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REEF+AQUARIUM+LOGS

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					Using Parameters for FOWLR Aquarium (Fish Only with Live Rock)

Parameter
                             Suggested Level:
                                                 Suggested         Average Level:

                             Reef Aquarium
                                                 FOWLR             Coral Reefs

Specific Gravity             1.023 - 1.025       1.020 - 1.025                   1.025

Temperature                  72 - 78°F           72 - 78°F         82°F

pH                           8.1 - 8.4           8.1 - 8.4         8.0 - 8.5

Alkalinity                   8 - 12 dKH          8 - 12 dKH        6 - 8 dKH

Ammonia (NH3)                Undetectable        Undetectable      Near Zero

Nitrite (NO2)                Undetectable        Undetectable      Near Zero

Nitrate - Nitrogen (NO3)     < 1.0 ppm           < 30 ppm          0.25 ppm

Phosphate (PO4)              < 0.2 ppm           < 1.0 ppm         0.13 ppm

Calcium                      350 - 450 ppm       350 - 450 ppm     380 - 420 ppm


Magnesium                    1250 - 1350 ppm     1150 - 1350 ppm   1300 ppm



Iodine                       0.06 - 0.10 ppm     0.04 - 0.10 ppm   0.06 ppm


Strontium                    8 - 14 ppm          4 - 10 ppm        8 - 10 ppm
Link for Main Log
http://www.fishchannel.com/images/pdfs/reef-tank-log.pdf

Marine Compatability Chart
http://www.liveaquaria.com/general/compatibility_chart.cfm

Online Fish Veterinarian
http://www.justanswer.com/sip/pets/
                                            Testing the Water

There are many different types of test kits on the market today. Many of these are effective,
inexpensive, and offer a broad choice of tests. You can, however find more expensive, high precision
testing if you are a stickler about water quality. Most expert aquarists will agree that testing the
aquarium water and understanding how to regulate the water quality from these tests will ensure
long-term success in the aquarium. This practice will prolong the life and health of it's inhabitants.
There are many water parameters that you can test. This section will focus on the main test's, and
briefly discuss their significance to the aquarist.


Temperature-This is most commonly measured in degrees Fahrenheit (F), and in degrees Celsius (C).
Temperature measures the relative heat of the aquarium water. This is measured with a
thermometer. It is best to keep thermometers away from heating and cooling devices, as this will give
inaccurate readings, and ultimately misinformation (especially in larger aquariums.) Coldwater fish
are generally kept in the 50-70 F range. Most fresh and saltwater fish are kept from 75-80 F, and
there are families of fish (i.e.. cichlids, discus, other Amazonian fish) which do best in the 80-85 F
range. It is important to understand what environment your specimens live in in the wild to better
understand how to regulate the aquarium, especially when it comes to temperature..

pH-Measures the acidity of the water by test kits, electronic probes, and various other testing devices.
A pH reading of 7.0 is neutral. A pH reading of above 7.0 is alkaline, and a pH of less than 7.0 is acidic.
Fish can survive in a pH range from 5.0-9.5. Most freshwater tanks should be kept slightly acidic (6.5-
7.0) for egg-laying fish, and slightly alkaline (7.2-7.6) for live-bearing fish. However, there are
exceptions (i.e. Cichlids 7.5-8.5). Saltwater aquariums are safe in the 7.4-9.0 range. Different
aquarium setups and different inhabitants have different pH levels.

Salinity-Measured mainly in Specific Gravity (SG), and Conductivity (C) by use of a hydrometer or
electronic probe. Saltwater is heavier than freshwater. There are many more minerals in seawater,
including Sodium Chloride (NaCl) which is it's major component and constitutes about 30% of the total
elements in seawater. Thus, SG measures the density of the aquarium water. Beware that many
brands of hydrometers will give different readings at different temperatures. Freshwater tanks should
have an SG of 1.000-1.005. Most marine tanks should have an SG of 1.020-1.025. Seawater is also
more conductive than freshwater. It is able to carry current, because it is more dense. Some aquarists
around the world measure the water by it's conductivity readings, which has a direct correlation to
the SG of the aquarium water.

Ammonia (NH3)-Measured in milligrams per liter (mg/l), or parts per million (ppm), most commonly
with a test kit. This highly toxic chemical is caused by the decomposition of fish waste, decaying food,
and dead fish. Unfortunately, ammonia can be found in nearly all aquariums. Ammonia is the number
one killer of tropical fish. With an ammonia level of 6 ppm in a freshwater aquarium, the death rate
may be as high as 50%. As the level of ammonia rises, the death rate climbs even higher. Ammonia
affects fish by causing the blood to lose it's ability to carry oxygen. This creates stress and lowers the
resistance of fish to such recurrent bacterial infections as fin and tail rot, body slime, eye cloud, mouth
fungus, and body sores.
Nitrite (NO2-)-Measured in mg/l or ppm. Measured with test kits or electronic probes. Nitrite is a
toxic waste material found in varying concentrations in most aquariums. It is produced by the
nitrifying bacteria Nitrosomonas in the biological filter as it breaks down ammonia. As the biological
filter develops and grows, the nitrifying bacteria uses nitrite as a food source, converting it to non-
toxic nitrate. This reduces the level of nitrite in the aquarium. Regular testing for nitrite is important
because even low levels of nitrite affect the red blood cells of fish by reducing their ability to carry
oxygen, thus causing suffocation, and death.

Nitrate (NO3-)-Measured in mg/l or ppm by using test kits or electronic probes. Nitrate is also
produced in an aquarium, mainly by the bacteria Nitrobacter. This occurs in the biological filter.
These, along with other beneficial bacteria in the biological filter convert toxic ammonia, and nitrite,
into nitrate. A high nitrate level indicates a build-up of fish waste and organic compounds resulting in
poor water quality and contributes to the likelihood of fish disease. Excessive nitrate also provides a
nitrogen source which can stimulate algae blooms. In the opinion of many marine aquarists,
maintaining a low nitrate level significantly improves the health of fish and invertebrates.

General hardness (GH)-Measured in mg/l or ppm. Mainly a test for freshwater aquaria. Test kits are
used to measure this most often. General hardness is the measure of calcium (Ca++) and magnesium
(Mg++) ion concentrations dissolved in water. These minerals are present in well, and bottled spring
water. The level of general hardness in tap and bottled water depends on the source of the water and
the treatment processes it has undergone. Hard water (>200 ppm) is high in calcium and magnesium,
while soft water (50-100 ppm) is low in these minerals. Below is a table of recommended GH and KH
ranges for different species.
GH & KH RANGE                     AQUARIUM LIFE
0-50 ppm                         Discus, arowanas, elephantnose, neons, cardinals, live plants
50-100 ppm                       Most tropical fish including angelfish, cichlids, tetras, botia,
100-200 ppm                      Most tropical fish including swordtails, guppies, mollies, goldfish
200-400 ppm                      Rift lake cichlids, goldfish, brackish water fish

 Calcium
The primary element needed for clams, corals and some algae, Calcium (Ca) is needed for these
organisms to grow. Natural Saltwater has a range of approximately 380 - 450 mg/L and it can be
difficult to keep this level up in an aquarium with calcium consuming corals, clams and algae. There
are various ways to keep the calcium levels up. Some popular ways include the use of Kalkreactors
that dose kalkwasser and Calcium reactors to dose calcium. You can also purchase diluted calcium
chloride (easier but kind of expensive) and dose that way. The problem with dosing liquid calcium is
that you have to also use a buffer (carbonate or bicarbonate) when you dose calcium or you risk lower
the alkalinity levels. There are two part calcium/alkalinity solutions and you should look into these
products if dosing this way interests you.

Oxygen ( O2)- Measured as dissolved oxygen (DO) in mg/l and ppm. Oxygen is essential for nearly all
types of life. It may be measured with test kits or electronic probes. Many fish and invertebrates
suffer when the DO drops below 3.5 ppm and few survive DOs below 2 ppm. There isn't a lot of
excess oxygen, especially in a marine aquarium. Protein skimming, proper water circulation, and
sufficient air circulation at the water surface will help tremendously. For general purposes, a good air
pump can also help. Most tanks should have a DO reading from 7-10 ppm.
Carbon dioxide (CO2)-Measured by monitoring pH values (see above). Tested with various kit's or
devices. A test of special interest to freshwater plant aquarists, and saltwater reef keepers. CO2 is a
product of the biological combustion of oxygen and carbon and is a waste product of animal
metabolism and plant respiration. CO2 levels have a direct effect on the buffering capacity of the
aquarium water, and alter the pH.

Iodine and Iodide
In natural seawater, Iodine occurs at 0.06 ppm. It is important to supplement iodine because it is
quickly used up by the tank inhabitants and the protein skimmer. Invertebrates use it to molt and it
helps corals with calcification. Lugol's Solution is a concentrated form of iodide and iodine and you
usually administer 1 drop per 25 gallons of water. Lugol's is usually cheaper in the long run to use than
the diluted forms of iodine supplements. Iodine supplementation can be controversial. Some
hobbyists swear by it and some swear at it. We use it primarily for the benefit of the cleaner shrimps
in our tanks and we tend to under dose. Lugols calls for 1 drop per 25 gallons, so in a 55 gallon tank
we'd only use 1 drop.


Magnesium
In natural saltwater, Magnesium is in the range of 1200 - 1300 ppm. It is important to maintain a level
similar to this range because magnesium helps maintain higher levels of alkalinity and calcium.
Frequent use of kalkwasser reportedly lowers magnesium levels.

Strontium and Molybdenum
These two saltwater supplements, Strontium and Molybdenum, come in the same bottle. In natural
saltwater, Strontium is in the 8 ppm range and Molybdenum is around 0.01 ppm. Strontium is
important because it helps the growth of calcerous algae and Molybdenum is an important element
because it used in the growth of the symbiotic algae in corals.
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                                         Marine Compatibility Chart
Tank mate compatibility is crucial to a successful and healthy marine aquarium. Incompatible species will increase
stress in the tank which could result in disease and considerable loss. Use the chart below as a guideline when
selecting fish and please read our article "Introducing New Fish Into Your Aquarium" before making your fish
selection.

Remember, no guarantees can be made about the compatibility or incompatibility of any particular species of fish.
Also, particular species within a group of fish vary in temperament and may not correspond with the guideline
below.

Y = Yes, Generally Compatible
C = Can co-exist with Caution
N = No, Not Compatible
 pecies will increase
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h the guideline
                Feeding
Date   Name   Comments
           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

pH Group                    Date       pH        S/B        Diff.                  Comments/Corrections
                Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

Temperature Group             Date        °F       S/B        Diff.                    Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

      Specific Gravity Group             Date      Amt.       S/B        Diff.




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                            Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

         Alkalinity Group                 Date       dKH       S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

      Ammonia (NH3) Group                Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

       Nitrite (NO2) Group               Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

       Nitrate (NO3) Group               Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

        Phosphate Group                  Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

          Calcium Group                  Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

        Magnesium Group                  Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

           Iodine Group                  Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

         Strontium Group                 Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections
                           Jobs will alternate each week so that each student has an opportunity to do each job

  DO (Dissolved Oxygen) Group            Date      ppm        S/B        Diff.

Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________



Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________




Tester________________________________
Recorder_____________________________
Troubleshooter________________________
Corrections___________________________
tudent has an opportunity to do each job

                           Comments/Corrections

				
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