Human Trafficking - Modern-Day Slavery

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					  Human Trafficking – Modern Day Slavery
                  English Subject Curriculum

Culture, society and literature

• The aims of the studies are to enable pupils to

   – elaborate on and discuss a number of international and global
               Human Trafficking
What is human trafficking?

• An illegal and criminal trade in
  human beings carried out by
  criminals who by force deprive
  men, women and children of
  their freedom and turn them
  into slaves, making them work
  or provide various services
  without their consent (and pay)

• Human trafficking can take
  place across national borders
  as well as within a country
  A UN Definition of Human Trafficking
The United Nations (UN) defines
human trafficking as:

• The recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring, or receipt of
  persons (the movement).
• By means of threat or use of force, or other forms of coercion, of
  abduction, of fraud, of deception, of abuse of power or a position of
  vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to
  achieve the consent of a person having control over another person
  (the means).
• For the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation includes, at a minimum,
  the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual
  exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to
  slavery, servitude or the removal of organs (the purpose).
       The Scope of the Problem
               How Many Fall Victim to Human Trafficking?

• Due to the illegal nature of this kind of criminal activity, it is difficult to
  give an accurate estimate

• UN believe that 4 million people fell victim to human trafficking in

• The US Government estimates that 800.000-900.000 people are
  trafficked across borders every year
    – 1/3 of those trafficked into the USA every year are children

• Trafficking in human beings is the third largest illegal activity in the
  world, only surpassed by the trafficking of drugs and weapons -
  some believe that it will soon surpass both illegal trade in drug and
           Who Are the Victims?
• Men, women and children

• The majority of victims are
  believed to be women and
  children – a majority of these
  are believed to end up as sex

• Most of the victims are poor,
  unemployed and/or

• Many are from Eastern
  Europe, Asia or Africa
           Who Are the Traffickers?
Human traffickers may be:
• Part of a local, national or international
  criminal groups or organizations
• Networks of organized crime
• Individual freelancers

Traffickers are not always
• People are often ”trafficked” by
    someone they know:

           •   Parents
           •   Grandparents
           •   Uncles and aunts
           •   Other family members and relatives
           •   Boyfriends
           •   Spouses (ektefeller)
     –   A neighbour
     –   A friend or acquaintance
    How Do People Become Victims of Human Trafficking?

•   They are deceived by false
    promises of:
     –   a good job
     –   an education
     –   a marriage
     –   a better life

•   They are kidnapped or abducted

•   They are sold by:
     –   family members
     –   friends
     –   acquaintances
     –   neighbours
     –   boyfriends (girlfriends?)
    What Happens to Victims of Human Trafficking?
                       Part I
The sex industry:
• Many are sold into the sex industry
   where they are forced to work as:
     –   Prostitutes
     –   Strippers
     –   Actors in pornographic films
     –   Participants in live-sex shows
     –   Etc.

•   Forced labour:
     –   Domestic servants
     –   Agriculture – farm workers
     –   Soldiers (African children)
     –   Sweatshops
     –   Factories
     –   Begging
     –   Restaurants
     –   Forestry
     –   Etc.
         What Happens to Victims of Human
                Trafficking? Part II
•   Involuntary human organ donors:
     –   People are abducted and harvested for
         vital organs such as:
           •   Kidneys
           •   Liver
           •   Heart
           •   Lungs
           •   Eyeballs
           •   Etc.

•   Abducted and sold off as brides:

     –   Young girls in Asia, especially in the
         rural parts of China, are abducted and
         sold off as brides to bachelors

•   Abduction of children
     –   In China a large number of children are
         abducted every year
     –   Many of them are sold to childless
     How Are Victims Controlled by the Traffickers?

Victims are controlled by their
traffickers in many ways:

•    Beating, starving, and raping their victims

•    Removal of passports, ID cards, and other

•    Isolating victims by keeping them locked up and not
     allowing any outside contact

•    Subjecting victims to debt bondage, i.e. making
     them work to pay off debt they are told they owe for
     travelling and living expenses

•    Forcing them to take drugs

•    Threatning them and their families with injury and

•    Threatning to shame them by telling the victim’s
     family or friends what they are doing
    Why Do People Fall Victim to Human Trafficking?

•    Poverty
•    Unemployment
•    Abusive family situation
•    Lack of education
•    Lack of economic opportunities in
•    Deception by people they trust
•    Armed conflict or war situations
•    Consumerism – hunger for
     material well being, fuelled by
     media – create a desire or need
     for more money
•    Hope for a better life – to fulfill
     their dreams
•    Etc.
By Nina Sandström Angelsen

  Selbu videregående skole

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