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B, Zn and Temperate Fruits

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Role of Boron and Zinc in Temperate Fruits with Special Reference to Apple

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									WELCOME
               Credit Seminar

   Name of the Speaker : Mumtaz Ahmad Ganie

Regd. No.           :    2010-A-860-M

 Course No.         :    SS-691

 Date of Seminar    :    Nov-23-2011
      Title of Seminar

•Role of Micronutrients
   (Boron & Zinc) in
 Temperate Fruits With
  Special Reference to
         Apple
           Micronutrients
•   Iron (Fe)
•   Manganese (Mn)
•    Zinc (Zn)
•   Copper (Cu)
•   Boron (B)
•   Molybdenum (Mo)
•   Nickel (Ni) and
•   Chlorine (Cl)
GLOBAL STATUS OF BORON AND ZINC

Zinc deficiency is widespread throughout the
  world causing economic losses on a number
  of crops.                     (Swietlik, 2002)
Low B soils are prevalent globally.
                              (Shorrocks, 1997)
World-wide, boron deficiency is more
 extensive than deficiency of any other plant
 micronutrient.
           (Gupta 1979; Reisenauer et al., 1973).
  Deficiency Symptoms of Boron in
               Fruits
Internal Corking of Apple     External Corking of Apple
• when deficiency occurs
   later than 8 weeks after
   petal fall




                              • When deficiency occurs early
                                in the growing season


                                    Agfact second edition 2004
Internal Cork of Pear
               Contd…..
                      • Deformed Fruit




• Cracking of Apple
Fruit Deformation Due to B deficiency
                                     Contd….




Young McIntosh apples           Cracking of apricots       Boron deficiency can cause
develop a “russet” which        due to boron deficiency.   deformities in apples. There
frequently cracks. The fruits   There may not be much      may be little
do not recover.                 corky tissue present.      cracking or cork. The fruit fails
                                                           to develop or size normally.


                                                                Benson et al. (nd)
                          Contd….
Blossom blast. Shortly after the   On Italian prune, boron-deficient
bud blooms, it wilts and dies.     leaves are small, narrow, and
This is typical Symptom of boron   constricted at the base. The
deficiency in pear.                midrib is usually enlarged.




                                              Benson et al. (nd)
                        Contd…..
A boron-deficient Thompson
Seedless cluster shows reduced
fruit-set, Shot berries and
necrosis of some branching.




                                   Christensen et al. 2006
Deficiency Symptoms of Zn in Apple
Chlorosis in Apple Leaves    Rosette in apple




                Dart, 2007             Brien, 2005
                      Contd….
Increasingly severe zinc deficiency in apricot leaves. Both
color and size are affected.




                                               Benson et al. (nd)
In Fruits, B plays Important Roles in
            following Processes
Photosynthesis
Respiration
Translocation
Flowering
Pollen Germination and its Growth
Fruit Set
Disease resistance
Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality
   Effect of B on Leaf B Conc., Photosynthesis and
     Enzymatic Changes in Leaves of Apple Trees
               Leaf B   Leaf      Net    Stomatal      Activity in (Unit/mg) of
Treatmen       Conc.  Chloroph Photosyn Conduct
    t         (mg/Kg)    yll     thetic    ance
                      Content     rate    (mol m-   Catalase     GR         SOD
                       (mg/gD (µmolCO      2S-1)

                         W)        -2 -1
                                2m S )
Soil B        42b     2.03b    12.2b     0.20b      15.6b      3.7b      86a
Applicatio
n (2g/tree)
Foliar B      23a     1.51a    7.5a      0.11a      7.9a       0.09a     91a
Applicatio
n (4 times)
(0.03%)

Control       21a     1.42a    7.8a      0.09a      8.5a       0.06a     90a




                                                            Wojcik et al., 2008
    Effect of B on Fruit Set, Yield and Quality of Apple

Treatment                            Yield     Mean Fruit    TSS (%)    Acidity
               Fruit Set (%)
                                     (Kg/tree) Weight (g)               (%)
                   DAF
               14      28       42

Soil B        36.2a   15.3a   7.2a
Application
                                     4.3b 226b               13.6b      0.72
                                                                        b
Foliar B      40.2a   25.3 15.2               191a           12.5a      0.65a
Application                          6.8c
                      b    b

Control       39.4a   11.4a   6.9a   3.1a     188a           12.4a      0.63a




                                                            Wojcik et al., 2008
   Effect of B Application on fruit set and
             yield of Elstar Apple
 Treatment                    Fruit Set (%)               Yield (Kg/tree)   Mean Fruit wt
                                                                                (g)
                   2 wafb       4 wafb         6 wafb
                                                         199   199    199   199   199   199
                  199 199 199 199 199 199                 4     5      6     4     5     6
                   5   6   5   6   5   6
Control           18.   16.   13.8 12.        10.   5.0a 12.1 6.0a 15.6 129 160. 130.
                  3a    0a    a    0a         6a         a         a    .3b 0a   3b
Soil B App.       18.   15.   13.3 13.        11.   4.5a 12.4 6.1a 16.7 131 156. 130.
                  7a    0a    a    0a         3a         a         a    .0b 0a   3b
Foliar B Sprays   20.   14.   14.8 10.        11.   4.0a 11.9 5.8a 15.8 126 155. 128.
before Bloom      2a    0a    a    3a         5a         a         a    .7b 3a   3b

B sprays after    25.   16.   20.3 14.        15.   9.7b 14.2 8.3b 19.4 116 152. 120.
Bloom             7b    3a    b    3a         8b         b         c    .0a 0a   3a



                                                                  Wojcik et al., 1999
  Effect of B Application on incidence of
  physiological disorders of Elstar Apple
   Treatment         Firmness (Kg)       %age of Apples       %age of Apples with
                                          with Bitterpit      Internal Breakdown


                  1994 1995     1996   1994 1995     1996     1994   1995   1996

Control           5.4b   4.7b   5.5b   3.3a   10.2   3.0a     3.7a   3.5b   3.3b
                                              b
Soil B App.       5.6b   5.0c   5.9c   3.0a   3.6a   1.5a     3.5a   2.1a   1.0a

Foliar B Sprays   5.3b   4.7b   5.4b   3.4a   9.6b   3.4a     3.3a   4.0b   3.5b
before Bloom
B sprays after    4.3a   3.3a   5.1a   5.1b   14.5   9.0b     6.4b   7.1c   7.7c
Bloom                                         c


                                                            Wojcik et al., 1999
            Effect of Boron on Rate of
          Photosynthesis in Sweet Cherry
Treatment     Chla        Chlb         Chla /      Chl         Car Total Chl Total /
                                       Chlb        Total                 Car Total

B1 (full Bloom) 6.20c     1.89b        3.30ab 8.09c            1.44c 5.62bc

B2 (Full & 5wafb) 1.50a   0.50a        2.99a       2.00a       0.37a        5.47b

Control       2.69b       0.74a        3.65b       3.43b       0.77b        4.43a


    Chl – chlorophyll; Car – carotenoid. In each column, means followed by the
    same letter are not significantly different (P > 0.05).


                                            Modified after Thurzo et al., 2010
 Effect of Boron on Respiration in Pear
          Fruits During Storage




      1      2      3       4   5   1   2      3     4   5
                 Months                     Months
                                        Xuan et al., 2003
CA = 5% CO2, 2% O2 and -0.50C
Effect of Boron application on Ethylene Production
            in Pear Fruits During Storage




                                    Xuan et al., 2003
Effect of Boron on Disorders of Pear in
           Storage Conditions




                            Xuan et al., 2003
 Effect of Foliar B application on pollination in
                   Almond trees
                              Pollen tube growth 48h after
%age of pollen germination    Pollination




                                         Nyomora et al., 2000
Effect of Foliar B application on fruit set and
            yield of Almond trees
   Initial Fruit Set            Final Fruit Set




                               Nyomora et al., 2000
Effect of Boron on Pollination in Pear
Pollen Germination %   Pollen tube length (µm)




                           Lee et al., 2009
Effect of late season B spray on Fruit Set of Sweet
                       Cherry




                            Usenik and Stampar, 2007
Seasonal Variation of Temperature at
       the experimental site




6th April to 30th April 2003, Vertical arrow represents 1st Bloom of Sweet Cherry
                                            Usenik and Stampar, 2007
Effect of B as fall foliar spray in Almond on
                    Fruit set
       Butte Cultivar        Mono Cultivar




                          Nyomora and Brown. 1997
Effect of B as fall foliar spray in Almond on
    Nut Yield Per Tree   Yield (No. of Nuts Per Tree)




                          Nyomora and Brown. 1997
Effect of Foliar Applied B on Prune Fruit
                   Set
     Marysville              Gridley




                                  Brown. 1996
     Interaction Effect of Soil and Foliar Application
         of B on Physical Parameters of Berries
        Treatment               Berry Size mm2   Shot Berries (%)     No. of Berries/
                                                                      Bunch
Soil (Kg B/ha) Foliar B (ppm)

0              0                     135.00a          21.20d               96.5a
8              0                     196.00e           6.00a              114.1c
12             0                     190.00d           8.00a              106.6b
0              200                   162.00b           15.00c              97.4a
8              200                  202.00f            12.00b             120.0c
12             200                   187.00cd          6.00a              114.00c
0              400                   180.00c           8.00a              117.5c
8              400                   192.00e           13.30b             110.6b
12             400                   184.00c           11.00b             97.90a
LSD (0.05%)                            4.64             2.42               6.10

                                                                    Shah, 2004
   Interaction Effect of Soil and Foliar Application
       of B on Physical Parameters of Berries
            Treatment             Test Weight (g)/ 50 Berries   Yield Kg/ Vine
Soil (Kg B/ha)   Foliar B (ppm)

       0                 0                  38.00a                  1.68
       8                 0                  72.50f                  2.76
       12                0                  68.20e                  2.68
       0                200                 43.34b                  2.20
       8                200               80.00g                    3.00
       12               200                 64.00d                  2.52
       0                400                 48.20c                  2.27
       8                400                71.30ef                  2.62
       12               400                 61.50d                  2.43
LSD (0.05%)                                 3.371                   0.167

                                                                 Shah, 2004
       Interaction Effect of Soil and Foliar Application of B on
                     Quality Parameters of Berries
Treatment        Juice Content Acidity (%) TSS (%) Total Sugars Non
                                                                Reducing
Soil (Kg   Foliar B   (%)                             (%)
                                                                  Sugars (%)
B/ha)      (ppm)
0          0          39.00   1.87        12.00       13.30       3.10
8          0          65.00   1.38        15.00       17.50       4.10
12         0          60.60   1.43        14.40       17.23       3.90
0          200        47.00   1.71        12.90       14.90       3.16
8          200        70.00   1.05        16.00       18.10       4.70
12         200        58.20   1.50        14.00       16.63       3.70
0          400        51.20   1.60        13.20       15.50       3.40
8          400        63.00   1.41        14.86       17.40       4.30
12         400        54.50   1.58        13.50       16.30       3.60
LSD                   3.231   0.090       0.374       0.463       0.383
(0.05%)
                                                            Shah, 2004
  Effect of B and Some Cultural practices
              on Yield of Grape
   Treatments          Yield      Cluster          Total        Berry weight
                     (kg/vine)   Weight (g)   Berries/Cluster        (g)

Control               13.74a     429.44cde       111.27b
                                                                  4.92a
Cluster Thinning      8.58b       384.58e        108.01b           4.72ab
Boron                 12.57a     392.87de        120.83ab          4.31ab
Topping               14.03a     438.37bcde      130.47ab          4.25b

Cluster Thinning +    13.23a     506.55abc       141.34ab          4.71ab
Boron
Cluster Thinning +   11.17ab     511.82ab        144.33ab          4.39ab
Topping
Boron + Topping                  466.82bcd       134.23ab          4.21b
                     14.94a
Cluster Thinning +   11.71ab                                       4.28ab
Boron + Topping
                                 549.01a       158.64a
                                      Adopted from Kamilogalu, 2011
Effect of foliar application of Ca and B on incidence of
       physiological disorders and fruit yield of strawberry
  Treatment       Albinism        Fruit        Grey      Marketable
                incidence (%) malformation   mould (%)   fruit yield
                                   (%)                    (g/plant)

Ca spray           6.7b         10.9a          1.3b       168.4c
B spray           14.8a          3.4b          4.8a       161.3b
Ca + b spray       6.5b          3.1b         1. 2b       179.2d

Control           15.1a         12.4a          5.2a       149.3a
(water spray)

                                Modified after Singh et al., 2006
  Effect of foliar treatments of B on fruit quality of
                      sweet cherry




B1 spray at full bloom, B2 spray at 5wafb   Source; Nagy et al., 2008
both @ 0.15Kg Solubor/ha
   Effect of B on some physical fruit Properties of
                     Persimmon
                     Yield (Kg/tree)      Fruit Weight (g)
Treatments
                 2006        2007      2006       2007


Control          20.5B       22.0B     82.1A      90.9B


Boric acid       24.6A       27.5A     91.2A      101.9A


                          Modified after Fatah et al., 2008
Fall Foliar B Sprays in Grapes prevents B Deficiency
            “Hen and Chicken Disease”

Incidence of Symptoms        Severity of Symptoms




                                 Christensen et al. 2006
In Fruits, Zn plays Important Roles in
     following Processes
Photosynthesis
Flowering
Fruit Set
Disease resistance
Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality
           Effect of Different treatments of ZNSO4 on Leaf Area
               Chlorophyll index and Growth of Apple Trees
     Treatment          Leaf Area (cm2)   Chlorophyll index     Current Year’s
                                               (SPAD)            Growth (cm)
T1 (Conventional            19.07              33.00                20.43
Frtilization) Control
T2 (RFD except Zn)          23.40              34.66                23.20
T1+ Trunk inj. Of Zn        36.32              40.74                27.28
(1.0%)
T2 + Inj (1.0%)             39.07              41.40                30.93
T1 + Zn Broadcast           31.68              37.48                26.82
T2 + Zn Broadcast           34.52              40.32                32.52
T1 + Zn Spray (0.5%)        34.10              38.38                31.82
T2 + Zn Spray               40.61              39.76               34.69
T1 + Deep Placement         34.42              37.50                26.05
T2 + Deep Placement        44.62              42.88                 32.38

                                                       Sadaghiani et al. 2002
      Effects of Various Methods of Nutrient (N, Zn) applications on
              Yield & Fruit Quality (at harvest) of Apple Trees
Treatments             Yield (Kg/Tree)       Fruit Weight (g)   Russeting (cm2/Fruit)

Control                         35                   175                3.5
Soil N                          43                   182                 4.3

Soil Zn                         38                   178                3.4
Soil N + Zn                     44                   177                 4.1

Foliar N                        46                   194                 5.4

Foliar Zn                       41                   178
                                                                        3.3
Foliar N + Zn                   45                   196                 4.2

Soil + Foliar N + Zn                                                     4.5
                               49                   202
LSD                             6.6                  12.5               1.04


                                         Modified after Amiri and Fallahi, (nd)
      Zn Variation in
     Season in Apple
          Leaves




•Left : Normal Leaf
•Right : Little Leaf




                        Wang, et al., (nd)
Effect of Foliar Zn on Leaf Zn Conc. In
       Golden Delicious Apples




                                 Brien, 2005
      Effect of Zn and B on Flowering, Fruit Set and
                Fruit Yield in Sweet Cherry.
Variety   Treatment   No. Of     No. Of      No. Of      Fruit Yield/ Fruit
                      Blossom    Fruits      Fruits at   Branch (g) Weight
                                 4wafb       Harvest                  (g/Fruit)
          Control     160 ± 32   138 ± 30    65 ± 10     550 ± 92     8.0 ± 0.4

New       Zn + B      153 ± 21   142 ± 18    70 ± 5      595 ± 51     8.5 ± 0.7
Star      (spring)
          Control     178 ± 17   163 ± 26    118 ± 19    585 ± 74     5.1 ± 0.3

Giorgia   Zn + B      216 ± 25   204 ± 22    132 ± 20    587 ± 68     4.5 ± 0.3
          (spring)
          Control     126 ± 11   94 ± 12     68 ± 14     453 ± 91     6.7 ± 0.4

Bing      Zn + B      115 ± 19   108 ± 21    76 ±15      492 ± 89     6.6 ± 0.2
          (spring)
                                            Usenik and Stampar, 2002
     Effect of foliar application of chelated Fe, Zn & Mn on
                    the yield of Grape Cultivars
Treatments            17Thomson Seedless                        Roumy Red

                No. of     Cluster Wt    Yield /     No. of     Cluster Wt    Yield /
               Clusters/       (g)      Vine (Kg)   Clusters/       (g)      Vine (Kg)
                 Vine                                 Vine
Control         11.00b      210.67b      2.245a      9.83b       182.83b      1.822b


Foliar Spray    16.17a     232.17ab      3.755a      17.00a     229.00ab      3.852a
(two times)


Foliar Spray   13.00ab     241.50ab      3.257a      17.33a     225.33ab      3.857a
(one time)


Foliar Spray   13.67ab      277.50a      3.835a      16.50a      244.50a      4.005a
(three
times)

                                                                Bacha et al., 1997
      Effect of foliar application of chelated Fe, Zn &
        Mn on the Berry Quality of Grape Cultivars
Treatments               Thomson Seedless            ,Roumy Red


                      TSS (%)     Acidity (%)   TSS (%)    Acidity (%)

Control               21.8b          0.950a     19.3b         0.445a

Foliar Spray (two     23.1a          0.953a     20.0ab        0.449a
times)


Foliar Spray (one     23.2a          0.950a     20.3ab       0.449ab
time)


Foliar Spray (three   23.2a          0.973a     21.2a         0.365b
times)


                                                     Bacha et al., 1997
                 Conclusion
 soil application of Boron in apple is more
 effective than pre bloom foliar application.
 Post bloom foliar spray of boron is much
 effective in increasing Fruit set, Yield and Fruit
 Quality.
 Foliar boron application is remarkably effective
 in increasing fruit set in almond.
 Fall foliar method of B application is a valid
 method of enhancing tissue boron levels in the
 subsequent spring. This is true for any sp. For
 which Boron is freely mobile.
                  Contd…
 In acidic conditions deep placement of Zinc
 fertilizer is best for overcoming dormancy.
 Spray application of zinc as ZnSO4 is
 recommended only in low concentrations in
 order to prevent foliar injury.

								
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