An Airplane That's

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					                                                                                                   (Photo by Jack Cox)


           An Airplane That's


                 by                         Instead of folding his tent and        building. He restored a Rearwin Sky-
              Jack Cox                    fading away into the night, Wayne        ranger about ten years ago and start-
                                          fought back. In order to bring back      ed a Fly Baby but sold the fuselage
                                          the fun, close competition and low      before it was completed. Wayne en-
   >ACK IN THE heyday of the              cost, he succeeded in forming the       joyed flying the Rearwin and found
go-kart and micro midget mania,           "West Bend Class - Bushings Only"        the crafting of the Fly Baby satisfy-
Wayne Ison (EAA 13187) was into the       category. This gave the beginner a       ing . . . but somehow all this just
scene up to his ear lobes — just as       chance to get into kart racing at a     didn't fill the bill. While sorting out
much so as he is involved with home-      level of mechanical sophistication      in his mind all the plusses and minuses
built airplanes today. Somehow, be-       that was easy on his wallet and sim-    of his aviation career up to that point,
tween building, maintaining and           ple enough so as to serve as a good     he took time off to do some REAL
racing his own karts at tracks all over   starting point on the learning curve    homebuilding — a new house for his
the upper mid-west, he even found         involved in successfully operating,     family.
time to write the "how to" go-kart        tuning and overhauling the two             Wayne is a mechanical engineer
articles for Science and Mechanics        cycle engined karts. Once a racer       for Keltec in Elkhart, Indiana. His
magazine. It was tremendous fun for       had mastered the West Bend jobs         workaday activities involve designing
a time, Wayne says today, but as com-     and still wanted more, he could pro-     industrial floor maintenance equip-
petition grew hotter sophistication       gress to the faster, more expensive     ment — floor polishers, cleaners, rug
and its hand-maiden, added costs,         hardware . . . and his basic training    shampooers and the like. He is com-
started entering the picture . . . and    would not have cost him his life's      fortably settled in his job, his new
soon the fun was evaporating at about     savings.                                 home and the life of his community.
the same rate as the blue smoke from        This experience made an indelible     Flying, for him, is strictly a recrea-
those screaming little two cycle mills    impression on Wayne Ison and was        tional activity. Despite having learn-
that propelled those just barely guided   carried over to aviation once he be-    ed to fly at Three Rivers, Michigan
missiles.                                 came involved with EAA and home-        under the G.I. Bill quite a number of
50 JANUARY 1975
years ago, he is still a low time pilot
and it's rare he flies anything larger
than a Cessna 150.
    In a word, Wayne Ison is a living,
breathing stereotype of the typical
EAA member . . . up to a point. He
differs from many of us in that he has
the self discipline to coolly analyze
his dreams and his real needs and
come up with a plan of action that
contains a nice balance of both that
he can live with. Some of his con-
clusions about himself were that he
did not need a fast, expensive to main-
tain, cross country airplane. This ruled
out most of the store bought fleet.
What he really wanted was some-
thing that was fun, easy to fly and
something that would satisfy his need
to create, build and tinker with — this
pretty well spelled "homebuilt."
    After a long look at the do-it-your-
self world Wayne came to the further
conclusion that what he had seen
happen in go-karting was also hap-
pening in aircraft homebuilding — a
lot of new designs were becoming
more complicated, more expensive,
thus making it harder for the average
person, particularly a rank beginner,
to break into the game. He had no
quarrel with any design or designer —
he thought the variety of designs
available to builders was tremendous.
It's just that he did not believe any of
them started on a simple enough
level.
    Characteristically, he set out to do
something about the situation . . . he
would design his own airplane.
                 PDQ-1
    Wayne's first effort might be de-
scribed as an attempt at the absolute
minimum powered airplane, a VW
powered machine with nothing more                                                     (Photo by Dick Stouffer)
                                                      The PDQ-1 at Oshkosh 74.
than a couple of lengths of aluminum
channel bolted together like a bed
frame to serve as a fuselage; to this
were attached his left over Fly Baby
wings and a rudimentary tail section,
all strung together by a cobweb of
aircraft cable. The pilot's seat was
suspended from the bed frame fuse-
lage and the VW engine was quite
literally sitting in his lap. Named the
PDQ — because it was — this sort of
un-Sanforized Bleriot was flown up
and down a runway in ground effect
a number of times, but its greatest
contribution was as a trial horse for
Wayne's ideas. He learned a lot from
building the PDQ and came to rea-
lize the direction in which he would
proceed from it. The engine from the
PDQ was later used to power an
experimental Parafoil, but was re-
turned and bolted back on the ori-
ginal airframe in time for it to be
brought to Oshkosh '74. The plane
was displayed as the PDQ-1 — be-           Designer Wayne Ison holds up the tail of his PDQ-2 so
cause now there was a PDQ-2.               EAA photographer Lee Fray can shoot a close-up of the
                (Continued on Next Page)   two cycle Rockwell JLO engine.
                                                                                        SPORT AVIATION 51
 PDQ . . .                                 tailwheel or a suitable, similarly sized   then sanded. Any low spots are filled
 (Continued from Preceding Page)           industrial unit. You stand there and       with automotive spot putty, a final
                  PDQ-2                    look at that whole ridiculous rig and      sanding and priming is done and the
   Started during the Christmas holi-      it's enough to make you sick to your       color coat is applied. Throughout the
days before the 1973 Oshkosh Fly-In,       stomach . . . that you didn't think of     PDQ-2 plans Wayne cautions builders
the PDQ-2 was completed in just four       something so beautifully simple your-      again and again to watch the weight
months of steady evening and week-         self!                                      build up, and finishing the wing is one
end work. About the only thing around         Wayne's prototype PDQ-2 is              of the really troublesome areas. An
with a simpler fuselage than the           equipped with 5 inch go-kart wheels        amazing amount of weight is added to
PDQ-1 was the Bensen Gyrocopter            with 3.40/3.00-5 two-ply tires. Ori-       homebuilts by many builders who too
— so, the fuselage of the PDQ-2 was        ginally, the plane was not equipped        enthusiastically strive for super
modeled after it to a great extent;        with brakes, but they were added           smooth finishes — and on an ultra-
in fact, the 2 inch square, 1/8 inch       for its 1974 appearance at Oshkosh.        ultra-light like the PDQ-2, you just
wall thickness 6061-T6 main fuse-          If plans-built versions are to be flown    can't do this if you expect it to climb
lage members were purchased from a         off pavement, the lightest kart or mini    beyond ground effect. Wayne's finish
Bensen dealer. One 41" length was          bike brakes one can find are recom-        on the prototype looks great, proving
                                           mended. I'm sure more than one smart       you don't have to overdo it.
laid out as a keel and a second piece
40" long was cut to serve as a verti-      alec has already suggested to Wayne          The PDQ-2 has full span ailerons
cal mast rising at a 3° rearward angle     that he apply a layer of brake lining      and they are nothing more than a 1/4"
from the keel. 13 inches up the keel       material to the soles of his shoes so      thick spruce spar with an inboard
a 74 inch tail boom was made to ex-        he can simply drag his feet on roll out    plywood rib and ply gusset — the rest,
tend straight aft, braced with two         — and that by dragging just one at a       including the outboard tip rib, con-
lengths of 1 inch O.D. x .065 6061-        time, he can have the advantage of         sists of shaped foam and Dynel.
                                           differential braking. Deliver us,            The rakishly swept fin and rudder
T6 aluminum tubing, one from the
                                           Lord, from our tormentors!                 and "T" mounted horizontal stabili-
top of the mast down to the boom
                                             One thing Wayne wanted to to do          zer and elevator are built up just like
and the other from the aft end of the
keel up to the lower side of the tail      with the PDQ-2 was incorporate some        those on the KR-1, W.A.R. Fw. 190
boom. And that, by golly, was it —         new materials and building tech-           — and how every other foam and Dy-
everything else, like wings, engine,       niques in its construction, because        nel tail surface will undoubtedly be
seat, wheels, tail, fuel tank, etc.,       from the beginning he had not only         made. The single-spar-and-foam sys-
attaches to this super simple frame.        the EAAer but also high school stu-       tem can't be improved upon.
A professional welder was paid $20         dents in mind as builders. He wanted         Once you get to the pilot's . . . well,
to heliarc the 5 pieces of aluminum         the aircraft to be a teaching tool for    I was going to say "cockpit", but
together after Wayne ran a little           schools and a first stepping stone for    somehow that hoary old aviation term
cost/weight analysis which revealed         those who would later go on to more       seems competely inappropriate when
that the aircraft bolts, 4130 gusset        sophisticated designs. After seeing       it comes to identifying the area in
                                            Ken Rand's foam and Dynel KR-1,           which the pilot does his work in some-
plates and the time necessary to mea-
                                            the old PDQ-1 Fly Baby wings were         thing like a Breezy or, in this case, the
sure for and drill bolt holes would
                                            forgotten and the foam began to fly       PDQ-2. It's certainly anything but a
cause the frame to be heavier, more
                                            (ouch!).                                  pit. Perhaps "pilot's precipice" would
costly and time consuming to build
as a bolt together unit. The weight           The PDQ-2 wing panels are four          more accurately describe the view one
                                           spar affairs with plywood former ribs      has between his knees from a thou-
increase would have been especially
                                           at the inboard and outboard ends,          sand feet in a PDQ-2.
critical.                                                                                So, as I was saying, once you get
   The fuselage frame was designed         interspersed with 7 foam ribs (on the
in such a way that two members go          original 16' 6" wing). The spars are       to the pilot's precipice, things are
to every stress point, so that one can     solid spruce boards consisting of a        both spartan and clever. A small in-
                                           1/4" thick leading edge spar, a 1/2"       strument panel inclines forward be-
fail without a resulting catastrophe.
It was built during one weekend and        main spar, a 1/2" rear spar and a 1/4"     tween the pilot's legs containing an
                                           aileron spar. 3/4" thick 4' x 8' sheets    airspeed indicator, altimeter, a little
the only power tools used were a drill                                                Westach electric tach and the master
press and a Sears belt sander . . . plus   of ordinary 2 pound density Styro-
                                           foam or Urethane foam are bonded           switch. The rumor is unconfirmed that
the welder's outfit, of course.                                                       the PDQ crew gets around the com-
   For a landing gear Wayne stretched      over the ribs. Numerous spanwise
                                           saw-cuts are made about halfway            pass requirement by wearing a
Steve Wittman's 40 year old leaf
                                           through the foam sheet on the bottom       hunter's wrist watch-type compass
spring idea to it's ultimate limits —
                                           side to facilitate bending the sheet to    while flying. The edge of the precipice
not only does the tri-cycle set up use                                                over which the pilot dangles his legs
a leaf for the mains, but even the nose    the contour of the rib without break-
                                           ing it. Solid strips of foam are bond-     out to the rudder bar is a wide tray
gear is mounted on a leaf that sticks                                                 which doubles as a seat and the mount
straight out to the front like spear       ed to the leading edge spar and are
                                           cut down to conform to the shape of        for the fuel tank. Originally, fuel
at the ready. It's nothing more than                                                  tanks were built-up foam and Dynel
a piece of 2024-T4 aluminum 30             the NASA 63 2A 615 airfoil.
                                             Wayne has a little different method      cavities in each wing root, but they
inches long, two inches wide and 1/2                                                  proved to be leaky so an off-the-shelf
inch thick. This leaf is attached to the   of applying his Dynel and epoxy than
                                           does Ken Rand, War Replica Aircraft,       6 gallon outboard motor tank has
top side of the front of the keel with                                                been incorporated. A tiny motorcycle
one lousy bolt and a couple of spring      etc. Rather than just laying up the
                                           Dynel over the foam and squeegeeing        battery is mounted just under the
clamps. In keeping with Wayne's de-                                                   pilot's right knee.
 sire to make each component serve as      epoxy through the weave, Wayne first
                                           bonds the edges, then shrinks the            Anytime you passed the PDQ-2 at
many purposes as is practical, the                                                    Oshkosh there was a little semicircle
rudder bar is even attached 11 1/2"        cloth taut with an iron. Thin resin is
                                           squeegeed into the cloth and lightly       of suppliants on their knees around
out on the leaf, with a steering push-                                                the seat of the aircraft apparently
pull tube extending from the rudder        sanded after it has cured. A second
                                           coat containing micro spheres is the       seeking wisdom of some sort. The
bar out to the nose gear — which is                                                   unique sidewinder stick/throttle was
nothing more than a 6 inch aircraft        squeegeed in, allowed to cure and
52 JANUARY 1975
the object of their supplication.          two cycle engines. However, tests re-       tain the turbulent wake caused by
Attached to the keel just behind the       vealed the JLO was turning up to            the pilot's head and the mast. It
vertical mast, by a clever sort of gim-    rated power, measured thrust seemed         worked like a charm — now the little
bal arrangement, the stick curves out      adequate and initial acceleration and       bird would accelerate, rotate and
and around the seat, falling right to      lift-off were sprightly enough — but        climb right out. Unfortunately, these
hand as they say in sports car circles.    it just didn't want to climb. Then one      modifications were significant enough
The arcs inscribed by the stick as one     wintery day they found out why.             that a new test time was assigned so
moves it up and down and from side             Flying in a snow shower, Lowell         that, combined also with some down
to side result in a rather odd feeling,    happened to look out across the wing        time for re-license, once again the
but Lowell Farrand, the pilot who has      and noticed that he could actually see      PDQ-2 was grounded (except for their
the most time in the prototype, says       the pattern of the air flow over the        Indiana test area) when Oshkosh '74
this monkey motion is easy to adjust       airfoil —just like in a smoke tunnel        rolled around.
to. The stick's handgrip is a motor-       except here snowflakes were taking             The little bird was at Oshkosh,
cycle twist-type throttle, spring loaded   the place of the smoke. The dark blue       nevertheless, and Wayne had plans
to return the engine to idle if the grip   wing was a perfect background for           for sale for $20.00 a set and was doing
is released . . . still another compon-    viewing this phenomonon. Lowell             a brisk business — particularly among
ent serving a double function.             very quickly saw that his head and          the large Australian group that came
   And now, up the mast to the engine.     the engine mast were forming a V-           to Oshkosh. They consist of nine
Initial calculations indicated 90          shaped wake that spread back and            24" x 36" sheets and are quite com-
pounds was the absolute limit that         outward over both wing panels very          plete. Especially helpful to the
could be tolerated on top of the mast      effectively spoiling the lift over a        builder are the addresses of all the
and less would be highly desirable.        great percentage of the wing. Fur-          sources Wayne is aware of for ma-
A McCulloch could have been used,          ther, increasing the angle of at-           terials to build the airplane—JLO en-
but Wayne was looking for some-            tack — as when climbing — cre-              gines from Venture Aero-Marine,
thing smaller. The eventual choice         ated a larger and larger wake, in           P.O. Box 5273, Akron, Ohio 44313
was a two cylinder, two cycle JLO          effect reducing the effective aspect        and PDQ-2 materials kits from Air-
of GOOcc capacity imported from            ratio to almost nothing. No wonder          craft Spruce and Specialty Co., Box
Europe by Rockwell. This particular        it wouldn't climb. A little more ex-        424, Fullerton, California 92632 and
engine had a singular advantage over       perimenting in the world's largest and      Rotor-Hawk, Inc., 9007 Henderson
others considered in that having been      least expensive wind tunnel, as Wayne       Rd., Goodrich, Michigan 48438. It
developed specifically for a ground        likes to say, resulted in some modi-        was good to see that the plans con-
effects machine, it came equipped          fication to the airplane. First, the wing   tained such items as control system
with a propeller hub and the proper        was lengthened from 16 feet 6 inches        details, a complete bill of material
thrust bearings — no major modifi-         to 18 feet 6 inches, Cessna type            and even a layout showing how to cut
cations were necessary for aircraft        wing tips were added and a couple of        ribs, fin, rudder and aileron material
use. The complete engine installation,     fairly large plywood flow fences were       from 4' x 8' sheets of foam with the
including the propeller, weighs 70         installed near the wing roots to con-       least amount of wastage. A lot of
pounds. The JLO develops 45 hp at                                                                       (Continued on Next Page)
5500 rpm's (it is direct drive) with two
carburetors and 35 hp at 5000 rpm's.
The only problem with the engine is
that as of Fly-In week at Oshkosh,
Rockwell was no longer producing it
— which means that when stocks are
sold, PDQ-2 builders will have to
come up with a suitable substitute.
Wayne carved his own propeller, a
44" x 17" unit that produces 175 to
180 pounds of static thrust.
  Lowell Farrand (EAA 35370) of
Goshen, Indiana, a good friend of
Wayne's and an experienced pilot,
did the initial test flying. The first
flights were runs in ground effect up
and down a local grass runway. The
required test time (75 hours) was not
flown off in time to allow flying at
the 1973 Oshkosh Fly-In, so the plane
was a static display there. Upon re-
turning home, more testing was done,
with the first flights around the pat-
tern being made during early fall.
Lowell and Wayne were having so
much fun that, despite the lack of even
a windshield up front, flying con-
tinued on into the winter . . . and this
proved to be a fortunate thing.
  Initially, some aspects of the PDQ's                                                             (Photo by Jack Cox)
performance were not up to expecta-                     A Bensen gyrocopter pilot would feel right at home here.
tions, mainly rate of climb. This latter
deficiency was first laid to the engine
— despite Wayne's expertise with
PDQ . . .                                  car" category to use our analogy           mance sport planes. Think of the
(Continued from Preceding Page)            again. The PDQ-2 is to aviation what       possibilities of an even less expen-
building tips are also written right       the trail bike, snowmobile and all-        sive trail bike or snowmobile of the
on the plans sheets.                       terrain vehicles are to land transpor-     air. Such aircraft could have a re-
   Although Oshkosh Convention             tation.                                    deeming social virtue, also, in the fuel
goers have yet to see the PDQ-2 fly,          Of course, you can't so conveniently    savings realized by pilots who could
it is a familiar sight to EAAers in the    pigeon-hole airplanes anymore than         do their late evening fun flying in
Elkhart area, buzzing around like a        you can land vehicles or people . . .      their PDQ-2, or such, instead of in
big blue bumblebee. Minneapolis            especially people. There are those         their Bonanza.
EAAers get to see the first plans          whose only vehicle is a sports car just        You can get in on the ground floor
built PDQ-2 in action. This one be-        as there are pilots whose only plane       of this new phase of fun flying with
longs to Gene Louismet (EAA 1490),         is a Pitts — and by the same token         Wayne Ison's PDQ-2.
8718 West River Rd., Minneapolis,          there will be many who by choice or
Minnesota 55444, who at the time of        necessity will own only a PDQ-2. At                 PDQ-2 SPECIFICATIONS
the 1974 Oshkosh Fly-In was starting       any rate, there is definitely a place in   Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18' 6"
a second one. Hopefully, all of us will    aviation for the properly designed         Chord . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42'
be treated to perhaps a couple of          super lightweight recreational vehicle     Airfoil . . . . . . . . . . . NASA 63 2A 615
PDQ-2s flying at Oshkosh '75.              of the air. There always has been.
                                           The only reason we have not always         Wing Area . . . . . . . . . . . . 64.75 sq. ft.
   Now, let's step back from the nuts                                                 Wing Loading . . . . 6.5 lbs. per sq. ft.
and bolts examination of the PDQ-2         had large numbers of this type of air-
                                           craft is the lack of a reliable, inex-     Span Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . 22.7 lbs.
and consider its position in the over-                                                Empty Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 lbs.
all sport aviation scheme of things.       pensive and, very significantly, light-
                                           weight engine (for weight and bal-         Gross Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 lbs.
Ever since that day in March of                                                       Top Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 mph
1909 when Alberto Santos-Dumont            ance considerations). With what we
                                           know today about structures and new        Cruise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 mph
sputtered aloft in his floppy-winged
                                           materials, think what our designers        Rate of Climb . . . . . . . . . . . 400 fpm +
little Demoiselle, tiny, low powered                                                  Stall Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 mph
airplanes have been an enduring fix-       could come up with given a 40 hp en-
                                           gine weighing about 50-55 pounds           Engine - Rockwell - JLO - LB-600-2
ture of the worldwide aviation scene.
Super lightweights such as the Ital-       or so and small enough to fit in the
                                           proverbial bread box. Jim Bede has               Source: Wayne Ison
ian Pegna-Bonmartini Rondine of                                                                     No. 7 Alpine Lane
1923 and the English Electric Wren,        proven there is a very large market
                                           for relatively low cost, high perfor-                    Elkhart, Indiana 46514
a star of the famous 1923 Lympne
lightplane trials, actually flew on
7 and 8 hp engines. During the
bread line and apple stand days
of our Great Depression here in
the U. S., pilot's had to forego their
beloved but gas-guzzling Travel
Airs and Wacos for little put-puts
like the 36 hp Aeronca C-3s and
37 hp E-2 Cubs. Today, the EAA
movement is focusing worldwide at-
tention on tiny, personal airplanes.
   It is possible, however, that we are
seeing the beginnings of something
new with the PDQ-2. Most of the low
powered aircraft of the past have been
born of economic necessity — except
for those homebuilders who are simp-
ly fascinated with tiny airplanes.
Most were actually substitutes for the
big, powerful aircraft owners really                                                           (Photo by Jack Cox)
wanted but couldn't afford. Today we                            Lowell Farrand and the PDQ-2.
are seeing a situation that is about
180° out — a guy who owns a Baron
for business, a Pitts for serious fool-
ing around and when he sees a PDQ-
2, thinks, "What a blast! I gotta
have me one of those toys!". By way
of analogy, these people are just
like their neighbors who own a Con-
tinental, a Porsche and a trail bike
for roaring into the woods to terrorize
the local wildlife.
   The PDQ-2, then, may be the har-
binger of a "third level" type aircraft,
a true recreational vehicle of the air.
Most aircraft, and particularly most
homebuilts, have always been used                      Why is the PDQ-2 quick? The stark simplicity of the
almost entirely for recreation but                     basic fuselage is perhaps the most succinct answer —
they have been in what we might term                   just five pieces of aluminum, plus a few brackets and
the "second level" — or in the "sports                 fittings.
54 JANUARY 1975

				
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