Atmosphere Web quest

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					Atmosphere Web quest
    1. What are the four main layers
         of the atmosphere?
•   Troposphere
•   Stratosphere
•   Mesosphere
•   Thermosphere
    – Ionosphere
    – Exsosphere
2. Which layer is closest to space?
• Exosphere (upper layer of the
  thermosphere)
3. Which layer is the hottest layer?
• Thermosphere (reaching temperatures of
  1200 C)
4. Which layer is the coldest layer?
• Mesosphere
     5. What and where are the
    ionosphere and exosphere?
• Thermosphere
• Ionosphere: is the lower layer of the
  thermosphere. This is where earth’s
  communication is located along with the
  aurora borealis.
• Exosphere: is the upper layer of the
  thermosphere. Satellites are found in this
  layer.
6. Draw a picture of the atmosphere…….write or draw a picture of one
important fact about each sphere. (make sure you pay attention to the spacing
of each sphere……one sphere is the smallest…….two are about the same in
size……and one is the largest).
     7. Why is the atmosphere
           important?
• The atmosphere is an important part of
  what makes Earth livable. It blocks some
  of the Sun's dangerous rays from reaching
  Earth. It traps heat, making Earth a
  comfortable temperature.
8. What gases are most common in Earth’s
atmosphere? Give the percentages.

• nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other
  gases (1%)
 9. What is the greenhouse effect
     (describe how it works)?
• Energy from the Sun that makes its way to
  the Earth’s surface can have trouble
  finding its way back out to space. This is
  because of a natural process called the
  greenhouse effect. Without the
  greenhouse effect, Earth’s temperature
  would be below freezing.
10. What are the main greenhouse
             gases?
•   Carbon Dioxide
•   Water Vapor
•   Nitrous oxide
•   Methane
11. Describe how each of the gases
contribute to the greenhouse effect and how
do they get into our atmosphere?
• Carbon Dioxide:
• it helps trap heat coming from the Sun in
  our atmosphere through the greenhouse
  effect. Without carbon dioxide in our air,
  the Earth would be very cold .
• Humans, animals, burning things, engines
  of cars and trucks.
               Methane
• Methane is a greenhouse gas. That
  means it helps make Earth warm. But if
  there was too much methane, that could
  make our planet too warm.
• Cow burps, Farming rice, garbage dumps,
  Termites, and Swamps
               Nitrous Oxide
• Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
  Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide molecules form
  during combustion in car engines, power plants,
  and factories. They can contribute to smog when
  combined with oxygen molecules and the fumes
  from paint and gasoline (called Volatile Organic
  Compounds). They can also contribute to acid
  rain if mixed with water vapor turning into nitric
  acid. Nitrogen dioxide will break apart in sunlight
  and the free oxygen atoms latch onto oxygen
  molecules forming dangerous ground-level
  ozone.
     12. What is air pollution?
• solid particles and chemicals in the air
    13. Describe 2 types of air
pollution found in out atmosphere?
• Primary and Secondary
• Primary pollution is put directly to the air,
  such as smoke and car exhausts.
  Secondary pollution forms in the air when
  chemical reactions changes primary
  pollutants. The formation of tropospheric
  ozone is an example of secondary air
  pollution.
 14. When did air pollution begin?
(Is this just a recent development?)
• Air pollution is not new. As far back as the
  13 th century, people started complaining
  about coal dust and soot in the air over
  London, England. Since the beginning of
  the industrial revolution in the late 1700s,
  we have been changing the Earth’s
  atmosphere and its chemistry. As industry
  spread across the globe, so did air
  pollution.
15. What is primary and secondary
           air pollution?
• Primary pollution is put directly to the air,
  such as smoke and car exhausts.
  Secondary pollution forms in the air when
  chemical reactions changes primary
  pollutants. The formation of tropospheric
  ozone is an example of secondary air
  pollution.
Troposphereic Ozone………
    **What two places is ozone found?
• Troposphere and stratosphere
**What causes troposphereic
ozone?
• In the troposphere, ozone is NOT wanted! It can
  actually do a lot of damage.
• Ozone that increases because of certain human
  activities does become a problem at ground
  level and this is what we think of as 'bad' ozone.
  With increasing populations, more automobiles,
  and more industry (power plants and refineries
  in particular), there's more ozone in the lower
  atmosphere. Since 1900, the amount of ozone
  near the Earth's surface has more than doubled.
     **Is the ozone found in the
 troposphere bad for us (explain)?
• Smog can damage lung tissues, impair an
  athlete's performance, create more
  frequent attacks for individuals with
  asthma, cause eye irritation, chest pain,
  coughing, nausea, headaches and chest
  congestion. It can even worsen heart
  disease, bronchitis, and emphysema.
 **What’s the common name for
     troposphereic ozone?
• SMOG
17. What are the global effects of
air pollution? Explain why the two
are a concern.
• Climate Change
• Warm near the equator and cold at the poles, our planet
  is able to support a variety of living things because of its
  diverse regional climates. The average of all these
  regions makes up Earth's global climate. Climate has
  cooled and warmed throughout Earth history for various
  reasons. Rapid warming like we see today is unusual in
  the history of our planet. The scientific consensus is that
  climate is warming as a result of the addition of heat-
  trapping greenhouse gases which are increasing
  dramatically in the atmosphere as a result of human
  activities.
               Human Health
• People have no choice but to breathe the air
  around them. When it is polluted, they breathe
  in ozone, particles and harmful gases that can
  hurt their lungs, heart, and overall health. Air
  pollution can cause coughing, burning eyes,
  and breathing problems. Fortunately, people
  usually start to feel better as soon as the air
  quality improves, but not always.
• Increase breathing problems in individuals with
  asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema.
           Ozone Hole…
      Explain why this is a concern.
• Ozone in the stratosphere protects us from
  ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. The ozone
  layer is sort of like sunscreen for planet
  Earth. It absorbs most of the incoming UV
  "light" before it reaches the ground.
• This is causing health problems: cancer
• Warming the Earth
    What is causing the hole?
• Various chemicals that humans release
  into the atmosphere help cause the hole
  When did scientist discover the
          ozone hole?
• 1970
• Hole was found over the poles (in the
  winter)
 19. What is Global Warming?
• Warming of the Earth’s climate.
  20. What is the effect of global
            warming?
• Earth’s climate is warming. During the
  20th Century Earth’s average temperature
  rose 0.6° Celsius (1.1°F). Scientists are
  finding that the change in temperature has
  been causing other aspects of our planet
  to change
 21. How has earth’s temperature
  changed over the last century?
• During the 20th Century Earth’s average
  temperature rose 0.6° Celsius (1.1°F).
22. List the effects of climate
change due to global warming (that
we are seeing now).
•   Sea Level Rising
•   Arctic sea ice is melting
•   Glacier and permafrost is melting
•   Sea surface temperature are warming
•   Heavier rainfall causing flooding in many regions
•   Extreme drought
•   Ecosystems are changing
•   Hurricanes more frequent and strength
•   More frequent heat waves
•   Warmer temperatures are affecting human health
•   Seawater is becoming more acidic
23. What do they predict will happen in
the future due to global warming and
climate change?
• There will be more global warming is in our future
  according to the results of computer models summarized
  by the IPCC. For the next two decades warming of about
  0.2° Celsius is projected. If we continue to emit as many,
  or more, greenhouse gases, this will cause more
  warming during the 21st Century than we saw in the 20th
  Century. During the 21st Century, various computer
  models predict that Earth’s average temperature will rise
  between 1.8° and 4.0° Celsius (3.2° and 7.2° F)
  depending largely on how humans change the ways they
  live on the planet.
   24. What is acid rain, and explain the effect
   it has on our environment.
• Acid rain is a general term used to describe different
  kinds of acidic air pollution. Although some acidic air
  pollutants return directly back to Earth, a lot of it
  returns in rain, snow, sleet, hail, mist or fog, which is
  why we call it acid rain
• Acid rain can have harmful impacts on the ecosystems
  in the environment. It acidifies the soil and water
  where it falls, damaging or killing plants and animals.
  Surface water acidification can lead to a decline in,
  and loss of, fish populations and other aquatic species
  including frogs, snails and crayfish. Acid rain affects
  trees, usually by weakening them through damage to
  their leaves.

				
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posted:9/23/2012
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