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ecological

VIEWS: 38 PAGES: 3

  • pg 1
									                AN EFFECTIVE
                   MANAGEMENT TOOL
                The Ecological Land Classification Hierarchy is one of the information tools used to plan forest
                operations and prepare management plans in conformity with the principles of biodiversity conser-
                vation and sustainable development. The system enables forest managers to apply an integrated
                resource management approach to their planning activities. It is based on a forest heritage devel-
                opment perspective that should be adopted by all public and private forest managers and stake-
                holders.


PRINCIPAL PRODUCTS AND DOCUMENTS

                • Integrated forest inventory maps to a scale                     • Maps of southern Québec’s land regions
                  of 1:20,000 showing ecological types,                             and subregions to a scale of 1:1,250,000
                  surface deposits and drainage                                   • Maps of Québec’s bioclimatic domains and
                • Surficial deposit maps to a scale of 1:50,000                     vegetation zones
                • Land district maps to a scale of 1:250,000                      • Ecological classification reports by
                  and fact sheets                                                   bioclimatic domain
                • Maps of southern Québec’s regional                              • Field guides for identifying ecological types
                  landscapes to a scale of 1:1,250,000 and                          by land region
                  fact sheets
                __________
                Note: All these products, except for the map of bioclimatic domains and vegetation zones, cover southern Québec only.




                MINISTÈRE DES RESSOURCES NATURELLES                              The Ecological Land Classification Hierarchy and its deriv-
                DE LA FAUNE ET DES PARCS                                         atives were made possible by the efforts of many people
                                                                                 who have worked on this vast project over the years, and
                Direction des inventaires forestiers                             continue to do so. They include: Denis Alain, Christian
                880, chemin Sainte-Foy, 3e étage                                 Bédard, Jean-Pierre Berger, Jean-François Bergeron*,
                                                                                 Jacques Blouin, Hélène D’Avignon, André Faucher,
                Québec (Québec) G1S 4X4
                                                                                 Caroline Flaschner, Claude Gagné, Jocelyn Gosselin,
                Telephone : (418) 627-8669                                       Pierre Grondin*, Yves Landry, Pierre Leboeuf, Gaétan
                Toll-free : 1 877 9FORÊTS (1 877-936-7387)                       Lord, Anne Morissette, Jean Noël, Philippe Racine, Denis
                Fax : (418) 644-9672                                             Robert*, André Robitaille*, Normand Routhier, Jean-
                                                                                 Pierre Saucier*, Lynda Simard, Sylvie Tremblay, Éric
                www.mrnfp.gouv.qc.ca                                             Vaillancourt. Many other people were also involved in
                inventaires.forestiers@mrnfp.gouv.qc.ca                          data collection and analysis.

                                                                                 * Responsible for concept development and methods.
                                                                                                                                               CHRISTIANE LECLERC COMMUNICATION




                  Gouvernement du Québec
                Ministère des Ressources naturelles,
                de la Faune et des Parcs, 2003

                Distribution Code : 2003-3064
                 THE MRNFP’S FOREST
                      ECOSYSTEM INFORMATION                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Boreal vegetation zone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Continuous boreal forest

                      PROGRAM                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Balsam fir-white birch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Western balsam fir-white birch


                                  The purpose of the Ecological Land
                 Classification Hierarchy is to describe the diversity and
                 distribution of Québec’s ecosystems. It is one of the
                 numerous elements that make up the Forest
                 Ecosystem Information Program maintained by the
                 Ministère des Ressources naturelles, de la Faune et des
                 Parcs. The program also includes ecosystem mapping




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                 activities at different scales, as well as ecological and




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 HER
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  BOREAL
                 dendometric surveys and data compilations.




                                                                                                                                                                                                     ARCTIC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hills around Lac-Saint-Jean




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             NORT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VEGETATION ZONE
                 The diagram to the right illustrates the structure and




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Réservoir

                 interconnections of the Ecological Land Classification                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Pipmuacan




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ALTITUDINAL                                                                     Lac Étoile Hills
                 sensitive sectors. In recent years,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Note: Level not shown
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VEGETATION LEVEL
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RE39: Black spruce-sphagnum on very
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                poorly drained organic soil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Note: Forest type not shown
                                                                     THE ECOLOGICAL
                                                                         LAND CLASSIFICATION
                                                                         HIERARCHY




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    André Robitaille, MRNFP
                                                                BIOCLIMATIC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            VEGETATION
                                                                                                                        INTEREST
                                                                DOMAIN                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ZONE
                                                                                                                        Forests
                                                                An area characterized                                   • Analysis of the distribution and extent
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Large continental-scale area
                                                                by a particular type of                                   of forest fires and natural disturbances                                                                                                                                                                                            The Arctic vegetation zone is characterized                              characterized by its plant for-
                                                                vegetation in the final                                   (e.g. spruce budworm infestations)                                                                                                                                                                                                  by low-growth bush, grass, moss and                                      mation physiognomy.
                                                                stage of succession,                                    Land Use Planning                                                                                                                                                                                                                     lichen formations.
                                                                reflecting the balance                                  • Location and creation of provincial parks                                                                                                         VEGETATION




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Jean-Pierre Saucier, MRNFP
                                                                between climate and                                     Wildlife
                                                                potential vegetation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SUBZONE                                                                           INTEREST
                                                                                                                        • Distribution of bird nesting areas
                                                                on mesic sites.                                           (e.g. Atlas of Nesting Birds in Southern                                                                                                          A portion of a vegetation                                                         Forests
                                                                                                                          Québec)                                                                                                                                           zone characterized by the                                                         • General climatic research and links with
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            dominant vegetation                                                                 the major vegetation zones
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            physiognomy at the final                                                          • Research into wildlife distribution and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            stage of succession.                                                                large-scale migrations (e.g. caribou)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       The mixed forests cover the northern por-
                                                                                              André Robitaille, MRNFP




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       tion of the northern temperate vegetation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       zone.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Jean-François Bergeron, MRNFP
Jean-François Bergeron, MRNFP




                                                                                                                        Black spruce forests are characteristic of
                                                                                                                        the black spruce-moss domain.



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Some sectors of the boreal vegetation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            zone are characterized by the presence of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            large lakes and extensive areas of bare
                                                          A typical landscape in the                                                                                                                                                                                        rock.
                                                          eastern sugar maple-yellow
                                                          birch subdomain.

                                                                     BIOCLIMATIC SUBDOMAIN
                                                                     A portion of a bioclimatic domain exhibiting
                                                                     distinct vegetation patterns reflecting differ-                                                                                    LAND                                                                            LAND
                                                                     ences in precipitation types and levels.                                                                                           REGION                                                                          SUBREGION                                                                        INTEREST

                                                                                                                                                                                                        An area characterized                                                           A portion of a land                                                              Forests                                                             REGIONAL
                                                                                                                          A landscape charac-                                                           by the composition                                                              region where the vege-                                                           • Illustrates the distribution                                      LANDSCAPE                                                                                                  INTEREST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           of ecological types used
                                                                                                                          terized by extensive                                                          and dynamics of the                                                             tation growing on mesic                                                            for ecoforest photo-                                              An area characterized by
                                                                                                                          black spruce forests                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Forests
                                                                                                                          typical of the east-
                                                                                                                                                                                                        vegetation growing on                                                           sites is typical of either                                                         interpretation                                                    a recurrent arrangement                                                                                    • Constitution of
                                                                                                                          ern black spruce-                                                             mesic sites, and by the                                                         the bioclimatic domain                                                           • Identification of rules for                                       of the principal                                                                                             survey units for
                                André Robitaille, MRNFP




                                                                                                                          moss subdomain.                                                               distribution of ecologi-                                                        to which it belongs, or of                                                         the displacement and                                              permanent ecological                                                                                         ecoforest surveys
                                                                                                                          This subdomain is                                                             cal types within the                                                            more southerly or more                                                             origin of forest seeds
                                                                                                                          distinguished from                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 factors and vegetation.                                                                                    • Location of forest wetlands
                                                                                                                                                                                                        landscape.                                                                      northerly areas.                                                                   and plants seedlings                                                                                                                                                           likely to be disturbed by
                                                                                                                          its western counter-
                                                                                                                          part by its more                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Land Use Planning                                                                                                                                                                forest operations
                                                                                                                          abundant precipita-                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Location and creation of                                                                                                                                                     Land Use Planning
                                                                                                                          tion, among other                                                                                                                                                                                                                                provincial parks
                                                                                                                          things.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       • Potential for and limitations on
                                                                                                                                                                              André Robitaille, MRNFP




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Jean-François Bergeron, MRNFP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Wildlife                                                                                                                                                                         land use planning (farming,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         • Regional location of sites                                                                                                                                                     urban development, etc.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           suitable for wildlife                                                                                                                                                        • Planning of leisure and tourist
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (moose, white-tailed                                                                                                                                                           developments
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           deer, wolf, etc.)                                                                                                                                                            Wildlife
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Environmental analyses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Research on forest mosaics
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          resulting from interactions
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          between vegetation and
                   FROM FOREST TYPE                                                                                                                                                                     An ecological region in the northern por-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          natural disturbances.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Pierre Grondin, MRNFP




                                                                                                                                                                                                        tion of the black spruce-moss domain. In
                      TO VEGETATION                                                                                                                                                                     some places the forest cover is less dense,
                                                                                                                                                                                                        and frequent forest fires cause breaches in
                                                                                                                                                                                                        the canopy.
                      ZONE
                   The Ecological Land Classification Hierarchy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              A regional landscape com-
                   describes the diversity and distribution of                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               posed of rounded hills in the
                   ecosystems characteristic of Québec as a whole,                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           southern portion of the north-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ern temperate vegetation
                   from the hardwood forest landscapes in the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Ecological subregion formed by hillocks in                                                                zone.
                   extreme south of Québec to the Arctic tundra in                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 the northern temperate vegetation zone.
                   the north. It is composed of eleven levels, illus-
                   trated by maps to different scales, grouped
                   from south to north, with perfectly coordinated
                                                                                                                              Jean-Pierre Saucier, MRNFP




                   boundaries. The Hierarchy’s lower levels (e.g.
                   ecological type) provide information on local
                   forest ecosystem dynamics and give a detailed
                   overview of the forest. They can be used for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  André Robitaille, MRNFP




                   the preparation of silvicultural scenarios among
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                INTEREST
                   other things. The Hierarchy’s higher levels (e.g.
                                                                                                                                                           Sugar maple-basswood forest located in the
                   land region, vegetation zone) help situate                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Forests
                   Québec at the regional and continental level.
                                                                                                                                                           southern portion of the northern temperate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Forest management
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ALTIDUDINAL VEGETATION LEVEL
                                                                                                                                                           vegetation zone.
                   They are useful, for example, in producing sum-                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Silvicultural planning                                                             An area in which altitude has such a signifi-                                                                                                                          In the black spruce-moss domain, high altitude
                   mary analyses for forest planning and general                                                                                           FOREST TYPE                                                                                                          • Allowable annual cut                                                               cant impact on climate that it changes the                                                                                                                             has a significant impact on vegetation levels,
                   forest management strategies.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  calculations                                                                       structure and sometimes the type of vegeta-                                                                                                                            fostering the presence of ecological types usual-
                                                                                                                                                           Describes current vegetation                                                                                         • Research on growth and yield                                                       tion, causing it to resemble that of more                                                                                                                              ly found in more northerly bioclimatic domains,
                                                                                                                                                           based on physiognomy, tree                                                                                             tables by ecological type                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 such as the forest tundra.
                   The Ecological Land Classification Hierarchy                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      northerly regions.
                   takes into account certain ecological variables                                                                                         cover and species groups.                                                                                            Land Use Planning
                   related to the physical environment, climate                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Location of exceptional and
                   and vegetation. Some of its levels are climate-                                                                                                                                                                                                                rare forest ecosystems                                                             LAND DISTRICT
                   specific or vegetation-specific (vegetation                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Creation of nature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  interpretation trails
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     A sector characterized by a unique pattern of
                   zones), while others are based more on the                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        relief, geology, geomorphology and regional
                   physical environment (land districts) or a combi-
                                                                                                                                                           ECOLOGICAL TYPE                                                                                                      Wildlife
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     vegetation.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Location of hunting areas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       André Robitaille, MRNFP




                   nation of all these elements (regional land-                                                                                            A local sector exhibiting a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Research into wildlife habitats                                                    INTEREST
                   scapes).                                                                                                                                permanent combination
                                                                                                                                                           of potential vegetation                                                                                                                                                                                   Forests
                   The diagram to the right presents definitions of                                                                                        and physical features.                                                                                                                                                                                    • Planning and management of forest roads
                   the Hierarchy’s eleven levels and describes their                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 • Limitations to forest operations (presence of steep
                   utility for forestry, land use planning and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         slopes, hydrographic density, etc.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Location of gravel and sand pits                                                                                                          A high altitude land district characterized
                   wildlife purposes.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            by its hilly relief, fairly high altitude,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Land Use Planning                                                                                                                           recurrent rocky outcrops and thin soil
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Regional development plans, municipal urban                                                                                               cover.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lina Breton, MRNFP




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       development plans
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     • Integrated management for drainage basins,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       especially with regard to the hydrological behaviour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       of watercourses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Black spruce trees are characteristic of the                                                                                      Wildlife
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   black spruce-sphagnum forests typically                                                                                           • Location and distribution of northern plant and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   found in poor, badly drained areas in the                                                                                           animal species in southern Québec
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   southern sector of the boreal vegetation
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   zone.

								
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