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					   “e - Government”

Trends, Implications, and Issues
                        Session Outline

• Government Reform &
  Electronic Service Delivery
• The ESD Model
• Service Canada
• Management
  Implications/Issues
                 Government Reform:
                      A ‘90’s Theme

• “Re-inventing Government” reforms are
  occurring in most Western countries

• Driven by:
  – Budgetary pressures/fiscal responsibility
  – Economic health/national competitiveness
  – Public expectations
                           Government Reform:
                                Driving Forces
• Politicians                     • IT Industry
   – program review -                – electronic infrastructure, new
     “getting government right”        delivery channels


• Business                        • Citizens
   – national competitiveness,       – as clients, taxpayers,
     reduced bureaucracy               participants
                     The ESD Model:
                           Definition

• Electronic Service Delivery (ESD) is a
  common theme in government reform
• In the broadest sense, ESD is the delivery
  of government programs and services to
  citizens and businesses through the enabling
  use of information technologies
                        The ESD Model:
                              Definition

• ESD facilitates:

  – Access to information for citizens &
    businesses
  – Transacting business with government
  – Support to internal government operations:
    “e-administration”
                         The ESD Model:
                             Participants

• ESD deals with relationships:
  – government-to-citizens
  – government-to-business
  – government-to-government
  – intra-government
                         The ESD Model:
                             EC vs. ESD
• But relationship is different than for
  commercial services:

  – Private sector marketplace allows consumers to
    choose suppliers


  – Providers of public sector services are
    mandated
                             The ESD Model:
                            Life Cycle Events
•   Births
•   Education
•   Employment/business start-up
•   Training
•   Travel/relocation
•   Marriage
•   Children
•   Retirement
•   Death
                        The ESD Model:
                               Content
•   Legislation & regulations
•   Programs & services
•   Guides & decision support material
•   Tools, techniques, best practices
•   Case studies
                         The ESD Model:
                             Community
•   E-mail lists
•   Newsletters, bulletins
•   Fora & chat rooms
•   On-line polling, referenda
                       The ESD Model:
                            Commerce
• Application, claims, & tax processing
• Registrations, licences, permits, approvals
• Service requests
                         The ESD Model:
                               Examples
• Government to Citizen
  –   Ordering Documentation
  –   Students Loan Applications
  –   Seniors Benefits
  –   Employment Benefits
  –   Health Care Benefits
  –   Issuing Licences, Permits
  –   Tax Filing
                        The ESD Model:
                              Examples
• Government to Business
  –   Business license renewals
  –   T4 and employment information
  –   Tax returns
  –   Permits
  –   Legal documents
  –   Import/ export documents
  –   User fees
                          The ESD Model:
                                Examples
• Government to Government
  – Taxes
  – Education
  – Health


• Intra-government
  – DND to PWGSC for procurement
  – DFAIT to Rev Can Import and Export permits
  – TC to HC for medical records
                           The ESD Model:
                             Characteristics

•   Access on client terms: time, place
•   Variety of service channels: counter-to-Web
•   Tailored to client need: self-help to expert
•   Empowerment: client directs interaction
•   “Disintermediation”: fewer middle-persons
•   Privacy and security
•   Affordability: cost based on value
•   Measured satisfaction: standards, feedback
                        The ESD Model:
                               Benefits

•   Client convenience and satisfaction
•   Improvements to existing services
•   Introduction of new services
•   Cost reduction
                       The ESD Model:
                            Framework
Public         Applications          Technical
policy,                              standards
  legal      Common Services             (for
   and                               transaction,
privacy           Information         document,
                                     security, and
 issues           Content and          network
                Publishing
          Information Distribution
                                      protocols)


                 Network
                                                        The ESD Model:
                                                        New Perspectives
Perspective      Inside looking out                         Outside looking in

Service          Department                                 Single window
delivery unit

Service          Users of narrow service, information       100% of an identifiable client group’s
satisfies        only                                       needs, information and transactions

Process          Unique, vertically integrated              Common systems for common
                                                            functions, horizontally integrated

IT               Centralized, linked by departmental        Distributed, linked by Internet
                 LANs and WANs

Client           Different interfaces, incompatible         Same interfaces, compatible services,
perspective      services, high search cost                 cost-effective search

Government       Multiplicity of systems, duplication and   Streamlined platforms, info captured
perspective      overlap, info captured many times, high    once, cost-effective, higher quality
                 cost                                       services

  Source: ICHU
                  The ESD Model:
         United Kingdom Response
• Central IT Unit (CITU) responsible to
  Cabinet
• “Green Paper” on electronic service
  delivery
• 25% by 2002
• Secure Government Intranet
• Private Finance Initiative
                     The ESD Model:
               United States Response
•   Government-wide infrastructure - NII
•   Agency CIOs reporting to agency heads
•   Inter-agency cooperation
•   Performance-based management
•   “Off-the- shelf” solutions, outsourcing
•   Modular, reusable components
                        The ESD Model:
                       German Response
•   Info 2000 Report
•   Bonn-Berlin Info Highway for government
•   E-mail, directories linking public servants
•   Teleworking
                    The ESD Model:
                 Australian Response
• Office of Government Information
  Technology (OGIT)
• IT “Blueprint”
• Emphasis on infrastructure -
  telecommunications
• “Single-window” service concept -
  “Centrelink”
• Consolidation and outsourcing
                      The ESD Model:
                              Canada
• Information Highway Advisory Committee
• “Connecting Canadians” (School-Net, Library-Net,
  Community Access Program)
• Federal/Provincial/Municipal Initiatives - Canada
  On-line http://www.intergov.gc.ca)
• 1997 OECD Conference on E-Commerce
• “Service Canada”
• New Legislation? (Bill C-54)
                        The ESD Model:
                                Canada
• Devolution: provinces and municipalities lead
• Municipal Amalgamation: integration of
  infrastructures
• Privatization/Outsourcing: commercial delivery
  mechanisms & disposition towards consolidation
  of IM strategies
• Benefits-Driven Procurement: shared risk
• “Model user” in information-based economy
                             Service Canada:
                                     Drivers
•   Timeliness of services
•   Staff competence
•   Courtesy
•   Fairness
•   Outcome
                                    Service Canada:
                                         Objectives
• Meet citizen/business needs for
  faster, accessible, streamlined
  service delivery

• Meet GOC need for visibility in
  provision of public services

• Provide better tools to
  administrators
                          Service Canada:
                                 Channels
• Telephone
• Blue Pages
• InfoCentre Kiosks
• Computer Workstations
• Distribution of Paper
  Products
• Service Providers
                                               Service Canada:
                                                  Infrastructure

                     Department
                       Unique
                     Components                 Department
                                  Department      Unique
                                    Unique                   Department
                                                Components
                                  Components                   Unique
                                                             Components Department
                                                                       Architectures
                                   Department Shared Components          Federated
                             Government-wide Components                  Architecture


          Business     Business           Business             Business
          Process      Process            Process              Process


Source: TBS CIO
                                                  Service Canada:
                                              Enabling Technology
Access Options      Citizen /Business              Info                     Transactions
                           Map



                                                                                   Federal
                                                          PKI                      Departments

                                                                                    Provincial
                                                                                    Ministries
                                                Secure
                                              Connection
                                                                                    Municipal
                                                                                    Departments


                                                                                    Non-Profit
                                                                                    Agencies

                                                                                   Private Sector
                                                                                   Organizations


                   Relevant, Timely     5 Applications (year 1):
                 Accessible Services      •   EI
                    Responding to         •   Record of Employment
                                          •   Electronic tax filing
                 Individual, Business     •   E- Procurement & Settlement
                         and              •   Secure messaging
                  Community Needs
               Management Issues
• New model has implications for:

  – clients
  – program/functional managers
  – IM/IT managers
  – employees
  – suppliers
               Management Issues


•   Leadership
•   Governance
•   Infrastructure
•   Privacy and Security
•   Changing Competencies
                       Management Issues:
                              Leadership
• Both political and administrative
• Industry Canada: Connecting Canadians -
  “Smart Government”
• Treasury Board:
  – Service Canada
  – CIO:
     • Guide investments in IT infrastructure
     • Network strategy - Procurement approach
     • New infrastructure governance framework

• Departments and Agencies
                        Management Issues:
                               Leadership
•   Promote vision of citizen-centered ESD
•   Establish multi-disciplinary/departmental teams
•   Consult with clients - focus on life-cycle events
•   Listen to employees - solicit ideas
•   Establish service standards - specify desired behavior
•   Monitor performance and recognize success - Make
    it real!
                    Management Issues:
                          Governance
• Faced with a century of “department-
  centric” legislation

• Decades of vertical “silo” processes and
  infrastructure

• One “taxpayer” a radical concept!
                       Management Issues:
                             Governance
• Must establish inter-departmental & inter-
  jurisdictional relationships - “extend the
  organization and share the client”
• New private sector role (risk & finance)
• Seek common goals and outcomes
• Explore “shared-steering” mechanisms
• Use “lead agency” concept
• Citizen engagement in planning, design, operation
                   Management Issues:
                        Infrastructure
• Interoperability, sharing, and re-use are key
  to responsive, accessible and affordable
  services
• Architect IM/IT to align with policy and
  program outcomes - fit “business” model
• ESD requires both “front-end” (client) and
  “back-end” (information/applications)
  infrastructures
                  Management Issues:
                       Infrastructure
• Exploit emerging technologies, e.g. Web, to
  put common face on legacy forms, records,
  and documents
• Efficiency/economies of scale through
  consolidation, rationalization, devolution
• “Enterprise” security
• Exploit benefits of Y2K exercise
                    Management Issues:
                         Infrastructure
• Management of information as a corporate asset
  - “stewardship” vs “ownership”
• Management of information separate from
  technology
• Management of all forms: text, image, audio
                     Management Issues:
                     Privacy and Security
• Enabling legislation a key element of
  government strategy on electronic
  commerce
• Bill C-54 - Personal Information Protection
  and Electronic Document Act:
  – Protects personal information in e-formats -“use with
    consent”
  – Legally recognizes secure electronic signatures
  – Legally recognizes electronic records as evidence
  – Protects privacy of personal information in private
                  Management Issues:
                  Privacy and Security
• Need to balance access to information with
  right to privacy - foster sense of individual
  control
• State policies/rules clearly to clients, partners,
  and employees
• Design security in rather than add it on
• Standardization, harmonization, and
  simplification
                   Management Issues:
                   Privacy and Security
• Public Key Infrastructure:
  – Confidentiality and integrity
  – Electronic signature - authentication
  – Non-repudiation

• Critical mass” issue: Which comes first -
  application or infrastructure?
               Management Issues:
            Changing Competencies
• Knowledgeable and informed “front-line”
  staff
• Multi-disciplinary work teams
• New skills needed to manage strategic
  alliances (across departments, governments,
  industry)
• Flexible, innovative, and adaptive
  workforce - continuous improvement and
  learning
               Management Issues:
            Changing Competencies
• New client is the overall business of the
  organization, not just the individual
  department, user, or function
• Program managers manage the business;
  IM/IT manages the information-intensive
  processes
• IM/IT mission is to create value-added
  business change, not just automate
  processes
                Management Issues:
             Changing Competencies

• “CIO” focus is equally on business and
  technology
• IM/IT staff are “business technologists”
• IM/IT focus is on providing enabling
  infrastructure and business oriented services
                              Management Issues:
                           Changing Competencies
                                            Extended
                                            partners deliver
 Technology                                 common IT
use across the                      Joint business &
 value chain                        IM/IT units deliver
                                    business systems
                                     IM/IT delivers
                                     departmental ESD
                                     infrastructure
                    1999                   2005
Source: Forrester
                         The Way Forward

• Changing the context for systems development -
  business & IM/IT planning
• Preparing the organization - business model
• Developing the IM/IT architecture/infrastructure
• Developing business requirements - making the
  business case - prioritizing
• Understanding privacy & security issues
                           The Way Forward

• Start with pilots and trials
• Focus on easy wins
• Create cross-program integration
• Eliminate silos and jurisdictions
• Replicate success - share best practices
 “e - Government”


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posted:9/23/2012
language:English
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