
6.10 on page 132.
Debriefing: Point out that in a sentence outline with parallel construction each item in the
outline must be a complete sentence, not a phrase or incomplete sentence. Students can take
some liberties in converting the items above into sentences as long as I, II, and III are main
points and A and B are subordinate to I.

                                             IM 6 | 3
Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank for iSpeak

Outline Scramble Worksheet
Some of the sentences below are main points and some of the sentences are sub-points of an

outline. Your task is to arrange these sentences into an outline form with four main points, two of

which have three sub-points.

       1. To avoid a drunk driver, slow down until the driver pulls off the road.

       2. Tailgaters cause the second most frequently occurring accident.

       3. To correct these situations you should take the following precautions.

       4. Over four thousand deaths occur each year on our nation’s highways.

       5. By trying to follow these guidelines while driving, drivers can make our highways a

           safe and pleasant place to travel.

       6. To eliminate unwanted tailgaters, pull onto the shoulder and let him pass.

       7. Unsafe lane changes are the third most common case of accidents.

       8. Drunk drivers are the first major cause of auto accidents.

       9. Highway accidents have three main causes.

       10. Make lane changing safer by avoiding the inside fast lane and by being alert to

           surrounding traffic.

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                                                         CHAPTER 6 Organizing Your Presentation

                                  Parallelism Worksheet
Begin this exercise by reviewing information on parallelism on pp. 117-1l8 of your textbook.

Once you understand the principle of parallelism, review the outline below to see if the sentences

follow correct parallel form. If necessary, re-write the sentences to make them follow the

principle of parallelism.

                                      The Advantage of Giving Blood

               I.      Saves lives.

                            A. Hospitals provided with rare blood.

                            B. Large quantities of common blood types for hospitals.

               II.     Little time necessary.

               III.    Increases feelings of self-worth.

                                              IM 6 | 5
Instructor’s Manual and Test Bank for iSpeak

Purpose: To help students understand the role and function of transitions, signposts, internal
previews, and internal reviews in a presentation.
Procedure: First, have students review the section entitled “What Holds the Presentation
Together” on pages 126-127. The purpose would be to get the definitions of the four terms
firmly in mind before trying to find them in a presentation. Next, go to the presentation by David
Volavage at the conclusion of Chapter 11 on pages 246-248 and highlight the transitions,
signposts, internal previews, and internal reviews.
Debriefing: Make sure that students understand that these items are like road signs that warn
you what is coming, caution you to pay attention, and direct you on your way. A speech without
them is like a road with no signs: Difficult to navigate, hard to understand, and easy to get lost.

Purpose: The objective of this exercise is to teach students how to achieve a goodness of fit
between a topic and an organizational pattern.
Procedure: After reviewing the patterns of organization on pages 119-125, you should show or
distribute the form below so each student can complete the exercise independently.
Debriefing: After all of the students have completed their answers, the class should discuss the
factors that influence the choice of organizational patterns. The purpose of the speech is of
primary importance. Other factors influencing the choice of organizational pattern include the
audience’s interest and knowledge. Students will discover that more than one pattern of
organization could be used for most of the topics above, but don’t reach this conclusion until
they have defended more than one answer for some of the topics listed above. For teachers who
hate ambiguity, one could defend the following as the easiest-to-defend choices:
        1. Topic Sequence
        2. Cause-Effect (focusing on the cause in this case)
        3. Spatial Relations and Time Sequence (assembly in steps)
        4. Spatial Relations and Time Sequence (introduction to conclusion in order over time)
        5. Topic Sequence
        6. Plays themselves usually shown as Spatial Relations on a diagram
        7. Time Sequence (steps in preparation and implementation)
        8. Topical Sequence
        9. Topical Sequence
        10. Cause-Effect Pattern
The main point is to have good reasons for choosing a pattern of organization, reasons that link
speaker, topic, audience, and occasion in a united effort to communicate.

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                                                          CHAPTER 6 Organizing Your Presentation

                  Which Organization Should I Choose?
Examine the topics below and decide which pattern of organization would be the best choice for

that topic and our classroom audience. Choose from (a) a time-sequence pattern, (b) a topical-

sequence pattern, (c) a problem-solution pattern, (d) spatial relation pattern, or (e) a cause-effect

pattern of organization. Be prepared to defend your answer.

       ____1. The Benefits of Higher Education

       ____2. The Causes of Inflation

       ____3. Building a Birdhouse

       ____4. Organizing a Presentation

       ____5. Maintaining a Bicycle

       ____6. Explaining Football Plays

       ____7. Making an Omelet

       ____8. The Advantages of Team Sports

       ____9. My Objections to Higher Taxes

       ____10. How Chewing Tobacco Causes Cancer

                                               IM 6 | 7

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